# Curriculum interpretation by fdh56iuoui

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```									Curriculum interpretation
and Nuclear Energy”

YAU Wing-yee

12 April 2011
Wave Motion
a.   Nature and            Point-to-note
properties of waves
nature of waves             interpret wave motion in terms of
oscillation

 realise waves as transmitting energy
without transferring matter

Huygen’s principle not
required.
wave motion and            distinguish between transverse and longitudinal
propagation                 waves

•Phase differences     describe wave motion in terms of waveform,
deduced from            crest, trough, compression, rarefaction,
displacement-distance   wavefront, phase, displacement, amplitude,
graphs.                 period, frequency, wavelength and wave speed

•Study phase difference  present information on displacement-time and
between two sinusoidal    displacement-distance graphs for travelling
waves (in phase and out   waves
of phase)
•Transverse and              determine factors affecting the speed of
Longitudinal                  propagation of waves along stretched strings
or springs
•Direction of motion of
wave particles.
   apply f = 1 / T and v = fλ to solve problems
in displacement-distance
graph
reflection          realise the reflection of waves at a plane barrier/
and                  reflector/ surface
Refraction
Phase change at thin  examine the condition for a phase change on
film and air column    reflection
not required
 realise the refraction of waves across a plane
Speed change of a
boundary
transverse wave
across boundary        examine the change in wave speeds during
when it travels along   refraction and define refractive index in terms of
a string.               wave speeds

 draw wavefront diagrams to show reflection and
refraction

Frequency measurement using stroboscope not required.
Ripple tank can be used to demonstrate wave motion and properties.
Video camera can be used in analysis of wave motion
diffraction          describe the diffraction of waves through a narrow
and                   gap and around a corner
interference         examine the effect of the width of slit on the degree
Qualitative         of diffraction
treatment only     describe the superposition of two pulses
 realise the interference of waves
Mathematical          distinguish between constructive and destructive
treatment of           interferences
superposition not     examine the interference of waves from two
required.              coherent sources
The concept of phase/  determine the conditions for constructive and
path difference is       destructive
assumed in double       interferences in terms of path difference
slits interference.     draw wavefront diagrams to show diffraction and
Conversion between
interference
path difference and
phase difference
required only for in-
phase and anti-phase
interference problems.
stationary wave    explain the formation of a stationary wave
(transverse
waves only)        describe the characteristics of stationary waves

Problems on stationary longitudinal
(sound) waves e.g. Kundt’s tube not
required
b. Light
light in electromagnetic     state that the speed of light and
spectrum                      electromagnetic waves in a vacuum is 3.0
×108 ms-1
 state the range of wavelengths for visible
light
 state the relative positions of visible light and
other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum

reflection of light          state the laws of reflection
Problem on general            construct images formed by a plane mirror
Snell’s law                    graphically
refraction of light           examine the laws of refraction
 sketch the path of a ray refracted at a
Dispersion not required
boundary
Solve problem related to       realize n = sini/sinr as the refractive index of
refractive index of different   a medium
frequency of light.            solve problems involving refraction at a
Prism case.                     boundary
 examine the conditions for total internal
total internal             reflection
reflection
 solve problems involving total internal
Critical angle            reflection at a boundary
assumed
 construct images formed by converging and
formation of images   diverging lenses graphically
by
Graphical and
numerical methods  distinguish between real and virtual images
lenses
both assumed.
 to solve problems for a single thin lens apply
1/f=1/v+1/u (using the convention “REAL is
positive”)
Compound lens system
(telescope, microscope; and
Eye defects and correction
not required.
wave nature of light       point out light as an example of transverse
wave
Problems on optical path
difference e.g. air
 realise diffraction and interference as
evidences for the wave nature of light
film to Young’s double
slits setting/ immerse set
 examine the interference patterns in the
up in water not assumed.
Young’s double slit experiment
Derivation not
required but              apply Δy = λD/ a to solve problems
assumptions of
Young’s equation is         examine the interference patterns in the
expected.                    plane transmission grating

 apply dsinθ = nλ to solve problems
Diffraction grating for
principal maxima only           Effect of diffraction on double slits
interference not required.
Spectrometer setting not
required.
c. Sound
wave nature of sound       realise sound as an example of longitudinal
Phase method/stationary     waves
wave method to measure
speed of sound not         realise that sound can exhibit reflection,
required.                   refraction, diffraction and interference

Effect of interference     realise the need for a medium for sound
in sound (change of         transmission
loudness) is assumed.
 compare the general properties of sound
waves and those of light waves

audible frequency range    determine the audible frequency range

 examine the existence of ultrasound
beyond the audible frequency range
musical notes            compare musical notes using pitch, loudness and
quality
Harmonics/                  relate frequency and amplitude with the pitch and
overtones not               loudness of a note respectively
required.
‘Quality’ interpreted
as different
waveforms.
noise                    represent sound intensity level using the unit
decibel

 discuss the effects
Typical noise level in daily life is expected. of noise pollution and the
Quantitative treatment notimportance of acoustic protection
required.
Definition of sound intensity level not required.
Relationship between intensity level and
amplitude not required.
Curves of equal loudness not required.
Radioactivity and Nuclear Energy (16 hours)

X-rays                 realise X-rays as ionizing electromagnetic radiations
of short wavelengths with high penetrating power
X-ray
spectrum and           realise the emission of X-rays when fast electrons hit a
its detailed            heavy metal target
production
mechanism              discuss the uses of X-rays
not required.
α, β and γ             describe the origin and nature of α, β and γ
Qualitative
 compare α, β and γ radiations in terms of their
treatment of           penetrating power, ranges, ionizing power, behaviour
penetration            in electric field and magnetic field, and cloud chamber
power                  tracks
decay         unstable nuclides
Use log graphs  examine the random nature of radioactive decay
 state the proportional relationship between the
to plot decay
activity of a sample and the number of undecayed
curve not         nuclei
required.        define half-life as the period of time over which the
number of radioactive nuclei decreases by a factor of
Apply
one-half
exponential law  determine the half-life of a radioisotope from its
to solve          decay graph or from numerical data
problem.         realise the existence of background radiation
 solve problems involving radioactive decay
Derive             represent the number of undecayed nuclei by the
exponential law     exponential law of decay N = Noe-kt
using              apply the exponential law of decay N = Noe-kt to
solve problems
proportional
 relate the decay constant and the half-life
relation not
required.              Simple case of mixture of sources is expected.
Detection of     detect radiation with a photographic film and GM

 detect radiation in terms of count rate using a GM
counter               Structure and operation principle of
Familiarity with cloud chamber tracks       ionization chamber/cloud
assumed.                                    chamber/GM coutner not required.
safety
 discuss potential hazards of ionizing radiation and the
ways to minimise the radiation dose absorbed

 suggest safety precautions in handling radioactive
sources
Background radiation (sources and typical dose) assumed
b. Atomic model
atomic structure    describe the structure of an atom

 define atomic number as the number of protons
in the nucleus and mass number as the sum of
the number of protons and neutrons in the
nucleus of an atom

 use symbolic notations to represent nuclides

isotopes            define isotope
and
transmutation        some elements discuss uses of radioactive
isotopes

 represent radioactive transmutations in α, β
and γ decays using equations
c. Nuclear energy
nuclear fission and          realise the release of energy in nuclear fission
fusion                     and fusion
Operation principle of
nuclear power station,         realise nuclear chain reaction
structure of reactor, control
rods, moderator not            realise nuclear fusion as the source of solar
required                        energy
mass-energy                 state mass-energy relationship ΔE= Δm c2
relationship
Mole, Avogadro’s number  use atomic mass unit as a unit of energy
and mass of a mole,
atomic mass unit implied.  determine the energy release in nuclear
reactions
Conversion of u, MeV and
J expected.               apply ΔE= Δm c2 to solve problems

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