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Curriculum interpretation


									Curriculum interpretation
“Wave Motion and Radioactivity
     and Nuclear Energy”

          YAU Wing-yee

           12 April 2011
Wave Motion
a.   Nature and            Point-to-note
     properties of waves
nature of waves             interpret wave motion in terms of

                            realise waves as transmitting energy
                             without transferring matter

 Huygen’s principle not
  wave motion and            distinguish between transverse and longitudinal
  propagation                 waves

  •Phase differences     describe wave motion in terms of waveform,
  deduced from            crest, trough, compression, rarefaction,
  displacement-distance   wavefront, phase, displacement, amplitude,
  graphs.                 period, frequency, wavelength and wave speed

 •Study phase difference  present information on displacement-time and
 between two sinusoidal    displacement-distance graphs for travelling
 waves (in phase and out   waves
 of phase)
•Transverse and              determine factors affecting the speed of
Longitudinal                  propagation of waves along stretched strings
                              or springs
•Direction of motion of
wave particles.
                               apply f = 1 / T and v = fλ to solve problems
•Time lags and time leads
in displacement-distance
   reflection          realise the reflection of waves at a plane barrier/
   and                  reflector/ surface
 Phase change at thin  examine the condition for a phase change on
 film and air column    reflection
 not required
                       realise the refraction of waves across a plane
Speed change of a
transverse wave
across boundary        examine the change in wave speeds during
when it travels along   refraction and define refractive index in terms of
a string.               wave speeds

                         draw wavefront diagrams to show reflection and

    Frequency measurement using stroboscope not required.
    Ripple tank can be used to demonstrate wave motion and properties.
    Video camera can be used in analysis of wave motion
   diffraction          describe the diffraction of waves through a narrow
   and                   gap and around a corner
   interference         examine the effect of the width of slit on the degree
     Qualitative         of diffraction
     treatment only     describe the superposition of two pulses
                        realise the interference of waves
  Mathematical          distinguish between constructive and destructive
  treatment of           interferences
  superposition not     examine the interference of waves from two
  required.              coherent sources
The concept of phase/  determine the conditions for constructive and
path difference is       destructive
assumed in double       interferences in terms of path difference
slits interference.     draw wavefront diagrams to show diffraction and
Conversion between
path difference and
phase difference
required only for in-
phase and anti-phase
interference problems.
stationary wave    explain the formation of a stationary wave
waves only)        describe the characteristics of stationary waves

        Problems on stationary longitudinal
        (sound) waves e.g. Kundt’s tube not
 b. Light
 light in electromagnetic     state that the speed of light and
 spectrum                      electromagnetic waves in a vacuum is 3.0
                               ×108 ms-1
                              state the range of wavelengths for visible
                              state the relative positions of visible light and
                               other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum

 reflection of light          state the laws of reflection
Problem on general            construct images formed by a plane mirror
Snell’s law                    graphically
 refraction of light           examine the laws of refraction
                               sketch the path of a ray refracted at a
Dispersion not required
Solve problem related to       realize n = sini/sinr as the refractive index of
refractive index of different   a medium
frequency of light.            solve problems involving refraction at a
Prism case.                     boundary
                              examine the conditions for total internal
    total internal             reflection
                              solve problems involving total internal
     Critical angle            reflection at a boundary
                        construct images formed by converging and
   formation of images   diverging lenses graphically
  Graphical and
  numerical methods  distinguish between real and virtual images
  both assumed.
                              to solve problems for a single thin lens apply
                               1/f=1/v+1/u (using the convention “REAL is
Compound lens system
(telescope, microscope; and
Eye defects and correction
not required.
 wave nature of light       point out light as an example of transverse
Problems on optical path
difference e.g. air
                            realise diffraction and interference as
wedge/soap film/add thin
                             evidences for the wave nature of light
film to Young’s double
slits setting/ immerse set
                            examine the interference patterns in the
up in water not assumed.
                             Young’s double slit experiment
  Derivation not
  required but              apply Δy = λD/ a to solve problems
  assumptions of
  Young’s equation is         examine the interference patterns in the
  expected.                    plane transmission grating

                            apply dsinθ = nλ to solve problems
Diffraction grating for
principal maxima only           Effect of diffraction on double slits
                                interference not required.
Spectrometer setting not
c. Sound
wave nature of sound       realise sound as an example of longitudinal
Phase method/stationary     waves
wave method to measure
speed of sound not         realise that sound can exhibit reflection,
required.                   refraction, diffraction and interference

Effect of interference     realise the need for a medium for sound
in sound (change of         transmission
loudness) is assumed.
                           compare the general properties of sound
                            waves and those of light waves

audible frequency range    determine the audible frequency range

                           examine the existence of ultrasound
                            beyond the audible frequency range
musical notes            compare musical notes using pitch, loudness and
Harmonics/                  relate frequency and amplitude with the pitch and
overtones not               loudness of a note respectively
‘Quality’ interpreted
as different
noise                    represent sound intensity level using the unit

                        discuss the effects
Typical noise level in daily life is expected. of noise pollution and the
Quantitative treatment notimportance of acoustic protection
Definition of sound intensity level not required.
Relationship between intensity level and
amplitude not required.
Curves of equal loudness not required.
Radioactivity and Nuclear Energy (16 hours)

a. Radiation and Point-to-note
X-rays                 realise X-rays as ionizing electromagnetic radiations
                        of short wavelengths with high penetrating power
spectrum and           realise the emission of X-rays when fast electrons hit a
its detailed            heavy metal target
mechanism              discuss the uses of X-rays
not required.
α, β and γ             describe the origin and nature of α, β and γ
  radiations            radiations
                       compare α, β and γ radiations in terms of their
 treatment of           penetrating power, ranges, ionizing power, behaviour
 penetration            in electric field and magnetic field, and cloud chamber
 power                  tracks
   radioactive     realise the occurrence of radioactive decay in
      decay         unstable nuclides
  Use log graphs  examine the random nature of radioactive decay
                   state the proportional relationship between the
  to plot decay
                    activity of a sample and the number of undecayed
  curve not         nuclei
  required.        define half-life as the period of time over which the
                    number of radioactive nuclei decreases by a factor of
  exponential law  determine the half-life of a radioisotope from its
  to solve          decay graph or from numerical data
  problem.         realise the existence of background radiation
                   solve problems involving radioactive decay
Derive             represent the number of undecayed nuclei by the
exponential law     exponential law of decay N = Noe-kt
using              apply the exponential law of decay N = Noe-kt to
                    solve problems
                   relate the decay constant and the half-life
relation not
required.              Simple case of mixture of sources is expected.
  Detection of     detect radiation with a photographic film and GM
    radiation       counter

                    detect radiation in terms of count rate using a GM
                      counter               Structure and operation principle of
Familiarity with cloud chamber tracks       ionization chamber/cloud
assumed.                                    chamber/GM coutner not required.
   radiation        represent radiation equivalent dose using the unit sievert
                    discuss potential hazards of ionizing radiation and the
                      ways to minimise the radiation dose absorbed

                   suggest safety precautions in handling radioactive
   Background radiation (sources and typical dose) assumed
b. Atomic model
atomic structure    describe the structure of an atom

                    define atomic number as the number of protons
                     in the nucleus and mass number as the sum of
                     the number of protons and neutrons in the
                     nucleus of an atom

                    use symbolic notations to represent nuclides

isotopes            define isotope
radioactive         realise the existence of radioactive isotopes in
transmutation        some elements discuss uses of radioactive

                    represent radioactive transmutations in α, β
                     and γ decays using equations
 c. Nuclear energy
  nuclear fission and          realise the release of energy in nuclear fission
     fusion                     and fusion
Operation principle of
nuclear power station,         realise nuclear chain reaction
structure of reactor, control
rods, moderator not            realise nuclear fusion as the source of solar
required                        energy
 mass-energy                 state mass-energy relationship ΔE= Δm c2
 Mole, Avogadro’s number  use atomic mass unit as a unit of energy
 and mass of a mole,
 atomic mass unit implied.  determine the energy release in nuclear
 Conversion of u, MeV and
 J expected.               apply ΔE= Δm c2 to solve problems

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