8H HOMEWORK BOOKLET

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					  STUDENT HOMEWORK BOOKLET




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8H Word Sheets
8Ha – Settling Down

  Word                  Pronunciation       Meaning
  cementation           sem-men-tay-shun    A process in which water is squeezed out of the
                                            spaces between pieces of rock leaving mineral
                                            salts behind which stick (cement) the rock pieces
                                            together.
  cemented              sem-men-ted         Something that has been stuck together.
  chalk                                     Soft white or grey rock formed from the shells of
                                            small sea animals.
  compaction            com-pack-shun       When layers of sediment or rock are squashed by
                                            the weight of sediment above them.
  deposits                                  When moving water drops rock fragments or
                                            grains.
  fossil                                    The remains of a dead animal or plant that became
                                            trapped in layers of sediment and turned into rock.
  grain                                     Tiny, rounded piece of rock.
  limestone                                 A sedimentary rock made from the shells of dead
                                            sea creatures consisting mainly of calcium
                                            carbonate.
  minerals                                  The chemicals that rocks are made from.
  porous                poor-us             Porous rocks can soak up water.
  sandstone                                 A sedimentary rock made from rounded grains of
                                            sand.
  sediment                                  Rock grains and fragments dropped on the bottom
                                            of a river, lake or sea.
  sedimentary rock                          Rock formed from layers of sediment.
  shale                                     A sedimentary rock.
  transport                                 The movement of rock grains and fragments by
                                            wind or water.
  weathered                                 Rocks that have been worn away or broken up by
                                            chemical, biological or physical processes.

8Hb – Fossils and limestone

Word                   Pronunciation       Meaning
carbonate-rich                             Something which contains a lot of compounds called
                                           carbonates.
chalk                                      Soft white or grey rock formed from the shells of
                                           small sea animals.
fossil                                     Any sign of past life that has been preserved in a
                                           rock.


Smithdon High School                                                                              2
limestone                              A sedimentary rock made from the shells of dead sea
                                       creatures.
oolite                 oo-lite         A type of limestone formed when water evaporates
                                       and leaves calcium carbonate behind.


8Hc – All change!

Word                   Pronunciation   Meaning
limestone                              A sedimentary rock made from the shells of dead sea
                                       creatures.
magma                                  Molten rock beneath the surface of the Earth.
marble                                 A metamorphic rock formed from limestone.
metamorphic            met-a-mor-fik   A word meaning ‘changed’.
metamorphic rocks met-a-mor-fik        Rocks that have been formed by changing igneous or
                                       sedimentary rocks.
mudstone                               A sedimentary rock made from mud.
quartzite              kwartz-ite      A metamorphic rock formed from sandstone.
sandstone                              A sedimentary rock made from rounded grains of
                                       sand.
slate                                  A metamorphic rock with tiny crystals, formed from
                                       mudstone.

8Hd – A river of rock

Word                   Pronunciation   Meaning
basalt                 ba-salt         An igneous rock with very tiny crystals.
bonds                                  Forces holding particles together.
crust                                  The solid rocks at the surface of the Earth.
crystal                kris-tal        Piece of mineral with sharp edges.
granite                gran-it         An igneous rock with large crystals.
igneous rock           igg-nee-us      A rock formed when magma or lava cooled down
                                       and solidified.
lava                   lar-va          Molten rock that runs out of volcanoes.
magma                                  Molten rock beneath the surface of the Earth.
mantle                 man-tel         The part of the Earth below the crust.
particles                              The tiny pieces that everything is made out of.
volcano                                A place where lava flows out of the Earth.

8He – Rolling on
Word                   Pronunciation   Meaning
rock cycle                             All the processes which form sedimentary, igneous
                                       and metamorphic rocks, linked together.


Smithdon High School                                                                         3
QUESTION 1

The diagram shows a volcano erupting.




                                                                  not to scale

      (a)    Look at the diagram. Give the letter which labels:

             (i)       magma;

                       ............
                                                                                 1 mark

             (ii)      liquid lava;

                       ............
                                                                                 1 mark

             (iii)     old solid rock.

                       ............
                                                                                 1 mark




Smithdon High School                                                                  4
      (b)    When magma and lava cool, they form a hard crystalline rock.
             What is the name of this type of rock?
             Tick the correct box.

                                             igneous rock

                                             metamorphic rock

                                             sedimentary rock

                                                                                                                                     1 mark

      (c)    The changes listed below take place when a volcano erupts.
             Which one of these changes could be reversed?
             Tick the correct box.

                                Old rock is heated to form a different rock.


                                Sulphur burns to form sulphur dioxide.


                                Water is heated to form water vapour.

                                                                                                                                     1 mark

      (d)    Ash from a volcano dropped into a lake. All the fish in the lake were killed and
             buried under the ash in the mud at the bottom of the lake.

             The photograph below shows the remains of a fish millions of years later.




             (i)       The photograph shows the body parts which supported the fish.
                       Give the name of these body parts.

                       ..................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                     1 mark

             (ii)      Give the name for animal and plant remains that are found in a rock after
                       millions of years.

                       ..................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                     1 mark
                                                                                                                            Maximum 7 marks


Smithdon High School                                                                                                                      5
QUESTION 2

A Japanese volcano erupted in 1936. Molten sulphur poured out of the volcano.
     When it cooled it formed rock sulphur.

       older volcanic rocks                                                solid rock
                                                                           sulphur




                                                    molten
                                                    sulphur


      (a)    (i)       Which word describes molten rock that is underground?
                       Choose from lava or magma or oil.

                       ………………………………………
                                                                                             1 mark

             (ii)      Which type of rock do volcanoes produce?
                       Choose from igneous or metamorphic or sedimentary.

                       ………………………………………
                                                                                             1 mark

      (b)    Sulphur is a non-metallic element. It is yellow and melts at 115°C.

             Complete the sentences about sulphur.

             (i)       Sulphur is a poor conductor of

                       ………………………………………
                                                                                             1 mark

             (ii)      At 115°C sulphur changes from

                       a …………………………………… into a ……………………………….…
                                                                                            2 marks

       (c)   Sulphur burns in air to form an oxide.
             What gas in the air reacts with sulphur when it burns?

             ………………………………………
                                                                                             1 mark
                                                                                    Maximum 6 marks




Smithdon High School                                                                              6
QUESTION 3

(a)   (i)               When sedimentary rock is buried it may change into metamorphic rock.

                        Describe two causes of this change.

                        1. .........................................................................................

                        2. .........................................................................................
                                                                                                                                     2 marks

             (ii)       Name a rock formed by the metamorphism of limestone.

                        ..................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                      1 mark

      (b)    Metamorphic rock can be changed to form igneous rock.

             Give two main processes which are involved in this change.

             1. ..................................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................

             2. ..................................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                     2 marks

      (c)    Igneous rock may be changed back into sedimentary rock. The list shows four of
             the processes involved in this change.

             burial           weathering               deposition              transport

             These processes must take place in a particular order.
             Place the four processes in the correct order.

                    1. ............................................................

                    2. ............................................................

                    3. ............................................................

                    4. ............................................................
                                                                                                                                      1 mark
                                                                                                                             Maximum 6 marks




Smithdon High School                                                                                                                       7
QUESTION 4

Igneous rock such as granite can become sedimentary rock. A model of

this process is shown in the following sequence.




                  Step 1                                            Step 2
       Half fill a plastic jar with                      Shake the jar vigorously for a
      pieces of granite and dilute                               few minutes.
                   acid.


Step 3                                              Leave for one week then
Sieve the                                           pour off the acid.
contents into a
dish of water.




                                                                          Step 4
                                                                          Leave the dish to
                                                                          stand for a few
                                                                          hours.




                                                    Step 5
                                                    Press the fine, wet
                                                    material for many
                                                    weeks with heavy
                                                    weights.



       (a)   Step 1 represents chemical weathering in the rock cycle.
             Which part of the rock cycle is represented by step 2?

             ………………………………………………………………….
                                                                                              1 mark




Smithdon High School                                                                               8
       (b)   A river carries pieces of granite from a mountain to the sea. Describe two
             ways in which the pieces of granite change as they are carried.

             ............................................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                    2 marks

      (c)    Which two parts of the rock cycle are represented by step 4 and step 5?

             step 4 ..................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                     1 mark
             step 5 ..................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                     1 mark
                                                                                                                            Maximum 5 marks
QUESTION 5

Five different rocks, A, B, C, D and E, are described in the table.

      (a)    From the information given, classify each rock as:

                               igneous, metamorphic or sedimentary.

             One has been done for you.


               rock             description of the rock's surface                                classification

                                  The rock is crystalline. It has
                   A            interlocking crystals of different
                              colours and no layers can be seen.

                              The rock is made of many rounded
                   B
                                         sand grains.

                          The rock is crystalline with distinct black
                   C                                                                              metamorphic
                                      and grey bands.

                                 Pieces of shells can be seen in
                   D                        the rock.

                              The rock is very fine-grained, hard,
                   E              and splits into thin layers.

                                                                                                                                    4 marks

      (b)    Look at the descriptions of the rocks A, B, C, D and E.

             (i)       Sheets of slate are used as roofing material.
                       Which rock could be slate?

                       Give the letter ..............................
                                                                                                                                     1 mark

Smithdon High School                                                                                                                      9
             (ii)      When limestone is weathered, fossils sometimes appear in the surface.
                       Which rock could be limestone?

                       Give the letter ..............................
                                                                                                                                     1 mark

             (iii)     Granite is a crystalline rock. Its surface is speckled with a number of
                       colours. It can be used for road chippings. Which rock could be
                       granite?

                       Give the letter ..............................
                                                                                                                                     1 mark
                                                                                                                            Maximum 7 marks
QUESTION 6

      The diagram shows part of a rock face. The igneous rock was formed when
      magma intruded into the sedimentary rock. The metamorphic rock was formed
      from the sedimentary rock as a result of the magma cooling.

                                                                                                        key
                                           B                                                                    sedimentary
                                                                                                                rock
                                                                                                                metamorphic
                                                                                                                rock
                                                          C                                                     igneous
                                 A
                                                                                                                rock



                                                      D


                                                                           0         5
                                                                               metres

      (a)    What is the change of state when magma crystallises to form igneous rock?

             From ................................................ to .........................................
                                                                                                                                     1 mark

      (b)    The magma cooled more quickly at point C than at point D. What effect did this
             have on the size of the crystals formed at point C compared to the crystals at
             point D?

             At point C .........................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                     1 mark




Smithdon High School                                                                                                                     10
      (c)    Explain why a thicker band of metamorphic rock has formed at point A than
             at point B.

             It is thicker at point A because ..........................................................

             ............................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                     1 mark
                                                                                                                            Maximum 3 marks
QUESTION 7

(a)          Space probes have shown that there are mountains, dry river-valleys and
             volcanoes on Mars.

             Scientists believe Mars, like Earth, has all three types of rock: igneous,
             metamorphic and sedimentary. Using the information above, explain why.

             ............................................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                    3 marks

      (b)    Temperatures on Mars can vary from 10 C in the afternoon to

              –100 C during the following night.

             State how this could affect the rocks on the surface of Mars, and explain why.

             ............................................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                    2 marks
                                                                                                                            Maximum 5 marks




8H Summary Sheets
The rock cycle
Rocks are made from a mixture of minerals. The shape of rocks can be changed by weathering and
erosion. Weathering can occur because of chemical, physical or biological processes.


Smithdon High School                                                                                                                     11
Sedimentary rocks
Rock fragments, formed as a result of weathering and erosion, are transported by rivers, and the
fragments get worn down. Small rock fragments are called grains. When the water slows down,
some of the grains are deposited at the bottom of rivers, lakes or seas, and form sediment.

Layers of sediment collect on the sea bed, and the bottom layers get squashed. The grains of
sediment are forced closer together (compacted) and the water is squeezed out from between the
grains. Minerals in the sediment ‘glue’ the grains of rock together (cementation). Eventually,
sedimentary rock is formed. The composition of sedimentary rocks varies and depends on the way
they were formed. For example, there are different types of limestone – chalk is formed from the
shells of microscopic animals, coquina is formed from larger shell fragments and oolite is formed
from sediments deposited when sea water evaporated.




If any animals or plants get trapped in the sediment, they may form fossils.




Smithdon High School                                                                               12
Igneous rocks
Molten rock is called magma. If the
molten rock flows out of volcanoes it is
called lava. Igneous rocks are formed
when magma cools down.

Lava cools down quite quickly, and
forms igneous rocks with small crystals
(like basalt). Magma underground cools
down much more slowly and forms
rocks, like granite, with bigger crystals.



Metamorphic rocks
Sedimentary or igneous rocks can be changed by heat or pressure into new kinds of rock, called
metamorphic rocks. Metamorphic rocks have different properties from the sedimentary or igneous
rocks they were made from.

  Type of rock             sedimentary             igneous              metamorphic
  Examples                 limestone, sandstone,   basalt, granite      marble, quartzite, slate,
                           mudstone, chalk                              gneiss
  Grains or crystals?      separate grains         crystals             crystals – often in bands of
                                                                        different colour
  Hard or soft?            often soft or crumbly   hard                 hard
  Porous?                  often                   not usually          not usually

The rock cycle
The Earth is continually changing. Rocks are weathered and eroded and new rocks are being
formed. The processes which make rocks, weather them and change them are linked together in
the rock cycle.




Smithdon High School                                                                                13
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Smithdon High School                                                                   14

				
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