Item Secretion Initiated By Secretion Inhibited By Hormone by mikesanye

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									Item #         Secretion Initiated By                      Secretion Inhibited By                             Hormone                  Molecular Structure of Hormones              Alternate Name         Location of Major Endocrine Gland Organ Responsible for Secretion Illustrations of the Secreting Organ

  1                                                        increased blood volume                    Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)                                                      Vassopressin                    Cranial Cavity                 Posterior Pituitary (3)
              decreased blood volume
         pain, stress,and increased sodium

  2      Stimulation of nipples and child birth                Catecholamines                               Oxytocin (OT)                                                          Alpha-hypophamine                 Cranial Cavity                   Posterior Pituitary

  3          Thyroid Releasing Hormone                 High levels of thyroid hormones           Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)                                                    Thyrotropin                    Cranial Cavity                   Anterior Pituitary

  4       Low level of cortisol, stress, fever           Increased levels of cortisol            Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)                                                   Corticotropin                  Cranial Cavity                   Anterior Pituitary

                                                       Testosterone (men) Estrogen &
  5       Gonadotropin-releasing hormone                                                          Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)                                                 Gonadotropins                   Cranial Cavity                   Anterior Pituitary
                                                           Progesterone (women)

                                                  High levels of, (in the testes testosterone,
  6       Gonadotropin-releasing hormone                                                              Leutininzing Hormone (LH)                                                      Gonadotropins                   Cranial Cavity                   Anterior Pituitary
                                                  in the overies estrogen and progesterone)

  7         Mechanical or infant suckling                         Dopamine                                 Prolactin (PRL)                                                     Luteotropic hormone (LTH)             Cranial Cavity                   Anterior Pituitary

                                                  Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Release
  8                 Ultraviolet light                    Inhibitory Hormone (MIF)                 Melanocyte - Stimulating Hormone                                                     Lipotropin                    Cranial Cavity                   Anterior Pituitary

         Control by central nervous system,           somatostatin an anterior pituitary
  9       occurs in burts, most released              regulating hormone produced in                  Human Growth Hormone                                                           Somatotropin                    Cranial Cavity                   Anterior Pituitary
                 during early sleep,                           hypothalamus,

                                                                                                                                                                         1 OF 10
           Cell Type Responsible for                                                                                                                                                  Consequences of                                                                                                       Drugs Associated with the
Item #                                           Target Organ or Tissue        Illustration of Target Organ or Tissue                  Principle Action                                                                 Chemical Class           Consequences of Excess                  Feed Back System                                                   Reference
                   Secretion                                                                                                                                                             Deficieny                                                                                                                 Imbalance

                                                                                                                                                                                Decreases the permiability of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 shelf/picrender.fcgi,Image may be
                                                        Kidneys                                                                                                                  collecting ducts of the kidneys,                         Increases the permiability of the collecting
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         subject to copyright
  1            Neurosecretory Cells                   Sweat Glands                                                       To conserve water by decreasing urine output       increasing urine production, resulting in      Peptide          ducts of the kidneys decreasing urine            Negative        Desmopressin, Terlipressin
                                                       Arterioles                                                                                                             dehydration, and possibaly diabetes                                         production.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           No known syndrome naturally secreted,                                                 ,w
                                             Uterus during labor and mammary                                              Stimulates uterine muscle contraction, and        Prevents maturnal bond, decrease in milk                                                                                        Pitocin, Syntocinon, tocolytic
  2            Neurosecretory Cells                                                                                                                                                                                         Peptide      however if given excess via IV it can cause          Positive                           ,bioweb.wku.
                                                          glands                                                                       secretion of milk                                   ejection                                                                                                          agent atosiban (Tractocile)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         water retention and iatrogenic hyponatremia.                                                      edu/courses,

                                                                                                                          Stimulates synthesis and release of thyroid                                                                                                                                                              
  3      Neurosecretory Cells, Thyrotrophs            Thyroid Gland                                                                                                                     Hypothyroidism                   Glycoprotein                  Hyperthyroidism                       Negative                Thyrogen
                                                                                                                        hormones, growth and function of thyroid gland                                                                                                                                                                       s,

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Cosyntropin, Tradename,www.laurelalexander
                                                                                                                        Stimulates secretion of glucocorticoids from the
  4                Corticotrophs                     Adrenal Cortex                                                                                                                     Hypoadrenalism                      Peptide                    Hyperadrenalism                       Negative         Cortrosyn and Synacthen,
                                                                                                                                       adrenal glands.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (synthetic ACTH), Acthar Gel                 File,

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Menotropins including more
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             purified forms of urinary         ,
                                                                                                                           Stimulates the production of eggs(ovarian
                                                                                                                                                                            hypogonadism cessation of reproductive                                 primary hypogonadism,                                      gonadotropins such as    
  5               Gonadotrophs                      Testes & Ovaries                                                     follicles) and estradiol in women and sperm in                                                  Glycoprotein                                                        Negative
                                                                                                                                                                                      cycles (females)                                      cryptorchidism(undescended testes)                              Menopur, as well as without
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            LH activity as recombinant                  stimulating_hormone
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             FSH (Gonal F, Follistim).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Pergonal, and other forms of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            urinary gonadotropins . More,www.pho
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               purified forms of urinary,
                                                                                                                        LH stimulates secretion of sex steroids from the      secondary hypogonadism (Kallmann                                                                                               gonadotropins may reduce
  6               Gonadotrophs                          Gonads                                                                                                                                                           Glycoprotein               primary hypogonadism                     Negative
                                                                                                                                           gonads.                                        syndrome)                                                                                                          the LH portion in relation to                       es
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              FSH. Recombinant LH is
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               available as lutropin alfa                     ormone

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Medications that act like
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             u/herbrandsonc/bio201_McKi.Image may
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Enlarge mammary glands in both                                    dopamine (such as
  7                Lactotrophs                      Mammary glands                                                        Stimulates Mammary glands to produce milk               Absence of milk production                Protein                                                          Negative                                          be subject to copyright,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            male/females, infertility, galactorrhea                              bromocriptine or

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Afamelanotide (melanotan-       Hair.Care_.jpg, Image may be subject to
  8                Corticotropes                       Skin & Hair                                                      Stimulates the production and release of melanin              Hyperpigmentation                   Polypeptide           No melain produced, Albinism                 Negative
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1), Bremelanotide            copyright.,

                                                                                                                        Causes liver to release IGF-1 promoting growth                                                                                                                                       Genotropin®, Humatrope®,
  9               Somatotropes                        All body cells                                                    of long bones. Stimulates fat cells to break down        Growth retardation (dwarvism)              Protein              Giganticism and Acromegly                   Negative         Norditropin®, Nutropin®,
                                                                                                                                            triglyceride                                                                                                                                                       Saizen®, Serostim®

                                                                                                                                                                                                2 OF 10
Item #        Secretion Initiated By                Secretion Inhibited By                   Hormone             Molecular Structure of Hormones               Alternate Name         Location of Major Endocrine Gland Organ Responsible for Secretion Illustrations of the Secreting Organ

 10         Thyroid releasing hormone                    Somatostatin                     Thyroid Hormone                                                        Thyroglobulin                        Neck                           Thyroid Gland

         Increase in serum Calcium levels,
 11                                            Blood calcium levels below normal             Calcitonin                                                         Thyrocalcitonin                       Neck                           Thyroid Gland
               Gastrin, Pentagastrin

 12         Low serum calcium levels          Serum calcium levels above normal         Parathyroid Hormone                                                      Parathormone                         Neck                         Parathyroid Gland

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Adrenal Glands             (adrenal
 13                  Stressor                            Self regulating                    Epinephrine                                                           Adrenaline           Abdominal Cavity (retroperitoneal)

 14      Danger threatens or in emergency                Self regulating                   Norepinephrine                                                        Noradrenaline         Abdominal Cavity (retroperitoneal)   Adrenal Glands (adrenal medulla)

 15               Angiotensin II               Sodium Ions and Dopamine, ANH                Aldosterone                                                      Salt-retaining hormone    Abdominal Cavity (retroperitoneal)    Adrenal Glands (adrenal cortex)

                                              Increased Cortisol levels inhibit CRH
 16                   ACTH                                                               Cortisol / Cortisone                                                   Hydrocortisone          Abdominal Cavity (retroperitoneal    Adrenal Glands (adrenal cortex)
                                              secretion and stops ACTH secretion

 17                   ACTH                   Increased levels of FSH, LH and GnRH     Gonadocorticoids Hormone                                                Adrenal androgens        Abdominal Cavity (retroperitoneal)    Adrenal Glands (adrenal cortex)

                                                                                                                                                   3 OF 10
             Cell Type Responsible for                                                                                                                                                        Consequences of                                                                                                         Drugs Associated with the
Item #                                                 Target Organ or Tissue             Illustration of Target Organ or Tissue                  Principle Action                                                              Chemical Class            Consequences of Excess                   Feed Back System                                                    Reference
                     Secretion                                                                                                                                                                   Deficieny                                                                                                                   Imbalance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Levothyroxine (i.e., Synthroid,,genxxl.c
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Levoxyl), as well as synthetic    om/,www.chemicalb
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        forms of the T3 hormone.         ,
 10                 Follicular Cells                         All Body cells                                                              Regulates the body's metabolic rate        Hypothyroidism ( Cretinism , Myxedema)          Peptide            Hyperthyroidism (Grave's Disease)               Negative
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Natural, animal-derived
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       desiccated thyroid, such as      eatments/tp/thyroidhormonereplacement.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Armour Thyroid.                                 htm

                                                                                                                                                                                        A large number of diseases are                                                                                                                        ,www
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 A large number of diseases are associated with                                               
                                                                                                                                                                                    associated with abnormally increased or
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  abnormally increased or decreased levels of                                                              e.jpg
                                                                                                                                   Regulate calcuim and phosphoros blood levels        decreased levels of calcitonin, but                                                                                              Miacalcin Nasal, Fortical,
 11               Parafollicular cells                       Bone tissue                                                                                                                                                           Peptide        calcitonin, but pathologic effects of abnormal       Negative                                                   class/calcitonin.html
                                                                                                                                     stimulates absorption of calcium by bone       pathologic effects of abnormal calcitonin                                                                                                  Miacalcin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   calcitonin secretion per se are not generally
                                                                                                                                                                                       secretion per se are not generally
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    recognized.                                                                            Image may be subject to copyright.
                                                                                                                                   Regulates serum Ca levels by releasing Ca from                                                                                                                                                                                      analogs.html
 12             Parathyroid chief cell                       Bone tissue                                                                                                            Hypoparathyroidism -tetany/convulsions          Peptide       Hyperparathyroidism,decalcification of bone          Negative                   Forteo

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Image may be subject to copyright.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Adrenalin® Chloride Solution,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         EpiPens, Anapens and                    renal_gland.jpg,
                                                  Sympathetic effectors, cardiac and                                                  Provides the body with energy for a stress
 13                Chromaffin cells                                                                                                                                                  Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency          Peptide                     Anxiety/fear/panic                      Negative           Twinjects, Racemic,
                                                          other muscles                                                                       response (fight or flight)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               epinephrine                        www.medical-

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Levophed Bitartrate          
                                                 Adrenergic receptors: pancreas, liver,                                               Provides the body with energy for a stress
 14                Chromaffin cells                                                                                                                                                  Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency         Amino acid                   Anxiety/fear/panic                      Negative               LEVOPHED        
                                                       muscle, repiratory rate                                                                response (fight or flight)

                                                                                                                                                                                    Cushing Syndrome, Addison's disease                               Bartter syndrome (extremely rare)                                                       ,om/lar
                                                                                                                                                                                                   (rare)                                             Primary hyperaldosteronism (rare)                                  Aldosterone Antagonist
                                                                                                                                    Water regulation, increases plasma Na+ and                                                                                                                                                                                     ge_KidneyDiagram
 15             Zona glomerulosa cells                         Kidneys                                                                                                                 Congenital adrenal hyperplasia               Steroid       Secondary hyperaldosteronism from heart or           Negative             (spironolactone)
                                                                                                                                                   decreases K+                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                                                     Hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism                                            kidney disease                                                                                               ml
                                                                                                                                                                                           Very high-sodium diet                                            Very low-sodium diet
         Zona fasciculata and zona reticularis                                                                                      Stimulates glucose synthesis/conservation &                                                                  Can suppress bodys defense system, including                                                 
 16                                                           All tissues                                                                                                                Over inflammation of tissues             Amino acid                                                           Negative       Cortisone or Corticosteroids
                        cells.                                                                                                             inhibits inflammatory response                                                                                 the inflammatory response.                                                                    bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Hormones_cortiso

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           casca.gif Image may be subject to
         Zona fasciculata and zona reticularis                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Hormone replacement
 17                                                           All tissues                                                                  Sex hormones prior to puberty                       Addison’s disease                    Steroid        Cushing's disease and/or masculinization            Negative                                                        copyright.
                        cells.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              therapy (HRT)

                                                                                                                                                                                                        4 OF 10
Item #          Secretion Initiated By                       Secretion Inhibited By                     Hormone            Molecular Structure of Hormones             Alternate Name              Location of Major Endocrine Gland Organ Responsible for Secretion Illustrations of the Secreting Organ

 18         Increased gluconse in the blood           Decreased glucose in the blood stream              Insulin                                                           Pancrein                    Abdominal Cavity (pancreas)            Pancreatic Islets

 19        Decrease in bood glucose levels               Increase in blood glucose levels               Glucagon                                                        enteroglucagon                 Abdominal Cavity (pancreas)            Pancreatic Islets

                                                     Inhibits pancreatic enzyme secretion via a
 20                 PP cells (F cells)                                                            Pancreatic Polypeptide                                                    F Cell                     Abdominal Cavity (pancreas)               Pancreas
                                                                 cholinergic pathway

                                                                                                                                                               growth hormone-inhibiting hormone
         Increased levels of Growth horomone
 21                                                    Decreased levels of Growth hormone             Somatostatin                                              (GHIH) or somatotropin release-           Cranial Cavity (Brain)               Hypothalamus
                                                                                                                                                                     inhibiting factor (SRIF)

         Testosterone is primarily synthesized
         in Leydig cells. The number of Leydig
 22      cells in turn is regulated by luteinizing        High levels of the hormone LH                Testosteone                                                         Androgen                      Pelvic Cavity (Scrotum)                   Teste
          hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating
                     hormone (FSH).

              By FSH ( Follicle stimulating
 23          hormone) and LH (luteinizing)                          Menopause                           Estrogen                                                          Oogenesis                           Pelvic Cavity                        Ovary
                hormone in the ovaries.

             BY FSH ( Follicle stimulating
 24          hormone) and LH (luteinizing)               High levels of the hormone FSH               Progesterone                                                        Oogenesis                           Pelvic Cavity                 Ovary(Corpus lutem)
                hormone in the ovaries.

 25               T cells (lymphoctes)                          Low level of T cells                    Thymosin                                                         Thymopoietin                         Mediastinum                         Thymus

           Regulate onset of puberty and
 26      menstrual cycle, responds to body's                   Inhibition of testerone                  Melatonin                                                      Methoxytryptamine                  Cranial Cavity (Brain)                Pineal Gland
                    internal clock

                                                         Physical change or damage, drug
 27             Internal-External Stimuli                                                         Releasing Hormones                                                   Releasing Factor                   Cranial Cavity (Brain)                Hypothalmus
                                                       influences, psychological imbalance

                                                                                                                                                             5 OF 10
             Cell Type Responsible for                                                                                                                                                            Consequences of                                                                                                                             Drugs Associated with the
Item #                                               Target Organ or Tissue             Illustration of Target Organ or Tissue                   Principle Action                                                                         Chemical Class                         Consequences of Excess                    Feed Back System                                               Reference
                     Secretion                                                                                                                                                                       Deficieny                                                                                                                                       Imbalance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Insulin Regular          ages/Insul.Image may be subject to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Humulin R, Novolin R,      copyright.,
 18                  b islet cells              Liver and skeletal muscules (shown)                                                     Lowers level of glucose in the blood                Diabetes mellitus/diabetic coma                    Peptide                                  Hypoglycemia                           Negative                                                    ureFile
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Novolin R Innolet, Novolin R
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               PenFill, ReliOn/Novolin R

 19       Alphn cells of b ilet of langerhans                   Liver                                                                  elevates level of glucose in the blood                     Hyperaminoacidemia                         Polypeptide                Cuasing pancreatic tumors as glucagonoma.              Negative                           ,

                                                                                                                                                                                        Having too little PP hormones appears to
                                                                                                                                  pancreatic polypeptide hormone is expressed at         stimulate appetite, lessens the ability to                                                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Having too much would cause lack of appitite,                          Pancreatic Polypeptide (PP)
 20                   PP Cells                   Intestinal cells and other affectors                                              times when glucose levels in the blood are low            resist the temptation of food, and     Peptide (amino acid polypeptide)                                                           Negative                           
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        loss of body mass, low blood glucose levals
                                                                                                                                                  causing hunger.                           increases the chances of a person                                                                                                                                                              T00791076
                                                                                                                                                                                                   becoming overweight.

            Neuronedocrine neurone of the                                                                                           inhibits release of growth hormone, inhibits
 21                                             Pancreatic cells and other effectors                                                                                                                  Acromegaly                               Peptide                                    Dwarfism                             Negative          Octreotide, Lanreotide     n.png,
               periventricular nucleus                                                                                                 release of thyroid stimulating hormone

                                                                                                                                                                                          Poor libido, Fatigue, atrophy, erectile                                                                                                             Andro LA 200, Delatestryl,
                                                                                                                                                                                           dysfunction, diabetes, poor sleep,                                           Early puberty, acne, excessive muscle mass                              Depandro 100, Depo-
 22                Adrenal Cortex                  Brain, bones, muscle, gonads                                                                  Promotes protein                          depression, anxiety, psychological             Androgen (steroid)            and mood swings. Breast tissue growth and              Negative       Testosterone, Testosterone
                                                                                                                                                                                        disorders, decrease of hair, loss of bone                                                unusual body hair growth                                      Cypionate, Testosterone
                                                                                                                                                                                                mass, irritability, infertility                                                                                                                       Enanthate

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Alora3, Angeliq4, Climara5,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Climara Pro6, Combipatch7
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       PMS Migraines Mood Swings Cramps Uterine                                  ,Delestrogen, Enjuvia8,
                                                                                                                                   Promote the development of female secondary                                                                                         Fibroids Depression Unexplained Weight Gain                              Estraderm9, Estrasorb10,
                                                                                                                                                                                         (Physical)- arthrosclerosis, headaches,                                                                                                                                 ,www.the-
                                                                                                                                  sexual characteristics, such as breasts, and are                                                                                        Fatigue Osteoporosis Insomnia Allergies                                        femhrt11,
                                                Gonads, brain, cardiovascular,liver,                                                                                                      vaginal infections, arthritis (Mental)-                                                                                                                                
 23                 Adrenal Cortex                                                                                               also involved in the thickening of the endometrium                                                             Steroid                Memory Loss Acne Hot Flashes Thinning Hair              Negative           Femring12,Prefest13
                                                               bone                                                                                                                      depression panic attacks, lowered self                                                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                   and other aspects of regulating the menstrual                                                                                            Irregular Periods Breast Tenderness                                   Tablets, Premarin14,
                                                                                                                                                                                                  esteem. Menopause                                                                                                                                                         ormationbyDrugClass/ucm135318.htm
                                                                                                                                                         cycle.                                                                                                            Miscarriage Low Sex Drive High Blood                                 Premarin Intravenous15,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure Facial Hair Inflammation                                Premarin Vaginal Cream16,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                , Vivelle18, Vivelle-Dot19

                                                                                                                                   Progesterone converts the endometrium to its
                                                                                                                                      secretory stage to prepare the uterus for
                                                                                                                                    implantation. At the same time progesterone      Infertility, miscarriage, carbohydrate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Inhibits pituitary secretion of FSH and LH; As a                        First Progesterone MC10,,imag
                                                                                                                                     affects the vaginal epithelium and cervical   cravings, tenderness to breast, irregular
 24                 Adrenal Cortex                             Gonads                                                                                                                                                                           Lipids                     result the developent of new follicles are          Negitive        First Progesterone MC5,
                                                                                                                                     mucus, making it thick and impermeable to         periods, ovarian cysts, menstrual
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            inhibited.                                            Progest, Prometrium                         oped
                                                                                                                                 sperm. If pregnancy does not occur, progesterone cramps, water retention, hypothermia,
                                                                                                                                   levels will decrease, leading, in the human, to

                                                                                                                                  Enhances the development of "T" lymphocytes.                                                                                         Little or no immune response. Inability to resist
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ZADAXIN®      ,www.lookche
                                                                                                                                  Activity of the thymus wanes significantly after       Decrease T cells can occur in infection                                        bacterial, viral or fungal infections. A lack of
 25                     Cortex                                Lymphoid                                                                                                                                                                 Blood( white blood cells)                                                               Negative       Thymosin Alpha 1, Injection       
                                                                                                                                 puberty; it ultimately atrophies to be replaced with                and disease.                                                          cancer cell surveillance. Inability to reject
                                                                                                                                                    fibrous tissue.                                                                                                                      foreign tissues.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Melatonin, S.Gard, all
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Increase hormone can cause a sleeping
                                                                                                                                   Melatonin signal forms part of the system that                                                                                                                                                                 6 brand names.Bio-                       latonin.gif
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           disorder .( Also sleep can help growth
 26                 Pinealocytes                                Brain                                                            regulates the Circadian rhythm (sleep-wake cycle)            Insomnia or frequent waking                      Peptide                                                                         Negative          Melatonin, Health Aid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       development and energy. Only if you sleep for 8-
                                                                                                                                         by chemically causing drowsiness                                                                                                                                                                     Melatonin, VesPro Melatonin,                     ml
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           10 hrs.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Melatonin Time Release

                                                                                                                                                                                        Psychological, Physical changes. Illness,
                                                                                                                                  Is a hormone whose main purpose is to control                                                                                        Psychological, Physical changes. Illness, organ                            Antagon, Cetrotide,   
 27      Parvocellular Neurosecretory Neurons                 Pituitary                                                                                                                  organ damage, hormonal imbalances,                    Peptide                                                                         Negative
                                                                                                                                          the release of another hormone                                                                                                   damage, hormonal imbalances, death                                     Firmagon, Plenaxis        class/gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-

                                                                                                                                                                                                            6 OF 10
Item #          Secretion Initiated By                    Secretion Inhibited By                               Hormone                     Molecular Structure of Hormones                 Alternate Name             Location of Major Endocrine Gland Organ Responsible for Secretion Illustrations of the Secreting Organ

         Additional Organs, Tissues and Cells that produce Hormones

           Falling levels of EPO, moderate         Chemotherapy and PO2 is normal, EPO
  A                                                                                                       Erythropoietin (EPO)                                                               Epoetin Alfa                      Abdominal Cavity                        Kidneys                           liver
                        bleeding                                 derease

         Initiated early in parathyroid hormone
            secetion. Parathyroid hormones
  B                                                      Increased Ca & Phosphate                               Calcitrol                                                              (1,25-dihydroxyvitaminD3)               Abdominal Cavity                 Renal Glands/Kidneys
         encourages the activation of calcidiol
                into calcitriol by the kidney

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Many) In addition to white adipose
                                               The effect of the protein on body weight is
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              tissue—the major source of
                                                mediated by decreased hunger and food
           Leptin is secreted by the adipose                                                                                                                                                                                                              leptin—it can also be produced by
                                                    consumption due to inhibition of
           tissue into the blood stream, and                                                                                                                                                                                                                brown adipose tissue, placenta
                                                   neuropeptide Y, increased energy                                                                                            LEP, Obesity Factor, Murine Obesity
  C      travels to the hypothalamus, where it                                                                   Leptin                                                                                                             Many                    (syncytiotrophoblasts), ovaries,
                                               expenditure, and oxidation of fatty acids in                                                                                                 Homolog
            regulates the release of several                                                                                                                                                                                                             skeletal muscle, stomach (lower part
                                                 the mitochondria of liver and skeletal
                   neurotransmitters.                                                                                                                                                                                                                         of fundic glands), mammary
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             epithelial cells, bone marrow,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    pituitary and liver.

                                                      Aromatase inhibitors can't stop the
                                                      ovaries from making estrogen, so
          Estrone is produced primarily from
                                                    aromatase inhibitors only work in post-
         androstenedione originating from the                                                                                                                                                                                                               (Many) Adrenal Cortex to the
  D                                                menopausal women. Arimidex (chemical                         Estrone                                                                   Oestrone, Estrogen                        Many
            gonads (female ovaries) or the                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Ovaries
                                                   name: anastrozole), Aromasin (chemical
                    adrenal cortex.
                                                    name: exemestane), Femara (chemical
                                                               name: letrozole)

          Secretion initiated by the uterus.The       Inhibit cyclooxygenase and reduce
  E      linear pathway is initiated through the       prostaglandin synthesis. induced                     Prostaglandins                                                                 Cyclooxygenase                           Many                                Many
                action of lipoxygenases.           intestinal fluid and electrolyte secretion

                                                  The presence of acid (primarily the
         Initiated by food in the stomach. The secreted HCl) in the stomach, Secretion
  F           intestinal phase is initiated by   of this hormone is inhibited when the                          Gastrin                                                                Gastrinoma, Pentagastrin                     Many                               GI Tract
                         distension            lumenal pH of the stomach becomes very

  G               Lipoprotein Lipase                      Inhibits Cyclic Adenosine             Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Peptide                                       Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide (GIP)                 Many                               GI Tract

  H         Acidification of the Duodenum                     Normal pH Level                                   Secretin                                                                      Pancreatic                            Many                               GI Tract

         Nutritional substances, secretin and
                                                    ATP, sensitive pottassium channels,
  I      when food leaves the stomach and                                                                Cholecystokinin (CCK)                                                              Pancreozymin                            Many                               GI Tract
                                                        verapamil and gastric acid
               enters the small intestine

                                                                                                                                                                             7 OF 10
             Cell Type Responsible for                                                                                                                                                  Consequences of                                                                                                                  Drugs Associated with the
Item #                                             Target Organ or Tissue     Illustration of Target Organ or Tissue                   Principle Action                                                                      Chemical Class                   Consequences of Excess                  Feed Back System                                                 Reference
                     Secretion                                                                                                                                                             Deficieny                                                                                                                            Imbalance

                                                                                                                                                                              Anemia occurs in type 1 diabetes, renal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Epogen, Procrit, Eprex,,www3.interscience.wil
                                                                                                                       Hormone released from the kidney that stimulates          failure. Glycopreotein secreted to
  A           Extraglomerular Mesangial                      Liver                                                                                                                                                              Glycoprotein         Anemia, too many red blood cells, kidney tumor       Negative               Dextrose                       
                                                                                                                        thr production of red cells in the bone marrow         increase red blood cells production in
                                                                                                                                                                                   response to oxygen deficiency

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Rocaltrol (Roche), Calcijex
                                                                                                                       Promote the absorption of calcium from food and                                                                                                                                                    (Abbott) and Decostriol
         B-cell and Vit D, cells of the proximal
  B                                                        Kidneys                                                      bone to mobilize calcium from the bone to the             Hypocalcemia and Osteoporosis           Peptide, Sterol Hormones                  Hypercalcaemia                        Negative             (Mibe, Jesalis,          am,
         tubule of the nephron in the kidneys
                                                                                                                                            blood.                                                                                                                                                                        Antihypertensive Drugs                           m

                                                                                                                        Plays a key role in regulating energy intake and
                                                                                                                          energy expenditure, including the regulation
                                                                                                                            (decrease) of appetite and (increase) of
                                                                                                                                                                                Increased appetite, obesity, Type II                                                                                                     Recombinant Human Leptin,
  C                   Adipocytes                            Many                                                         metabolism. leptin also regulates reproductive                                                           Protein                         Decreased Appetite                      Negative
                                                                                                                                                                                            Diabetes                                                                                                                             Fc-Leptin                            DB=ctga.fp5&-
                                                                                                                             function by enhancing secretion of the
                                                                                                                         gonadotropin releasing hormone, and immune
                                                                                                                       function by enhancing the production of Th1 cells

                                                                                                                                                                                Gonadotropin Hormone Disfunction,
                                                                                                                                                                              Vasomotor symptoms, atrophic vaginitis,
                                                                                                                       Essential for maintaining normal female functions                                                                                                                                                   Estragyn 5®, Estro-A™,
  D         Theca Cells, Granulosa Cells                    Many                                                                                                                 and vulvar atrophy associated with           Ketone, Steroid        Weight Gain and prostate enlargement in men.         Negative
                                                                                                                          and are normally produced by the ovaries.                                                                                                                                                         Estrone, Primestrin®       
                                                                                                                                                                               menopause, and for the prevention of
                                                                                                                                                                              osteoporosis due to estrogen defficieny

                                                                                                                        Prostaglandins serve as a catalyst for a large                                                                                                                                                        NSAIDs (inhibit
                                                                                                                       number of processes including the movement of                                                                                                                                                         cyclooxygenase)
                                                                                                                        calcium and other substances into and out of                                                                                                                                                       Corticosteroids (inhibit
                                                                                                                         cells, dilation and contraction, inhibition and                                                                                                                                                    phospholipase A2
                                                                                                                                                                              Natriuresis, diuresis and blood pressure.                                                                                                                                                   landin
  E            All Tissues and Organs               All Tissues and Organs                                                promotion of blood clotting, regulation of                                                      Eicosanoids, Prostanoid                   Dysmenorrhea                          Negative               production)
                                                                                                                          secretions including digestive juices and                                                                                                                                                      COX-2 selective inhibitors or
                                                                                                                        hormones, control of fertility, cell division and                                                                                                                                                          coxibs
                                                                                                                                             growth.                                                                                                                                                                         Cyclopentenone

                                                                                                                                                                               Indigestion, Leads to Hypochlorhydria,                                Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome, Stomic produces                                              ,w
                                                                                                                       Stimulates secretion of gastric acid by the parietal    where acid production is low. Bacterial                               Hydrochloricacid causing Tumors and Peptide                                 Omeprazole            
  F                     G cells                    Stomach and Duodenum                                                                                                                                                           Peptide                                                                 Negative
                                                                                                                                     cells of the stomach                        overgrowth leading to diarrhea and                                  Ulcers. Duodenum Tumor, Pancreatic Cholera                                               
                                                                                                                                                                                 decrease in absorption of nutrients.                                                   Syndrome                                                                                      gastrin.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         insulinotropic peptide (GIP)
                                                                                                                       Stimulates insulin secretion after enteral nutrient Obesity, Pancreas Morphology and Bone                                                                                                                                           
  G                     K cells                         Small Intestine                                                                                                                                                           Peptide                        Cushing's Syndrome                       Negative         Drug: Modified GIP (GIP
                                                                                                                                           ingestion.                                Strength Decreased                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                       Action of the latter peptide on the avian pancreas. Autism, pancreatitis, pancreatic                                                                                                               SecreFlo™, ChiRhoStim®,bio
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Gastic Acidity and Pancreas Contrasted
  H                     S cells                           Pancreas                                                     A hormone made by glands in the small intestine secretion, Vitamin B12 deficeincy due to                   Peptide                                                                 Negative                                                  inf-tomcat.charite
                                                                                                                         that acts to stimulate pancreatic secretions.            pernicious anaemia                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                        A hormone secreted by the small intestine that                                                                                                                                                                        ,jou
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          cholecystokinin (Injection
                                                                                                                        stimulates the pancreas to release its digestive                                                                                                                                                                                  
  I                      I-cells                   Pancreas and Gallbladder                                                                                                             Less Bile Secretion                       Peptide                           Bulimia nervosa                       Negative       route), CCK, pancreozymin
                                                                                                                         enzymes and the gallbladder to contract and                                                                                                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                          release bile                                                                                                                                                                                                             nin-injection.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                  8 OF 10
Item #          Secretion Initiated By                  Secretion Inhibited By                               Hormone                   Molecular Structure of Hormones               Alternate Name                Location of Major Endocrine Gland Organ Responsible for Secretion Illustrations of the Secreting Organ

         Chorion, a fetal tissue component of        Inhibited in GnRH secretions by
  J                                                                                                Human Chorionic Gonadotropin                                                            HCG                                Pelvic Cavity                       Placenta
                     the placenta                      estrogens and progesterone

                                                                                                                                                                             Growth Hormone (GH), Human
  K               Syncytiotrophoblast                           Dopamine                     Human Chorionic Somatomammotropin (hCS)                                                                                          Pelvic Cavity                       Placenta
                                                                                                                                                                                  Placental Lactogen

              By FSH ( Follicle stimulating
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        breast and uterus, brain, bone, liver,
  L          hormone) and LH (luteinizing)                     Menopause                                      Estrogen                                                             Androgen, Oogenesis                        Pelvic Cavity               Placenta (Corpus Luteum)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              heart and other tissues.
                hormone in the ovaries.

             BY FSH ( Follicle stimulating
  M          hormone) and LH (luteinizing)           High levels of the hormone FSH                         Progesterone                                                  "Hormone of Pregnancy", Oogenesis                   Pelvic Cavity                       Placenta
                hormone in the ovaries.

             Initiated by Cardiac Myocytes,                                                                                                                                  Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), or
  N                                                        Low blood pressure                      Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)                                                                                          Thoracic Cavity                    Heart (Atria)                           Heart
              Calcium and Endopeptidase                                                                                                                                                  Atriopeptin

            When blood volume is low, the
             kidneys secrete renin. Renin
              stimulates the production of     Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers. Work
  O          angiotensin. Angiotensin also    by blocking the binding of angiotensin II to                 Angiotensin II                                                            Renin Substrate                        Abdominal Cavity                        Liver
            stimulates the secretion of the           muscles on blood vessels.
         hormone aldosterone from the adrenal

                                                                                                                                                                         9 OF 10
         Cell Type Responsible for                                                                                                                                                     Consequences of                                                                                                        Drugs Associated with the
Item #                                     Target Organ or Tissue             Illustration of Target Organ or Tissue                   Principle Action                                                                  Chemical Class            Consequences of Excess                  Feed Back System                                                 Reference
                 Secretion                                                                                                                                                                Deficieny                                                                                                                  Imbalance

                                                                                                                         A hormone produced by the cells fo the early
                                                                                                                            embryo (blastocyst) and the placenta that                                                                                                                                                               ,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Preabsorption, gestational trophoblastic
                                                                                                                       maintains the corpus luteum for approximately the                                                                                                                                       Novarel, Ovidrel, Pregnyl,   
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            disease during pregnancy, carbohydrate
  J                B-cell                Corpus Luteum of the Ovary                                                      first 3 months of pregnancy. HCG enters the          Hypogonadotropic and Hypogonadism             Peptide                                                            Negative         Profasi, Chorex, Gonic,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          substitution, antibody excess receptor peptide
                                                                                                                        bloostream of the mother and is excreted in her                                                                                                                                       HCG, Chorigon, Choron-10             chorionic-gonadotropin-hcg-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            and omission
                                                                                                                       urine. HCG forms the basis for many pregnancy                                                                                                                                                                                      injectable.html

                                                                                                                           Stimulates growth and cell reproduction in         Growth failure,short failure, congenital                    Pituitary tumor composed of somatotroph cells                        Placental Lactogen Human
  K          Somatotroph Cells                       Liver                                                                                                                                                                 Polypeptide                                                         Negative
                                                                                                                                  humans and other animals.                   malformation, delayed sexual maturity                                    of the anterior pituitary                                     Recombinant                      ctogen_Human_2_125/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Alora3, Angeliq4, Climara5,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Climara Pro6, Combipatch7
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ,Delestrogen, Enjuvia8,
                                                                                                                        A steroid hormone produced by the follicle cells
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Estraderm9, Estrasorb10,
                                                                                                                         and the corpus luteum in the ovary. Estrogen
                                                                                                                                                                              Low estrogen levels during pregnancy                                                                                                       femhrt11,         
                                     Breast and Uterus, Brain, Bone, Liver,                                             helps oocytes mature, stimulates cell division in                                                                  Nausea, headaches, heavy bleeding, breast
  L         Developing Follicles                                                                                                                                               can reduce future fertility for female        Steroid                                                           Negative           Femring12,Prefest13
                                            Heart and other Tissues                                                    the endometrium and the breats with each uterine                                                                       tenderness and hormonla imbalance
                                                                                                                                                                                           offspring.                                                                                                             Tablets, Premarin14,      ormationbyDrugClass/ucm135318.htm
                                                                                                                              cycle, and maintains secondary sex
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Premarin Intravenous15,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Premarin Vaginal Cream16,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                , Vivelle18, Vivelle-Dot19

                                                                                                                                                                         Menopause, breast tenderness, muscles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               First Progesterone MC10,  
                                                                                                                       Involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy aches, premenstrual symptoms will be                                 Hormones changes during the normal
  M           Testicular Cells                Uterus and Embryo                                                                                                                                                              Steroid                                                           Negative        First Progesterone MC5,
                                                                                                                            (supports gestation ) and embryogenesis     affected, moodiness, irritably, depression                                 menstrual cycle, body fat
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Progest, Prometrium                          .html
                                                                                                                                                                               with fatigue and drowsiness

                                                                                                                         It is involved in the homeostatic control of body
                                                                                                                         water, sodium, potasssiuman and fat (adipose
                                                                                                                       tissue). It is released by muscle cells in the upper
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Omapatrilat (Not approved by 
                                                                                                                        chambers (atria) of the heart (atrial myocytes, in
  N           Atrial Myocytes                        Heart                                                                                                                          Increased Blood Pressure               Polypeptide                Low Blood Pressure                       Negative          FDA), others being
                                                                                                                       response to the high blood pressure. ANP acts to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               developed, Vasopressin                      tic_peptide
                                                                                                                         reduce the water, sodum and adipose loads on
                                                                                                                         the circulatory system, thereby reducing blood

                                                                                                                        Angiotensin II is a natural substance in your body
                                                                                                                            that affects your cardiovascular system by                                                                                                                                           Captopril, Candesartan
                                                                                                                       narrowing your blood vessels. This narrowing can                                                                                                                                          (Atacand), Eprosartan
                                                                                                                       increase your blood pressure and force your heart                                                                                                                                          (Teveten), Irbesartan
                                                                                                                           to work harder. Angiotensin II also starts the                                                                                                                                     (Avapro), Losartan (Cozaar),
  O         Juxtaglomerular cells                  Kidneys                                                                                                                                 Hypotension                    Oligopeptide      Hypertension, Heart Failure, Liver Failure         Negative                                         am,
                                                                                                                         release of a hormone that increases the amount                                                                                                                                          Olmesartan (Benicar),
                                                                                                                        of sodium and water in your body, which can lead                                                                                                                                        Telmisartan (Micardis),
                                                                                                                         to increased blood pressure. Angiotensin II can                                                                                                                                            Catecholamine,
                                                                                                                          also thicken and stiffen the walls of your blood                                                                                                                                         Valsartan (Diovan)
                                                                                                                                         vessels and heart.

                                                                                                                                                                                                 10 OF 10

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