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Nineteen

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									Chapter Fourteen
  The Challenge of Aging
    What Happens as You Age?
• Even with the healthiest behaviors, aging still
  occurs
• It results from biochemical processes still not
  fully understood
• The functioning of the human body is not
  affected until after the age of 70
• The changes that do occur are due to gradual
  aging and impairment from disease
How to Delay the Aging Process?
• Challenge the Mind         • Control Drinking and
• Develop Physical Fitness     Overdependence on
• Eat Wisely                   Medications
• Maintain a Healthy         • Don‟t Smoke
  Weight                     • Schedule Physical Exams
• Recognize and Reduce         to Detect Treatable
  Stress                       Diseases
How to Delay the Aging Process?
• Challenge the Mind         • Control Drinking and
• Develop Physical Fitness     Overdependence on
• Eat Wisely                   Medications
• Maintain a Healthy         • Don‟t Smoke
  Weight                     • Schedule Physical Exams
• Recognize and Reduce         to Detect Treatable
  Stress                       Diseases
    Types of Changes That Occur With
                 Aging
•   Social Changes
•   Roles and Relationship Changes
•   Increased Leisure Time
•   New Economic Situation
Adapting to Physical Changes
 • There are some physical changes that will
   be inevitable such as:
      •   Hearing Loss
      •   Vision Changes
      •   Arthritis
      •   Menopause
      •   Osteoporosis
 Psychological and Mental Changes
• As one ages, the following conditions could
  affect one‟s mental status
     • Dementia/Alzheimer‟s Disease
     • Grief and Mourning
     • Depression
                  Life Expectancy
• This is the average length of time we can expect to live
• Current life expectancy for someone born in 2002 is
  77.3 years
• Women have a longer life expectancy than men
• Life expectancy also varies among the following:
      •   Ethnic groups
      •   Socioeconomic levels
      •   Genetics
      •   Lifestyle factors
              Theories on Aging
• The following theories are possible reasons why we age
   – Cellular Theory based on genetic makeup of cells containing
     „aging‟ genes that can duplicate so many times
   – Cellular Theory based on „free radicals‟ that would undermine
     the integrity of cell membranes
   – Immune system failure to provide adequate protein synthesis
     causing an auto-immune disorder
   – Metabolic function which causes collagen to stiffen over
     time, creating immobility
  Older Americans as a Minority
• People over the age of 65 (35 million) are considered a
  minority population in the United States
• The status of older Americans are improving from past
  years i.e. health care, economics, etc.
• However, there still are a percentage of elderly who are
  ill and dependent upon others
• Many Americans still rely on Social Security, which still
  does not provide the essential to have an adequate
  retirement lifestyle
       How to Change the Public’s
         Perception on Aging?
• Examine our own perceptions of what „aging‟
  actually means
• Make available arrangements for full and part time
  volunteers
• Provide re-training programs or new educational
  programs
                 Defining Death
• Death has been defined as cessation of the flow of vital
  bodily fluids
• This occurs when the heart stops beating and breathing
  ceases
• The concept of cellular „brain death‟ involves the
  following:
         – Lack of receptivity and response to external stimuli
         – Absence of spontaneous muscular movement and spontaneous
           breathing
         – Absence of observable reflexes
         – Absence of brain activity (EEG)
  Denying vs. Welcoming Death
• Many people seek to avoid any mention of death
• The saying, “out of sight, out of mind” appears
  to be the rule compared to facing death directly
• Cartoons and video games give death a „two-
  dimensional‟ concept which distorts reality
• Problems can arise when the avoidance or denial
  that death can happen to you
             Planning For Death
• Accepting that death will occur allows the ability
  to plan for this event
• Basic tasks may include:
     •   Making a Will
     •   Considering options for „End-of-Life‟ care
     •   Home Care
     •   Hospital based Care (palliative care)
     •   Hospice Programs
 Deciding to Prolong Life or Hasten
               Death
• Once someone is given the prognosis that life
  would end soon, the following decisions would
  have to be considered
     • Withholding or Withdrawing Treatment (passive
       euthanasia)
     • Assisted Suicide (active euthanasia or physician assisted)
     • Advanced Directive (document regarding treatment if you
       become unable to make them)
            • Living Will
            • Health Care Proxy
     • Organ Donation
           Planning a Funeral
• A funeral are rites of passage that commemorate
  a person‟s life and acknowledge their existence
• Funerals provide a framework that allows
  survivors to support one another as they cope
  with the loss and express grief
• The following need to be addressed when
  planning a funeral
     • Disposition of the body
     • Service Arrangement
             Coping With Dying
• Charles Corr distinguishes 4 primary dimensions
  in coping with dying
     •   Physical (satisfying bodily needs0
     •   Psychological (maximizing sense of security)
     •   Social (sustaining significant relationships)
     •   Spiritual (reaffirming sources of meaning)
• Contemplating these dimensions gives us a
  framework for considering specific tasks that
  need to be addressed
             Coping With Dying
• Charles Corr distinguishes 4 primary dimensions
  in coping with dying
     •   Physical (satisfying bodily needs0
     •   Psychological (maximizing sense of security)
     •   Social (sustaining significant relationships)
     •   Spiritual (reaffirming sources of meaning)
• Contemplating these dimensions gives us a
  framework for considering specific tasks that
  need to be addressed
                 Coping With Loss
• Grief is the reaction to loss and encompasses thoughts
  and feelings, as well as physical and behavioral
  responses
• Mourning is closely related to grief and refers to the
  process by which a person adjusts to loss and
  incorporates this into their life
• William Worden has identified 4 tasks when mourning
      •   Accepting the reality of loss
      •   Working through the pain
      •   Adjusting to a change environment
      •   Emotionally relocating the deceased and moving on
Chapter Fourteen
  The Challenge of Aging

								
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