Human Nutrition

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					Anatomy and Physiology 2
January 15, 2011


                              Human Nutrition
Basic Definitions
        Nutrition: The branch of science that studies food
             o Also refers to the process of eating and utilizing food
        Diet: All of the food and drink consumed by an organism
        Nutrients: All of the molecules required to support life
             o Includes inorganic elements and organic molecules
Kinds of Nutrients
Nutrients are divided into six major categories:
    1. Carbohydrates
    2. Lipids
    3. Proteins
    4. Vitamins
    5. Minerals
    6. Water
But how do you EAT a nutrient?
Nutrition-ism
        Began late 1970s/early 1980s
        Term coined by Gyorgy Scrinis
        Not the same as nutrition
        Reductionist way of thinking about food
        People need invisible “nutrients” not “food” and must be told what those nutrients are by
        experts
        Assumes food is the sum of its parts and uses words like: calories, fat grams, carbs,
        polyunsaturated, cholesterol, monounsaturated, antioxidant, fiber…

People have been eating for a long time!
We don’t know for sure what the “cavemen” ate, but we DO know what ancient cultures ate:
       Eskimos in Alaska
           o Fish
           o Fish eggs
           o Marine mammals
           o Seal oil
           o Blubber
           o Seaweed, limited vegetables?
       Masai of Africa
           o Meat
           o Blood
           o Milk
           o No plant food
       Isolated Fishing Villages in Scotland
           o Fish
           o Porrige
           o Fisheads stuffed with oats and chopped fish liver



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        Isolated Swiss Villages
            o Rich dairy products
            o Raw, whole milk
            o Butter
            o Cheese
            o Rye bread
            o Bone broth
            o Few vegetables cultivated during summer

Characteristics of Diets from Healthy, Non-industrialized Peoples
        No refined foods
             o No sugar, flour, corn syrup, canned food, preservatives, etc.
        Animal Food
             o Livestock, insects, blood, raw milk, eggs, fish, shellfish
             o Whole animal : muscles, organs, fat, bones
        High content of enzymes, beneficial bacteria, vitamins
        Grains, nuts, seeds (prepared by soaking or sprouting)
        High Fat, especially Saturated Fat
             o Up to 80% of calories were saturated fat
             o 4% or less from vegetable oils
        Salt
And it worked for them!
Traditional societies visited by Dr. Weston A. Price had:
        Long life spans
        Straight teeth, free from cavities
        No arthritis
        No heart disease
        Few childbirth complications
        No cancer

        Switzerland
            o no toothbrushes
            o children did not brush
            o yet no tooth decay
        Vilhjalmur Stefansson, Alaskan explorer
            o Took 100 Eskimo skulls to American Museum of Natural History to be examined
            o Not one cavity found!
        Modern accounts of healthy indigenous peoples
            o Subsistance farmers near New Guinea free from incidence of stroke and ischaemic
                heart disease
                     Journal of Internal Medicine (1994)
            o Aboriginal societies in Australia, Africa, and S. America studied by Michael Murray
                (1998) had low rates of cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, obesity, diabetes, osteoporosis,
                heart disease until they switched to western diet




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Indigenous people had their share of problems
        Smallpox
        Disease
        Infections
        Food shortages
But “Western” diseases were not among them
        Heart disease
        Stroke
        Arthritis
        Cavities
After the Americans/Europeans came to visit….
        Native people began eating Western foods: sugar, flour,
        Health diminished
        Teeth rotted
        Next generation, raised on such foods, had narrower faces, crowded teeth…

So…how did America come up with the Food Guide Pyramid?
      Based on the document: Dietary Guidelines for Americans, written by USDA in 1977
      USDA claims it provides “authoritative advice for people two years and older about how good
      dietary habits can promote health and reduce risk for major chronic diseases.”
      Must be revised every 5 years
      This document not just a suggestion! Influences how billions of dollars spent each year.
      Basis of all federal nutrition programs:
          o Food stamps
          o WIC
          o School lunch programs
          o Military food services
          o Federal prison food
          o Influences what foods Americans buy
      In Charge: U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
          o USDA: federal department that
          o administers programs that provide services to farmers
          o USDA is NOT: an agency established to monitor our health (such as Institute of Medicine
               or National Institutes of Health)

1992: First Food Pyramid
        Over the years, evidence accumulated against original Food Pyramid recommendations
        USDA selected committee of 13 experts
        Recommendations were to be given to a 2nd committee in charge of writing dietary guidelines
        BUT….That committee never formed!
2005: Food Pyramid Revised
        No one knows exactly how USDA developed final guidelines
        Guidelines contrary to recommendations of original committee of 13 nutrition experts
        Had more to do with politics and power of lobbyists than health of American people




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        2005: MyPyramid
           o Changed appearance of pyramid, removed labels—now requires Internet connection


Carbohydrates
        Mostly used for fuel
        Convert to glucose (body’s main fuel) and circulate to all cells
        Most cells use combo of fats/carbs for energy
            o Neurons and erythrocytes depend almost exclusively on carbs
        Structural component of other molecules (DNA, ATP)
USDA                                                  Traditional diets
5-8 servings/day of bread, rice, pasta, crackers,     Minor component
cookies, etc.
½ should be whole grains                              Specially prepared to make more digestible
                                                      Whole grains only
                                                      Bread leavened with sourdough, not yeast
In 1910, 70% of all bread eaten in US was baked at home
Whole Grains
        Wheat
        Corn
        Barley
        Rye
        Rice
        Millet
        Oatmeal
Refined Grains: White flour, white rice
        Bran and germ stripped away
        High temp, high speed rollers remove most nutrients from remaining endosperm
        chlorine gas bath (chlorine oxide) to whiten and “age”
        Potassium bromate added
        Synthetic vitamins added

Whole Grains                                           Refined Grains
Very nutritious                                        Very little nutrition
Help digestion                                         Constipate
Satisfy hunger                                         Cause cravings
Prevent cancer                                         Additives cause cancer
Stabilize blood sugar                                  Cause blood sugar to spike then drop



Problem with refined grains: Blood Sugar, Glycemic Load, and Diabetes
       Having a roller-coaster blood sugar level is dangerous
       Insulin: hormone that regulates sugar in the blood
       Insulin resistance : when normal amounts of insulin are not enough to regulate blood sugar; can
       be caused by eating foods that have high glycemic load (raise then drop blood sugar)
       Causes diabetes

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        How do you give a rat diabetes?
           o Give it alloxan!
           o Alloxan is a by-product formed by bleaching flour and present in commercially sold
               bread
           o Not on food label because not actually added to the flour by manufacturing

Another problem with refined grains: Celiac disease
       Autoimmune reaction to wheat and other grains containing gluten
       Damages small intestine
           o >300 Mild to severe symptoms
                    Headaches
                    Gastro-intestinal discomfort
                    Lymphoma
                    Psychiatric disorders
                    Miscarriages
                    Death
       2010 study published Annals of Medicine
           o led by University of Maryland School of Medicine Center for Celiac Research
           o Showed that celiac disease can develop later in life
       1995: 1 in 2500 people worldwide
       2006: 1 in 350 people worldwide
       2010: 1 in every 133 Americans
           o 97% undiagnosed

How to Read a Label
Whole grain                                              Refined Grains
   Brown Rice                                                White Rice
   Whole Kernel Corn                                         Enriched wheat flour
   100% Whole Wheat                                          Wheat flour
   100% Whole Grain                                          Multigrain
                                                             “Contains whole grains”
                                                             Pasta
Vegetables
Nutritionally defined as: plant material that is not sweet and is eaten with the main meal
        Great source of complex carbohydrates
        Vitamins and minerals
        Fiber
        Antioxidants
        Protection from some cancers
USDA                                                    Traditional Diets
2-3 cups/day                                            Lots of vegetables in season
How cooked or preserved does not matter                 Some fermented (i.e. sauerkraut, pickles, etc.)
                                                        Some cooked, others raw
                                                        Never canned




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Vegetable guidelines
        Frozen can be fresher than fresh
            o ALL canned vegetables in US contain BPA, a hormone-disrupting chemical similar to
                estrogen
            o Girls: early puberty, ovarian and breast cancer
            o Boys: grow breasts, prostate cancer, lower sperm count
            o Banned in most other industrialized countries
        Raw is not always better
            o Raw cruciferous vegetables (broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage) prevent iodine absorption,
                damage thyroid gland
            o Raw spinach contains oxalic acid, decreases calcium absorption, contributes to kidney
                stones
Your grandmothers and great-grandmothers did not serve salads and fresh fruit every day—
             it simply wasn’t available.
             Before refrigeration and motorized transportation, salads were a luxury, consumed only
                occasionally.

Organic farming
        No chemical fertilizers
        No chemical pesticides
        No GMOs
        Soil enriched by natural methods
        Third-party certified
             o USDA not as strict
Are organic vegetables better?
        2003 study showed children eating conventional produce had 9 times the pesticide residue in
        their urine as children who ate organic food
        2007 study: organic produce contained more antioxidants

Environmental Working Group (EWG) publishes a guide each year
Other Organic Considerations
Bioaccumulation: the higher up the food chain, the more concentrated the pesticides
        Meat, milk, eggs
Higher fat means more pesticide
        Oils, nuts

Beware of organic junk food!
Processed food may still be unhealthy even if organic


Fruit
Botanical term for an enlarged or modified ovary of a plant
       Vitamins and minerals
       Some “superfruits” have extra antioxidants
            o Pomegranates, most berries
            o Prevent certain cancers
       Help digestion

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USDA                                                      Traditional Diets
1-1/2 -2 cups/day                                         In season
“go easy on the fruit juices”                             Some fermented and pickled (i.e., chutney)
                                                          Very little fruit juice
                                                          Often stewed
Fruit guidelines
         Similar to guidelines for vegetables
         Dried fruits often have preservatives, sugar added

Natural fruit sugar = Fructose
Not a problem when only getting it from fruits and vegetables
        Too much fructose can cause…
        Insulin resistance
        Obesity (especially belly fat)
        High blood pressure
        Elevated triglycerides and LDL
        Depletion of vitamins and minerals
        Cardiovascular disease, liver disease, cancer, arthritis, gout

Why fructose is worse than other sugars
       Human body made to run on glucose—most is burned up right after consumption
       Fructose metabolized in liver
           o Fatty acids created
           o accumulate as fat droplets in liver and skeletal muscle
           o cause insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
       Excessive uric acid created
           o Increases blood pressure, causes gout
       Glucose suppresses hunger hormone ghrelin and stimulates hunger suppressant leptin
       Fructose: no effect on ghrelin; interferes with brain’s reception of leptin, resulting in overeating

News flash: Corn does not contain fructose!
1957: Glucose chemically converted to fructose to make High-Fructose Corn Syrup
        Much cheaper than sugar
        Health effects even worse than plain fructose
        Very common ingredient in processed food


Fiber
USDA                                                      Traditional Diets
14 grams per 1,000 calories consumed                      Varied greatly
Eat “high-fiber” foods                                    Prepared grains
Take fiber supplements if necessary                       Fruits and vegetables

Water-soluble:
       Grains, fruits, vegetables
       USDA recommends to lower cholesterol levels

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Water-insoluble:
       From cellulose and other indigestible plant material
       No effect on cholesterol
       Adds bulk to stool, prevents constipation

But….
High-fiber diet does NOT prevent any type of cancer, including colorectal and breast
        Can damage intestines by stretching them beyond normal range with large stools
        digestion lasts longer and fermentation occurs, endangering the bacterial flora
        hernias, hemorrhoidal disease, constipation, malnourishment, irritable bowel syndrome, Crohn's
        disease, and diverticulitis


Fats and Oils
Excellent energy source
        Typical man’s fat reserves: could run 119 hours
        Carbohydrate stores: only 1.6 hours
Heart cells use fatty acids for fuel
Production of hormones
Cell membranes

Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble
       Abundant in animal fats
       Depend on dietary fat for absorption
       People who eat <20g fat/day cannot absorb enough

One thing everyone agrees on: Avoid hydrogenated oil!
        Contains dangerous trans fats
        Causes heart disease, arthrosclerosis
        USDA recommends <2g per day, but preferably less
        Beginning in 1950’s, Americans were advised to eat margarine (hydrogenated veg. oil) instead of
        butter
        After 40 years of damage to people’s health, the dangers of trans fats finally recognized
Trans Fats
        Hydrogenation invented in 1905 by French chemist
        Won Nobel Prize in 1912
        Pump hydrogen into fatty acid molecule making it more solid
        If done only somewhat, then “partially hydrogenated”
        If done completely, then “fully hydrogenated”
        During process, some hydrogen atoms jump across molecule, deforming it
        Raises bad cholesterol AND lowers good!
How to read labels to avoid trans fats
        Anything with words “hydrogenated” or “partially hydrogenated” contains trans fats, even if
        label says “ZERO GRAMS TRANS FATS”
        Allowed to make this claim if each serving has less than ½ gram trans fats
        Serving sizes usually very small, so all the ½ grams add up!


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Hidden Trans Fats: Technically classified as “emulsifiers” so the amount of trans fat they contribute
does not have to be reported!
       Monoglycerides
       Diglycerides
       Triglycerides

USDA
Use as little as possible
         <30% of calories
Avoid saturated fat!
         <10% of calories
Don’t eat butter
Limit cholesterol to amount in 1 egg yolk/day

Use poly-unsaturated oils
        Corn oil
        Canola oil
        Soybean oil
        Cottonseed oil
        Sunflower oil
        Safflower oil

Traditional diets
Up to 80% of calories from saturated fat
Animal fats for cooking: butter, lard, beef tallow
Limited use of plant oils:
        Saturated fat:
            o Palm oil
            o Coconut oil
        Unsaturated oil:
            o Olive oil
            o Sesame oil
            o Peanut oil

Heart Disease in US
Once rare, now causes half of deaths
        1930’s: 3,000 per year
        1950’s: 500,000 per year
        2006: 8,500,000 Heart attacks, 10,200,000 Angina

The Lipid Hypothesis
Ancel Keys, late 1950s
Hypothesis: saturated fat and cholesterol cause coronary heart disease
        Still difficult to find a study that conclusively supports it!
Recent evidence for lipid hypothesis?


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       2006: Dr. Stephen J. Nicholls of Australian Heart Research Institute published a study in the
       Journal of the American College of Cardiology
           o Fed 14 people a piece of carrot cake and a milkshake
                     7: made with saturated fat
                     7: unsaturated fat
                     Took blood samples
           o This single study has been reported over and over!
           o Authors claimed that one meal high in saturated fat affected ability of arteries to dilate
                     BUT authors admit they couldn't differentiate the effect of saturated fat from
                        the effect of potential random sampling error
           o Claimed that saturated fat diminished ability to prevent inflammation
                     BUT couldn’t differentiate between effect of saturated fat and effect of vitamin
                        E (differed greatly in types of oils used)
                     Did not test in subjects’ blood but rather in isolated, laboratory-cultured cells
           o Is this strong evidence for the lipid hypothesis????
           o Based on feeding 14 people a piece of carrot cake and a milkshake, the author made
               recommendations on 15 kinds of food:
                     "need to aggressively reduce the amount of saturated fat consumed in the
                        diet."
                     Suggested reducing intake of beef, pork, lard, poultry fat, butter, milk, cheeses,
                        coconut oil, palm oil and cocoa butter
                     replacing them with safflower oil, sesame oil, sunflower seeds, corn and
                        soybeans
       Study has been criticized…but still widely cited, especially in popular magazines!
Evidence against the Lipid Hypothesis
       Traditional diets = no heart disease
       Eating cholesterol has little effect on blood cholesterol
       As heart disease has increased…
           o US consumption of butter, lard, and all saturated fat decreased since 1910
           o Consumption of refined vegetable oils and sugar increased since 1910
       American Journal of Clinical Nutrition March 2010
           o 21 separate studies were analyzed, during 5-23 years of follow-up of 347,747 subjects
           o Intake of saturated fat was NOT associated with an increased risk of
                     Coronary heart disease
                     Stroke
                     Cardiovascular Disease

However…
Multiple studies have shown a definitive correlation between sugar consumption and heart disease
Increase in sugar consumption
1910 : 4 pounds of sugar/year/person
2010: >50% of all Americans consume 1/2 lb of sugar PER DAY
        8 teaspoons of sugar in a 12 oz. soft drink




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Sugar…
         Can cause chromium and copper deficiencies and interfere with absorption of calcium and
         magnesium
         Can raise triglycerides
         Can cause a loss of tissue elasticity and function
         Is connected with development of cancer of the breast, ovaries, prostate, rectum, pancreas,
         biliary tract, lung, gallbladder and stomach
         Can increase your systolic blood pressure
         Speeds up the aging of cells
         Can cause atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease
         Etc., etc.

Detriments of eating polyunsaturated cooking oils (corn, canola, soybean, etc.)
       New to human diet within last 50 years (we don’t know what they will do to us)
       Contribute to
           o Cancer
           o Heart disease
           o Learning disabilities
           o Intestinal problems
           o Premature aging
           o Vitamin E deficiency

Essential Fatty Acids
        Cannot be synthesized by the body, must be eaten
        Should be in 2:1 ratio
             o Arachidonic acid (omega-6)
                      Eggs, liver, butter
                      Too much omega-6 without omega-3 can damage kidneys
                      Most vegetable oils have too much omega-6
             o Linoleic acid (omega-3)
                      flax oil
                      More readily absorbed from fish
        Saturated fats naturally have omega-3 and omega-6 oils in the correct proportion!

Benefits of Saturated Fat
        Cell walls
        Kidney function
        Hormones
        Lungs
        Nervous system
        Suppress inflammation
        Your body makes its own cholesterol when there is not enough in the diet




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Milk and Dairy Products
        Protein
        Calcium
        Vitamins
        Minerals

USDA                                                  Traditional Diets
3 cups/day for ages 9+                                Full-fat whole milk
“Go low fat or fat-free”                              Raw
Pasteurized                                           Cheese
Includes ice cream, processed cheese products,        Yogurt /Kefir
and pudding

Whole Milk or Reduced Fat?
2005 Study of children in Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine
       Children gained more weight drinking low fat milk than whole milk
       Why?
           o Milkfat contains vitamins A and D, necessary to assimilate protein
           o Lowfat milk also contains milk powder, which contains free radicals

What is Pasteurization?
Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)
        Germ theory: disease is caused by microorganisms, so turn up the heat and kill the little suckers!
        Plagiarized Antoine Bechamp
Antoine Bechamp (1816 – 1908)
        “Symbiotic” germ theory
        Balance among microorganisms: if there are a lot of good bacteria they will keep the bad ones in
        check

Other effects of pasteurizing milk
        Beneficial bacteria destroyed, makes milk more susceptible to harmful bacteria
        Vitamins destroyed
        Protein , calcium, and minerals harder to absorb
        Harder to digest: puts strain on pancreas
        Destroys enzymes that help digest butterfat
        Surface area of fat globules increased.
            o Original fat cell membrane is lost and a
            o New membrane formed that incorporates more casein and whey proteins
            o May account for the increased allergenicity

Raw Milk
Cons
       May contain harmful bacteria that cause illness
       Not regulated by outside agency



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Pros
        Health benefits previous slide
        Many “lactose intolerant” individuals can drink it
        People have been drinking it for 1000s of years!

Raw Milk is Illegal in most states
       Laws strictly enforced
       Amish/Mennonites arrested, farms closed http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nDs6otWyLpk
       Florida: can be sold as “pet food” only
       Seller must purchase Pet Food License


Protein
Needed for:
        Muscles
        Enzymes
        Antibodies
        Growth
        Blood clotting
22 amino acids
8 are “essential” because your body can’t make them—have to be eaten

Protein-sparing
         Proteins cannot be stored and used later.
         Only small amounts of protein are lost each day that need to be replaced.
             o Therefore, we only need a small amount of protein in our diet.
             o Too much is hard on the kidneys
         Our bodies oxidize sugar and fats for energy before proteins.
         During starvation, amino acids must be converted to sugars.
             o RBCs and nerve cells need glucose for energy.
             o Cannot use fats
             o This is what makes starvation fatal.
USDA                                                   Traditional Diets
Lean or low fat                                        Meat with fat and skin
5 - 6-1/2 ounces                                       Organs and bones
Choose plant sources whenever possible                 Cooked and raw meat
                                                       Plant sources also—in some areas more than
                                                       others

Plant Protein
Need to combine amino acids to make complete proteins
        Beans + Rice = complete protein (all amino acids)
        Legumes + seeds
        Legumes + nuts
        Legumes + grains



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Vegetarianism
       The word “vegan” coined in 1944
       No milk, eggs, meat, or any animal products
       No vegan native people groups exist or are known to have ever existed. Not many strict
       vegetarians except in some religious orders (Jainists, some Buddhists, Essenes, some Hindus,
       etc.)
       Southern India hasmany vegetarian but not vegan
            o Cook with ghee (butter)
            o Use goat milk

Vitamin B12
       Only found in animal products
       “Only need a little, and you can store it” (they say)
       BUT…many food additives, wheat allergy, other factors make deficiencies common
Symptoms of B12 deficiency:
       Blurry vision
       Anger
       Numbness in hands and feet
       Anemia
       Sometimes NO symptoms
       Can eventually lead to Alzheimer’s

Soy Alert! Vegetarians beware!
Mounting evidence that UNFERMENTED soy products are very dangerous
        Fermented soy products (safe):
            o Tamari soy sauce
            o Tempeh
            o Miso
        Unfermented:
            o Veggie burgers
            o Tofu
            o Soy milk
            o Infant formula
        Soy acts like estrogen in your body
            o Babies on soy formula receive equivalent of 5 birth control pills per day
                      ADD in boys
                      Early puberty in girls
                                 Problems with menopause later

What is in your meat?
        Hormones to make meat tender
        Antibiotics allow survival in dirty, crowded feedlots
        Many cows have cancer
        Red dye at the supermarket




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Grass-fed Meat
        News flash: cows eat grass!
        Eating corn, cottonseed, and soybean meal is unnatural and not good for cows
        conjugated linoleic acid present in meat and milk of grass-fed animals only
        Strong cancer protection

Eggs
       “Perfect food”
           o Contain Vitamin D only if
                    Exposed to sunlight and
                    allowed to eat natural diet of insects and grains
           o Commercial chickens fed
           o Soy
           o GM corn
           o Chicken
       Farm eggs
           o Illegal to sell (or even give away) in Florida
           o Must have industrial kitchen, eggs sanitized 7 times in bleach bath
                    Egg shell is porous—bleach goes into egg
                    Even organic grocery store eggs have been bleached


Vitamins
Small organic dietary organic compounds necessary to metabolism
Fat-soluble
        A, D, K, E
        Only absorbed if taken with fat
        Possible to fatally overdose from supplements
Water-soluble
        C and B
        Dissolved in body fluids
        Excess excreted in urine
        Hard to overdose
How much do you need?
        USDA sets values based on minimal requirements
            o Enough Vitamin A to prevent night blindness
            o Enough Vitamin C to prevent scurvy
            o Enough Vitamin D to prevent rickets (until recently raised)
        Synthetic vitamins may not be of same benefit as those consumed as food
            o Vitamins often require cofactors, trace minerals, co-enzymes and anti-oxidants
                 necessary for the whole food vitamin to work
            o However, deficiencies DO often respond to synthetic supplements




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Minerals
Inorganic elements that plants extract from soil or water and introduce into the food web
            Calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese are cofactors for enzymes
            Chlorine is component of stomach acid
            Electrolytes
            Micronutrients—need only a small amount
            Salt
                 o Unprocessed sea salt contains many essential minerals
                 o Used by all cultures
                 o Refined commercial table salt has had all minerals removed, leaving a white crystal
                    that is 98% sodium chloride
                          Causes health problems
            No clear evidence that reducing salt intake helps prevent hypertension.
                 o Studies have conflicting or ambiguous results
Food Additives
           Is that food? Or an edible, food-like product?
                        Processed food may not actually be food!
           Labels are not required to warn the consumer of the risks
                        An individual ingredient may itself contain 100s of ingredients that don’t have to
                        be listed on label
                        Many ingredients are “hidden” under following names
                             o Chicken stock
                             o Flavors
                             o Spices
                             o Colors
                             o Etc.

MSG
 "Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) literally stimulates neurons to death, causing brain damage to
varying degrees."
-Russell Blaylock, M.D.
Board Certified Neurosurgeon
"Excitotoxins: The Taste that Kills"

Hidden MSG
       Label may say “No MSG” but the product still contains MSG!
          o Spices
          o Hydrolyzed protein
          o Yeast
          o Yeast extract
          o Many more…




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Natural Flavors
The exact definition of natural flavorings & flavors from Title 21, Section 101, part 22 of the Code of
Federal Regulations :
"The term natural flavor or natural flavoring means the essential oil, oleoresin, essence or extractive,
protein hydrolysate, distillate, or any product of roasting, heating or enzymolysis, which contains the
flavoring constituents derived from a spice, fruit or fruit juice, vegetable or vegetable juice, edible yeast,
herb, bark, bud, root, leaf or similar plant material, meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy products, or
fermentation products thereof, whose significant function in food is flavoring rather than nutritional."

“Artificial Strawberry Flavor” in a McDonald’s Strawberry Milkshake contains 49 ingredients!

Colors
“Natural” colors also can be anything
         carmine = ground up cochineal BEETLES used in red fruit juice
Artificial colors
         Many parent groups currently pleading with FDA to ban Red 40 and other artificial colors
              o Banned in other countries
              o Cause hyperactivity
              o Cause cancer

Artificial sweeteners
         Saccharin
         Acesulfame-K
         Sucralose
         Neotame
         Cyclamate
         Alitame
         Splenda
All have potentially serious side effects!
Many studies have shown they cause weight gain, not loss!

Aspartame/Nutrasweet/Equal
       neurotoxic substance associated with dizziness, visual impairment, severe muscle aches,
       numbing of extremities, pancreatitis, high blood pressure, retinal hemorrhaging, seizures,
       depression, birth defects, chemical disruptions in the brain, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s
       Produces methanol (wood alcohol) when digested
          o Environmental Protection Agency defines "safe consumption level" of methanol at 7.8
              mg per day.
          o 56 mg of methanol in one liter diet drink

1000s more food additives
       Most made in factories in China
       Preservatives, dough conditioners, emulsifiers, etc.
       Many have substantial health risks that are not disclosed to the consumer




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Genetically Modified Ingredients
Plants are given genes to make them resistant to pests and diseases
Some actually produce a pesticide in their leaves!

safety studies?
         1992: FDA claimed no information showing that GM foods were substantially different from
         conventionally grown foods. Therefore absolutely no safety studies were required.
         FDA official in charge of policy: Michael Taylor, Monsanto’s former attorney and later their vice
         president.
             o Now he is back at FDA
Safety Issues
         Potential human health impacts
             o allergens
             o transfer of antibiotic resistance markers
             o unknown effects?
         Mice fed GM corn had immune responses associated with
             o Rheumatoid arthritis
             o Inflammatory bowel disease
             o Osteoporosis
             o Atherosclerosis
             o Various types of cancer
             o Allergies
             o Lou Gehrig’s disease
         Offspring of rats fed GM soy showed a five-fold increase in mortality, lower birth weights, and
         the inability to reproduce
         Male mice fed GM soy had damaged young sperm cells
         The embryo offspring of GM soy-fed mice had altered DNA functioning
         Several US farmers reported sterility or fertility problems among pigs and cows fed on GM corn
         varieties
         Investigators in India have documented fertility problems, abortions, premature births, and
         other serious health issues, including deaths, among buffaloes fed GM cottonseed products

    only research study ever published on humans eating GMO food found that GM soybeans
    transferred the engineered gene to the people’s intestinal bacteria
            o “Assessing the survival of transgenic plant DNA in the human gastrointestinal tract”
                Netherwood et al Nature Biotechnology (2004)




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Anatomy and Physiology 2
January 15, 2011


Some Nutritional Guidelines
Because now we are REALLY confused!
Michael Pollan, author of:
       The Omnivore’s Dilemma
       In Defense of Food

His advice:
        EAT FOOD.
        NOT TOO MUCH.
        MOSTLY PLANTS.

EAT FOOD.
If your great-great grandmother wouldn’t recognize the ingredients—then don’t eat it.

NOT TOO MUCH.
Decreased calories associated with long life.

MOSTLY PLANTS.
Meat is good for you, but only if it is of good quality.

That’s it! Simple!




Next week…
Academy Award-Winning Film: Food, Inc.

Read articles:
Nasty, Brutish, and Short?
Soy Alert!


For your use:
Guide to natural and synthetic vitamins
Guide to organic produce




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