Fungi and Plants

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					                                   Chapter 12: Plants & Fungi Diversification
    1. You will able to define the structural and physiological characteristics of fungi.
    2. You will be able to explain the roles of fungi in society.
    3. You will be able to briefly explain reproduction in fungi.
    4. You will be able to name the categories of fungi.
    5. You will be able to define two fungal associations: lichens and mycorrhizae
     1. You will be able to define the structural and physiological characteristics of plants.
     2. You will be able to explain sexual and asexual reproduction in plants
     3. You will be able to define the characteristics of the 3 types of plants
     4. You will be able to describe flowering plants.
  I.           Characteristics. Fig. 12.27 & 12.29
               A. Multicellular: __________& ____________Unicellular: _____________
               B. Sessile: _______________________________________________________
               C. Decomposers or symbionts:_________________________________________
               D. Mycelium: body of the fungus, mass of branching hyphae
               E. Hyphae: long strings of cells, look like slender extensions, barely visible
               F. Septae: porous cross-walls in hyphae: rapid growth and quick exchange of materials
               G. Cell wall is made of chitin, plant’s cell wall is made of cellulose.
               H. Gilled fungi: very common, best to eat; gills are collections of hyphae with spores,
                  reproductive structure at their tip Fig. 22.3
               I. Spore: reproductive cell that develops into new organism without fusion with
                  another reproductive cell. Tens of millions are ejected each hour.
Look at the fungi characteristics, now cover them. Write down as many as you remember:_____________________

     II.       Fungi in Society
               A. Problems:
                  1) Food: example: bread mold
                  2) Agriculture: single worst destroyers of crop plants (50 plant diseases by
                      bacteria, 100 by viruses, 1,000 by fungi): Dutch elm disease (spread by elm
                      bark beetle) has almost destroyed the tree species in the U.S. Infection of rye &
                      other cereals w/ Claviceps purpurea causes “ergotism” in farm animals and
                      humans, LSD drug.
           dutch elm disease
                  3) Body: 2 examples: ergotism (vasoconstriction, convulsions, gangrene,
                     hallucinations) & athlete’s foot.
               B. Benefits:
                  1) Mold penicillin; black ergot ergovine for postpartum hemorrhages; LSD
                     decrease lactation, increase sexual libido; cholesterol-lowering drugs “statins”
                     (Provastatin, Lovastatin) contain a compound produced by Aspergillus terreus

                  2) Brewer’s yeast: Source of vitamin B & chromium; for loss of appetite, acne,
                     arthrosclerosis (fat deposits), & diabetes.
                  3) Baker’s yeast: bread
                  4) Soft drinks contain citric acid produced by a fungus
                  5) Edible mushrooms: boost immune system, heals lung problems (asthma,
                     coughing, respiratory strength), cancer-fighting properties.
For objective no. 2, are fungi detrimental or beneficial to our world?_________ Provide 2 damaging & 2 beneficial effects

    III.  Reproduction: Sexual (via fertilization) or Asexual (no fertilization).
          Sexual= Dikaryotic phase (2 nuclei in one cell). Fig. 12.30
          A. Process:
                   i. Germination of 2 haploid spores (+ & -)
                  ii. Fusion of hyphae, 2 haploid nuclei per cell (can be long in time)
                 iii. Mushroom formation
                 iv. Fusion of nuclei (fertilization) in gills of mushroom cap, diploid
                  v. Meiosis of diploid cells to form 4 haploid spores, then cycle repeats
          B. Diversity Fig. 12.29
                   i. Mushrooms
                  ii. Molds
                 iii. Yeast
          Asexual=spore germination (grow from dormancy period) or mycelial fragmentation
              Process: not fully understood
Fungi images:
During sexual reproduction of fungi, how do spores develop?__________________________________________________
Spores are haploid / diploid. In relation to time, what is the longest phase in the sexual reproduction of fungi?
_____________________ . Name 3 types of fungi that reproduce sexually:________________________________________

    IV.      Fungal associations: Lichens and Mycorrhizae are ecologically important symbiotic
             A. Lichens: fungi + _________
                 1) Structure & surface area for water & mineral absorption is given by
                 2) Carbohydrates are provided by _____________ through ______________
             B. Mycorrhizae: fungi + ___________________, Fig. 12.33
                 1) Structure & surface area for water & mineral absorption is given by
                 2) Carbohydrates are provided by _______________ through_____________
Fungi associate symbiotically with ____________________ and ______________________________

  I.   Characteristics of plants, Fig. 12-1
       A. Most are photosynthetic, some parasitic (Fig. 12-2), some carnivorous (supplement
          diet with animal flesh)
       B. Multicellular, sessile, most land-dwelling (some returned to water: water lilies)
       C. Special organelles: cell wall (cellulose, sometimes strengthen by lignin),
       ______________________ & ______________________

Name 4 plant characteristics:________________________________, __________________________________,
____________________________________________& ______________________________________________

    II.       Reproduction in Plants: Asexual (vegetative) or SexualAlternation of Generations.
              Alternation of Generations Fig. 12-3, 12-8, 12-11, 12-16
              A. Sporophyte generation (2n) produces spores through meiosis, then
              B. Spores (1n) grow through mitosis to form the multicellular gametophyte (1n)
              C. Gametophyte produces gametes through mitosis
              D. 2 gametes unite in fertilization to form zygote (2n)
              E. Zygote grows into sporophyte through mitosis
What is Alternation of Generations? __________________________________________________________________
What are the 2 phases in alternation of generations?______________________________________________________
What is the ploidy (diploid/haploid) of the sporophyte?________________ and gametophyte?____________________

    III.      Types of Plants, as they appeared in evolution
Images of plants:
              A. Bryophytes Fig. 12-6, 12-7
                 1) Most primitive: mosses, liverworts, hornworts (small size)
                 2) No vascular system: no xylem (for water) nor phloem (for food)
                 3) Common in wet terrain, why? Difficult diffusion of food & water, sperm swims
                     for fertilization
                 4) Low-lying, ground-hugging
                 5) Green plant: gametophyte; brown long wire w/bulb (spores): sporophyte
              B. Pterophytes: Seedless vascular plants appear next in fossil record Fig. 12-10
                 1) Ferns, horsetails, club mosses, others
                 2) Larger size, why? (hint: vascularity)____________________________
                 3) Sori under the leaf contain spores
                 4) True roots, stems and leaves
                 5) Swimming sperm for fertilization
                 6) Prothalliun structure produces gametes: gametophyte
              C. Gymnosperms: “naked” seeds (embryo): pollen (sperm cells) Fig. 12-13, 12-14, 12-15
                 1) Gymnosperms dominated during Age of Reptiles
                 2) Pines, spruces, cedars, ginkgo, cycads, others
                 3) Fertilization by wind: pollen falls in female cone containing the egg
                 4) Pine cones produce gametes: gametophyte structure
              D. Angiosperms: Flowering plants, Fig. 12-18
                     a. Replaced gymnosperms as dominant vegetation 80 million years ago.
                     b. Efficient pollination by:___________________________
                         Coevoltion with birds, bees, butterflies, bats, & other animal vectors based
                         on their color, patterns, flower structure, odor, and nectar. Fig. 12-21
                         smell, & shape
                     c. Landing pads suited for specific pollinators
                     d. Flowers contain gametes: gametophyte
                     e. Seeds contain endosperm (special nutritive tissue: for plant embryo
                         development and human food calories, i.e. wheat & rice ); unique to
                         angiosperms Fig. 12-22
                     f. Fruit production allows for second animal intervention. How are seeds
                         scattered through fruits?_____________________________________
                     g. Fruit develops from ovary. Fleshy fruit = mature ovary walls

                     h. Ovary walls may develop hooks or barbs = burrs snag in animal fur and are
Why do the most primitive type of plant is very close to the ground? ________________________
Do seedless plants contain vascular systems? Yes No
Why are angiosperms more successful than gymnosperms? ________________________________________
What are your 3 favorite characteristics of flowering plants? _____________________________________,
___________________________________ & __________________________________

Fill in the following table:
                        Bryophytes         Pterophytes        Gymnosperms         Angiosperms

True leaves
Gametophyte (1n)
Sporophyte (2n)


Animals are the vectors of pollination in flowering plants and they are our next subject of study.

                                     Chapter 11: Animal diversification
                                            2 pts participation

Answer the following questions:
   1. What three characteristics are generally sufficient to define animals?
   2. All animals are classified according to four key distinctions. What are those? Briefly define
   3. What are 2 important features of mammals?
   4. There are 3 groups of mammals, name them, provide 2-3 characteristics for each and give
      one example of each.
   5. Define 5 new vocabulary words from this chapter.


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