Focus Session Humanism in the Medical Curriculum by mikesanye

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									Focus Session: “Humanism in the Medical Curriculum”
Presented at the 8th Annual Meeting of the International Association of
                           Medical Science
                             July 11 2004
                           New Orleans, LA




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                            Presented by
                     Cathy J. Lazarus MD FACP
                       Professor of Medicine
           Assistant Dean for Graduate Medical Education
            Director, Foundations in Medicine Program
               Tulane University School of Medicine
                        clazarus@tulane.edu

                        Byron Crawford, MD
                 Associate Professor of Pathology
              Director, Mechanisms of Disease Course
                     Department of Pathology
               Tulane University School of Medicine
                        bcrawfo@tulane.edu
Focus Session: “Humanism in the Medical Curriculum”
“Humanism encompasses those attitudes and behaviors that emanate from a deep
sensitivity and respect for others, including full acceptance of all cultural and ethnic
backgrounds. Further, humanism is exemplified through compassionate, empathetic
treatment of all persons while recognizing each one’s needs and autonomy.”

                                              -The Arnold P. Gold Foundation


Goals for the Session:
After participating in this session, attendees will be able to:
   1. Define “humanism” as it applies to the profession of medicine and to medical
       education.
   2. Develop ideas and strategies to integrate the teaching of humanism into the basic
       science curriculum.
   3. Commit to trying at least one strategy upon the return to the home institution.
   4. Increase knowledge of current national efforts to promote humanism in medicine.


Agenda:
Background and Overview                30 minutes
Small Group Work                       30 minutes
Wrap Up and Summary                    30 minutes
Focus Session: “Humanism in the Medical Curriculum”

Directions for Small Group Discussion:

You have been selected (drafted?) by the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs, chair of
the Curriculum Committee, your Department Chair and the course director to participate
in a school wide effort to increase the teaching of humanism across all four years of the
medical school curriculum at BMS. The Dean has formed several task groups to address
4 themes that the oversight group has identified. Your group has been asked to address
one of the themes and to prepare a report for the curriculum committee on your ideas
about how to integrate the theme into the teaching in the basic sciences. Specifically,
consider the following:

   1. What activities would you suggest?




   2. In what context and how would you implement them?




   3. What obstacles/barriers do you anticipate?




   4. How would you overcome them?
                      Focus Session: Humanism in the Medical Curriculum
Thematic Core

End of life issues/suffering (Group 1)
Psychological and physical aspects of chronic disease
Attitudes towards terminal illness
Understanding bereavement
Death and Dying
Suffering and the patient
Hospice and palliative care
Brain Death
Physician Assisted Suicide
Effect on children of parental death
Cancer (patient doctor relationship, patient family relationship, hospice)

Ethical Concerns (Group 2)
Informed Consent
Confidentiality
Research and humans
Genetic diseases (ethics, physician patient relationship, genetic counseling)
Miscarriage, induced abortions
Infertility
Medical mistakes and truth telling
Controversies related to the beginning and ending of life
Need for dissections of cadaver
Animal use in research
Transplantation (creation of new diseases, life styles, patient family relationships, selection of organ
recipients)
Sanctity of human remains
Service of gratitude
Reporting, recognizing medical errors
Need for autopsies
Discussion of autopsy results with family members

Culture and Context (Group 3)
Doctor Patient relationship and the effects on the therapeutic relationship
Physician Family relationships
Patient Family relationships
Cultural Differences and effects on care of patients
Patient Disabilities
Faith and Medicine
Psychosocial issues of patient care
Cultural and religious diversity

Technology and Public Health (Group 4)
Medical care for the underserved
Need for autopsies given modern technology
Infectious diseases (quarantine, isolation)
Nutritional issues (obesity, anorexia, patient doctor relationship)
Alcohol/Drug abuse
Dialysis (patient family relationship)
Availability of services and technology
Transfusion medicine issues (hepatitis C, infectious diseases)
              Focus Session: “Humanism in the Medical Curriculum”
                                  References

1.    Rizzolo LJ. Human dissection: on approach to interweaving the traditional and
      humanistic goals of medical educational. The Anatomical Record (New Anat.). 269:242-
      248, 2002.

2.    Jones T, Verghese A. On becoming a humanities curriculum: the center for medical
      humanities and ethics at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio.
      Acad Med. 78:1010-1014, 2003.

3.    Montgomery K, Chambers T, Reifler DR. Humanities education at Northwestern
      University’s Feinberg School of Medicine. Acad Med. 78:958-962, 2003.

4.    Krackov SK, Levin RI, Catanese V, et. al. Medical humanities at New York University
      School of Medicine: An array of rich programs in diverse settings. Acad Med. 78:977-
      982, 2003.

5.    Miller SZ, Schmidt HJ. The habit of humanism: A framework for making humanistic
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6.    Engelberg J. A program of integrative humanistic study for medical students. Acad Med.
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7.    Kitchen AD. Second-year medical students’ experiences with death among their families
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8.    Pellegrino ED. Humanism in human experimentation: some notes of the investigators
      fiduciary role. Texas Rep Biol Med. 32:311-325, 1974.

9.    Hoff C. Immoral and moral uses of animals. NEJM. 302:115-118, 1980.

10.   Rogers JC, Coutts L. Do students’ attitudes during preclinical years predict their
      humanism as clerkship students? Acad Med. 73:S74-S80, (Supplement) 2000.

11.   Maheux B, Beaudoin C, Berkson L, et. al. Medical faculty as humanistics physicians and
      teachers: the perceptions of students at innovative and traditional medical schools. Med
      Edu. 34:630-634, 2000.

12.   Special theme brief articles, United States and International on Medical Humanities
      Programs. Acad Med. 78:1058-1075, 2003.

13.   Hawkins AH, Ballard JO, Hufford DJ. Humanities Education at Pennsylvania State
      University College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania. Acad Med. 78:1001-1005, 2003.

14.   Jones AH, Carson RA. Medical humanities at the University of Texas Medical Branch at
      Galveston. Acad Med. 78:1006-1009, 2003.

15.   Conrad P. Learning to Doctor: Reflections on recent accounts of the medical school
      years. Journ Health Soc Behav. 29:323-332, 1988.

								
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