Docstoc

Ethics of Organ Donation and Transplantation

Document Sample
Ethics of Organ Donation and Transplantation Powered By Docstoc
					Ethics of Organ Donation and
Transplantation

         Erin Praver
        Teona Avaliani
      Jennifer Sant’anna
       Ashley Bowman
What is Organ
Transplantation?
   An organ transplant is a surgical
    operation where a failing or damaged
    organ in the human body is removed
    and replaced with a new one from
    either a deceased or living donor.
Grafting
   A graft is similar to a transplant. It is the
    process of removing tissue from one part of a
    person’s body (or another person’s body)
    and surgically re-implanting it to replace or
    compensate for damaged tissue.
   Grafting is different from transplantation
    because it does not remove and replace an
    entire organ, but rather only a portion.
Ethical Issues
   What is considered dead?
   Shortage of available organs
   Religion
   Priority
What is considered dead?
    Traditionally organ transplantation had
     been guided by the overarching ethical
     requirement known as the dead donor
     rule, which simply states that patients must
     be declared dead before the removal of
     any vital organs for transplantation.
    Characteristics included being cold, blue,
     stiff, and lack of pulse.
Brain Death
   There have been persistent questions about
    whether patients with massive brain injury,
    apnea, and loss of brain-stem reflexes are
    really dead.
   When the injury is entirely intracranial, these
    patients look very much alive: they are warm
    and pink; they digest and metabolize food,
    excrete waste, undergo sexual maturation,
    and can even reproduce.
Definition of Brain Death
   The definition of brain death requires
    the complete absence of all functions of
    the entire brain, yet many of these
    patients retain essential neurologic
    function, such as the regulated
    secretion of hypothalamic hormones.
Brain Death Justification
   Some have argued that patients are
    dead because they are permanently
    unconscious (which is true).
   But if this is the justification, then
    patients in a permanent vegetative
    state, who breathe spontaneously,
    should also be diagnosed as dead.
Organ Shortage
   The following information from www.unos.org
    gives an idea of the extent of the organ
    shortage:
   ―On average, 106 people are added to the
    nation’s organ transplant waiting list each
    day—one every 14 minutes‖
   ―On average, 68 people receive
    transplants every day from either a lovong
    or deceased donor‖
   ―On average, 17 patients dies every day
    while awaiting an organ – one person
Distributive Justice
   Due to not enough organs being available for
    transplantation, the concept of how to fairly
    divide resources comes into question.
   Distributive justice theory states that there is
    not one ―right‖ way to distribute organs, but
    rather many ways a person could justify
    giving an organ to one particular individual
    over someone else.
Distributive Justice
(Continued)
   This list of possible distributive justice criteria
    comes from the University of Washington
    School of Medicine website:
   1. To each person an equal share
   2. To each person according to need
   3. To each person according to effort
   4. To each person according to contribution
   5. To each person according to merit
   6. To each person according to free-market
    exchanges
Equal Access
   Organs allocated according to equal
    access criteria are distributed to
    patients based on objective factors
    aimed to limit bias and unfair
    distribution.
Equal Access Criteria
   Length of time waiting (I.e. first come,
    first served)
   Age (I.e. youngest to oldest)
Maximum Benefit
   The goal for maximum benefit criteria is
    to maximize the rate of successful
    transplants.
Maximum Benefit Criteria
   Medical need (i.e. the sickest people
    are given the first opportunity for a
    transplantable organ)
   Probable success of a transplant (i.e.
    giving organs to the person who will be
    most likely to live the longest)
Religion
   Religious views vary from the
    acceptable to the damnable.
Buddhism
   Believe organ and tissue donation is a
    matter that should be left to an
    individual’s conscience.
Catholicism
   Organ and tissue donation is considered
    an act of charity and love.
   Transplants are morally and ethically
    acceptable to the Vatican.
Hinduism
   Are not prohibited by religious law from
    donating their organs, according to the
    Hindu Temple Society of North America.
   In fact, Hindu mythology includes
    stories in which parts of the human
    body are used for the benefit of other
    humans and society.
   The act is an individual decision.
Gypsies
   Tend to be against organ donation.
   Although they have no formal resolution,
    their opposition is associated with their belief
    in the afterlife.
   Gypsies believe that for one year after a
    person dies, the soul retraces its steps.
   All parts of the body must remain intact
    because the soul maintains a physical shape.
Islam
   The majority of Islamic legal scholars have
    concluded that transplantation of rgans as
    treatment for otherwise lethal end-stage
    organ failure is a good thing.
   Donation by living donors and by deceased
    donors is not only permitted but encouraged.

   Anact of merit and in certain circumstances
    can be an obligation
Jehovah’s Witnesses
   Do not believe that the Bible comments
    directly on organ transplants, hence:
    decisions made regarding cornea, kidney, and
    other tissue transplants must be made by the
    individual.
   Are often assumed to be opposed to donation
    because of their belief against blood
    transfusion.
   This merely means that all blood must be
    removed from the organs and tissues before
    being transplanted.
Judaism
   In principle Judaism sanctions and
    encourages organ donation in order to save
    lives.
   Transplantation does not desecrate body or
    show lack of respect for the dead, and any
    delay in burial to facilitate organ donation is
    respectful of the descendent.
   Organ donation saves lives and honors the
    deceased.
Shinto
   The dead body is considered impure
    and dangerous, and thus quite
    powerful.
   Injuring a dead body is a serious crime.
Overall
   In terms of ethics, it depends on the
    individual’s (donor) wishes: whether or
    not they choose to be donors based on
    their knowledge and beliefs.

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
views:378
posted:5/7/2011
language:English
pages:25