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					Unit 7G (Particle model of solids, liquids and gases) and Unit 7H (Solutions)


 Question No.          Level          Mark       Question No.         Level         Mark

           1(97) 4                4                       9(97) 5               5

           2(99) 4                5                      10(95) 5               8

           3(99) 4                6                      11(01) 5               6

           4(03) 4                5                      12(97) 6               8

           5(97) 4                5                      13(95) 6               7

           6(05) 4                8                      14(05) 6               5

           7(05) 4                6                      15(03) 6               4

           8(05) 5                5




                               Rainford High Technology College 1
Unit 7G (Particle model of solids, liquids and gases) and Unit 7H (Solutions)

1.   (a)   Complete the following sentence.

           When a solid dissolves in a solvent, a ............................... is formed.
                                                                                                                                       1 mark




                                                                                                                                       1 mark

           A beaker contains water. It is on a balance.
           The balance reads 200.0 g.
           Patti adds 10.5 g of salt to the water. The salt dissolves.

     (b)   When all the salt has dissolved, what is the reading on the balance?

           .............................. g

     (c)   Patti wants to get all the solid salt back from the water.

           Describe how she could do this.

           ....................................................................................................................

           ....................................................................................................................

           ....................................................................................................................

           ....................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                      2 marks
                                                                                                                              Maximum 4 marks




                                          Rainford High Technology College 2
Unit 7G (Particle model of solids, liquids and gases) and Unit 7H (Solutions)
2.   John dropped a glass bottle of blue copper sulphate crystals. The bottle broke
     and glass was mixed with the crystals.

     (a)   Suggest how John or a teacher could clear up the mixture safely, without
           cutting themselves.

           ..........................................................................................................................

           ..........................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                        1 mark

     (b)   Mari said, “You can separate the glass from the copper sulphate crystals
           using a sieve”.




           Most of the crystals went through the sieve. Some of the glass went through as
           well.

           Why did some of the crystals and pieces of glass stay in the sieve?

           ..........................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                        1 mark

     (c)   John tried another way to separate the glass from the blue copper sulphate
           crystals. He put the mixture into water and stirred it.
           The water turned blue. Why did the water turn blue?

           ..........................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                        1 mark

     (d)   Very carefully, he poured some of the blue liquid into a dish and gently
           heated it. The volume of the liquid decreased.
           Why did the volume decrease?

           ..........................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                        1 mark

     (e)   John put the dish by a window. The next day there was no liquid left.
           What would be left in the dish?

           ..........................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                        1 mark
                                                                                                                              Maximum 5 marks




                                          Rainford High Technology College 3
Unit 7G (Particle model of solids, liquids and gases) and Unit 7H (Solutions)
3.   Emma dissolved some salt in some water to make salt water.

                                                                                                                 stirring
                                                                                                                 rod




                              +
           salt                                 water                                 salt water

     (a)   Which words in the list below describe the salt, the water and the salt water?

           Write the correct words in the table.
                                                                                                                                     3 marks

           solution                 solute               sediment                   filtrate             solvent

                                         substance                 word from the list

                                               salt

                                              water

                                          salt water


     (b)   What two things could Emma do to make the salt dissolve more quickly?

           1. .................................................................................................................

           2. .................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                     2 marks

     (c)   Emma dissolved 5 g of salt in 50 cm3 of water. Now she wants to make
           some salt water which is only half as concentrated.

           What should she do? Tick the correct box.

           Dissolve 10 g of salt in                                        Dissolve 5 g of salt in
           100 cm 3 of water.                                              100 cm 3 of water.

           Dissolve 10 g of salt in                                        Dissolve 10 g of salt in
           50 cm 3 of water.                                               25 cm 3 of water.
                                                                                                                                      1 mark
                                                                                                                             Maximum 6 marks




                                          Rainford High Technology College 4
Unit 7G (Particle model of solids, liquids and gases) and Unit 7H (Solutions)
4.   Diagrams A, B and C show three pieces of apparatus for separating substances.

     (a)   Draw a line from each apparatus to the name of the method of separation.
           Draw only three lines.

                  diagram of apparatus                    method of separation

                                                            chromatography

              A




                                                               distillation

             B




                                                                filtration




                                                             crystallisation


                                                                                      3 marks



                              Rainford High Technology College 5
Unit 7G (Particle model of solids, liquids and gases) and Unit 7H (Solutions)

     (b)   Debbie has a mixture of sand and salt water.
           Look at the diagrams in part (a).

           (i)    Which apparatus would Debbie use to separate the sand from the salt
                  water?
                  Give the correct letter.

                  ............................................
                                                                                              1 mark

           (ii)   Which apparatus would she use to separate pure water from the salt water?
                  Give the correct letter.

                  ............................................
                                                                                              1 mark
                                                                                  Maximum 5 marks




                                        Rainford High Technology College 6
Unit 7G (Particle model of solids, liquids and gases) and Unit 7H (Solutions)

5.   Becky puts one tea bag in a beaker and adds 50 cm3 of warm water. She stirs
     the liquid slowly. Every 15 seconds she takes out 2 cm3 of the liquid and
     measures how dark it is.

                      dark
                      brown
                                                                                                                        C


           darkness
           of the brown
           liquid

                                                                                                                        B


                  colourless                                                                                            A
                                0       15       30      45    60 75 90 105 120 135
                                                      time in seconds, after tea bag
                                                           was added to water

     (a)   Which graph, A, B or C, shows how the colour of the liquid changes?

           ...............................
                                                                                                                                        1 mark

     (b)   (i)       Becky takes out 2 cm3 samples of the liquid each time. Why must she
                     always put the sample back after she has tested it?

                     .............................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                        1 mark

           (ii)      What piece of apparatus can she use to measure the volume of the 2
                     cm3 samples of liquid?

                     .............................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                        1 mark
           (iii)     Suggest two ways Becky could make the tea dissolve more quickly.

                     1 ........................................................................................................

                         ........................................................................................................

                     2 ........................................................................................................

                         ........................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                       2 marks
                                                                                                                               Maximum 5 marks




                                             Rainford High Technology College 7
Unit 7G (Particle model of solids, liquids and gases) and Unit 7H (Solutions)

6.   Emma and Philip wanted to see if changing the temperature of the water affected the
     time taken for a cold cure powder to dissolve in water.




     Philip recorded their results.




     (a)   (i)        Write the heading for the first column in the table below.

                 ............................................ (ºC)                        time to dissolve (s)




           (ii)       Write their results correctly in the table above.
                                                                                                                                            3 marks

     (b)   Give the names of two pieces of measuring equipment they would need.

           1. ...........................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                            1 mark

           2. ...........................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                            1 mark




                                            Rainford High Technology College 8
Unit 7G (Particle model of solids, liquids and gases) and Unit 7H (Solutions)
     (c)   Why did they put the same amount of water in each beaker?

           ...............................................................................................................................

           ...............................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                             1 mark

     (d)   Emma wrote, „My investigation was good‟, as her conclusion.

           Philip said this was not a scientific conclusion.

           Explain why Emma‟s conclusion is not scientific.

           ...............................................................................................................................

           ...............................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                             1 mark

     (e)   Look at their results above.

           Write a scientific conclusion for their investigation.

           ...............................................................................................................................

           ...............................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                             1 mark
                                                                                                                              maximum 8 marks




                                          Rainford High Technology College 9
Unit 7G (Particle model of solids, liquids and gases) and Unit 7H (Solutions)
7.   (a)   Ruth added some blue copper sulphate crystals to a beaker of water.




           (i)      How could Ruth see that some of the copper sulphate crystals had
                    dissolved in the water?

                    ......................................................................................................................

                    ......................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                             1 mark

           (ii)     How could Ruth make the copper sulphate crystals dissolve more quickly?

                    ......................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                             1 mark

     (b)   Ruth poured some of the copper sulphate solution into a dish.
           She left it in a warm room for five days.

           All the water evaporated from the solution in the dish.
           What was left in the dish?

           ...............................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                             1 mark




                                         Rainford High Technology College 10
Unit 7G (Particle model of solids, liquids and gases) and Unit 7H (Solutions)
     (c)   Ruth did an experiment to see how much of three solids, P, Q and R, will dissolve
           in water at different temperatures.
           She plotted her results on graph paper as shown below.

                   110
                                                                                                   Q
                   100

                   90

                   80

                   70
    number of
    grams of 60
    solid
    dissolved 50
    in 100 cm 3
    of water
                40                                                                                 P
                                       P
                   30
                                                                                                   R
                   20                  Q

                   10
                                       R
                    0
                         0         5   10      15   20    25 30 35 40            45   50   55    60    65
                                                          temperature (ºC)

           Use the graph above to answer the questions below.

           (i)      At 30°C how many grams of solid R dissolved in the water?

                    ............ g
                                                                                                         1 mark

           (ii)     At 60°C which solid dissolved the most in water? Give the letter.

                    ............
                                                                                                         1 mark

           (iii)    Which two solids were equally soluble at 25°C? Give the letters.

                    ............ and ............
                                                                                                         1 mark
                                                                                                maximum 6 marks




                                           Rainford High Technology College 11
Unit 7G (Particle model of solids, liquids and gases) and Unit 7H (Solutions)
8.   Two groups of pupils investigated the factors affecting the time taken for an indigestion
     tablet to dissolve in 100 cm3 of water.




           Group 1 recorded their results in the table below.

                                                        results of group 1

                                                                          time taken to dissolve
                                              tablet
                                                                                   (s)

                                         whole tablet                                      34

                                        broken tablet                                      28

                                  finely crushed tablet                                    22

     (a)   What factor did group 1 change as they carried out their investigation?

           ...............................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                             1 mark

     (b)   Before the investigation, group 1 made a prediction.
           They found this prediction was supported by the results in the table.

           What prediction did group 1 make?

           ...............................................................................................................................

           ...............................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                             1 mark




                                         Rainford High Technology College 12
Unit 7G (Particle model of solids, liquids and gases) and Unit 7H (Solutions)
     (c)   Group 2 investigated how the temperature of the water affects the time taken for a
           whole tablet to dissolve.

           Here are their results.

                                                        results of group 2


                        temperature of water (ºC)                            time taken to dissolve (s)

                                            65                                                  24

                                            40                                                  35

                                            15                                                  90

                                             5                                                 100

           What factor did group 2 change as they carried out their investigation?

           ...............................................................................................................................

           ...............................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                             1 mark

     (d)   What pattern do the results recorded by group 2 show?

           ...............................................................................................................................

           ...............................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                             1 mark

     (e)   Look at the results presented by group 1 and group 2.

           Both groups used the same type of tablet.

           Estimate the temperature of water used by group 1.

           ............°C
                                                                                                                                             1 mark
                                                                                                                              maximum 5 marks




                                         Rainford High Technology College 13
Unit 7G (Particle model of solids, liquids and gases) and Unit 7H (Solutions)
9.    A scientist investigates the paints used in oil paintings. She takes tiny pieces of yellow,
      blue and green paint and tries to dissolve them in different solvents.
      Her results are shown in the table.


      solvent                   yellow paint                               blue paint                               green paint

       water                    yellow pieces                              blue pieces                             green pieces
                                    are left                                 are left                                 are left

      ethanol                   yellow pieces                          clear blue liquid                      clear blue liquid but
                                    are left                                                                 yellow pieces are left

     propanone              clear yellow liquid                        clear blue liquid                        clear green liquid


      (a)   Which solvent does not dissolve the blue paint?

            ....................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                      1 mark

      She then uses chromatography to investigate the paints.



                                                     chromatography paper
                                                     pencil line
                                                     solvent


                                           green paint, G
                                           blue paint, B
                                           yellow paint, Y

      (b)   Only one of the solvents in the table will make all three paints move up the
            chromatography paper. Which solvent is this?

            ....................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                      1 mark

      (c)   The scientist then investigates the paint used in three different oil paintings.
            She takes tiny pieces of yellow, blue and green paint from each picture and
            uses chromatography to compare them.




                                          Rainford High Technology College 14
Unit 7G (Particle model of solids, liquids and gases) and Unit 7H (Solutions)
           Her results are shown below:

                            picture 1                     picture 2                     picture 3
                         painted in 1993               painted in 1625                date unknown




                              Y B G                          Y B G                         Y B G

           Which of the paints in the 1993 picture contains only one substance?
           Tick the correct box.


           yellow, Y                                blue, B                              green, G

                                                                                                                                       1 mark

     The scientist decides that picture 3 is probably recent and not from around 1625.

     (d)   Look at the chromatography results for the three pictures. Explain how the
           scientist was able to decide this.

           ....................................................................................................................

           ....................................................................................................................

           ....................................................................................................................

           ....................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                      2 marks
                                                                                                                              Maximum 5 marks




                                         Rainford High Technology College 15
Unit 7G (Particle model of solids, liquids and gases) and Unit 7H (Solutions)
10.   This question is about three different fuels, A, B and C.

      Fuel A is stored in tanks. It is not stored under pressure. It flows along a pipe to
      where it is needed.

      Fuel B is stored under pressure in small cylinders. It is used by campers.

      Fuel C can be stored in sacks or bags.
      (a) (i)    Tick the correct box.

                   Fuel A is a:


                                         solid



                                         liquid



                                         gas

                                                                                                                1 mark

                   Name a fuel which A could be .............................................................
                                                                                                                1 mark

            (ii)   Tick the correct box.

                   When fuel B comes out of the cylinder this is a:


                                         solid



                                         liquid



                                         gas

                                                                                                                1 mark

                   Name a fuel which B could be .............................................................
                                                                                                                1 mark




                                    Rainford High Technology College 16
Unit 7G (Particle model of solids, liquids and gases) and Unit 7H (Solutions)
           (iii)   Tick the correct box.

                   Fuel C is a:


                                              solid



                                              liquid



                                              gas

                                                                                                                                  1 mark

                   Name a fuel which C could be .............................................................
                                                                                                                                  1 mark

     (b)   Complete the statement to describe what happens when a fuel burns.

           Two waste products formed from burning fuels are

           ................................................. and .....................................................
                                                                                                                                 2 marks
                                                                                                                         Maximum 8 marks




                                        Rainford High Technology College 17
Unit 7G (Particle model of solids, liquids and gases) and Unit 7H (Solutions)
11.   Cathy has two orange drinks, X and Y. She uses chromatography to identify the
      coloured substances in the drinks. Her experiment is shown below.




                  beaker

              filter paper


               pencil line



                    water


Cathy made the chromatogram below using drink X, three food colourings, E102, E160,
E110, and drink Y.




                filter paper




                pencil line




                      spot of      spot of    spot of    spot of      spot of
                      drink X      E102       E160       E110         drink Y

                                       Cathy's chromatogram




                                Rainford High Technology College 18
Unit 7G (Particle model of solids, liquids and gases) and Unit 7H (Solutions)

     (a)   (i)     Use Cathy‟s chromatogram to identify the two coloured substances in drink
                   X.
                   Write their E numbers below.

                   1. …………………..…………………………

                   2. …………………………………….……….
                                                                                               2 marks

           (ii)    Draw another spot on Cathy‟s chromatogram to show what it would look like
                   if drink Y contained E102 as well.
                                                                                               1 mark

           (iii)   Chromatography separates the coloured substances in a drink.
                   How can you tell from a chromatogram how many coloured substances
                   there are in a drink?

                   ..……………………………………………………………………………….

                   ..……………………………………………………………………………….
                                                                                               1 mark
     (b)   (i)     The spots show up well on filter paper. Give one other reason why filter
                   paper is used in this experiment.

                   ..……………………………………………………………………………….

                   ..……………………………………………………………………………….
                                                                                               1 mark

           (ii)    The line across the bottom of a chromatogram should be drawn with a
                   pencil, not with ink.
                   Why should the line not be drawn with ink?

                   ..……………………………………………………………………………….

                   ..……………………………………………………………………………….
                                                                                               1 mark
                                                                                      Maximum 6 marks




                                Rainford High Technology College 19
Unit 7G (Particle model of solids, liquids and gases) and Unit 7H (Solutions)

12.   This question is about four chemical elements.

      (a)   The melting points and boiling points of the four elements are shown in the
            table. Complete the table to give the physical state, solid, liquid or gas, of
            each element at room temperature, 21°C.

              element            melting point               boiling point                physical state at room
                                     in °C                       in °C                      temperature, 21°C

              bromine                     –7                          59


               chlorine               –101                          –34


                  fluorine            –220                        –188


                   iodine               114                         184

                                                                                                                                       4 marks

      (b)   Bromine can be a solid, a liquid or a gas depending on the temperature.
            In which physical state will 10 g of bromine store the most thermal energy?

            ....................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                        1 mark
      (c)   Is bromine a solid, a liquid or a gas when the arrangement of particles is:

            (i)       far apart and random? .......................................................................
                                                                                                                                        1 mark

            (ii)      close together but random? ...............................................................
                                                                                                                                        1 mark

            (iii)     close together in a regular pattern? ...................................................
                                                                                                                                        1 mark
                                                                                                                               Maximum 8 marks




                                          Rainford High Technology College 20
Unit 7G (Particle model of solids, liquids and gases) and Unit 7H (Solutions)

13.   The following diagrams show two methods of separating substances.




      (a)   What is the name of each method?

            Method 1 is ...............................................
                                                                                                                                     1 mark

            Method 2 is ...............................................
                                                                                                                                     1 mark
      (b)   (i)     Tick one box to show which of the mixtures can be separated by method 1.


                    sugar and salt



                    sand and water



                    dissolved salt and water



                    sand and iron filings



                    sugar and salt, both dissolved in water

                                                                                                                                     1 mark

            (ii)    From the list give a mixture which can be separated by method 2 but
                    not by method 1.

                    ..............................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                     1 mark




                                         Rainford High Technology College 21
Unit 7G (Particle model of solids, liquids and gases) and Unit 7H (Solutions)
     (c)   Chromatography was used to analyse some soluble inks. The results are
           shown below.




                                      X
                              blue        brown        green        red       yellow        purple
                              ink         ink          ink          ink       ink           ink

           (i)     A purple ink is a dissolved mixture of the red dye and the blue dye.
                   On the right of the diagram draw the pattern you would expect to see
                   for purple ink.
                                                                                                                                      1 mark
           (ii)    Which three inks contain only one dye?

                   .............................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                      1 mark

           (iii)   What colour is spot X?

                   ............................................................
                                                                                                                                      1 mark
                                                                                                                             Maximum 7 marks




                                        Rainford High Technology College 22
Unit 7G (Particle model of solids, liquids and gases) and Unit 7H (Solutions)
14.   (a)   (i)      Air contains nitrogen.
                     In the box below draw five circles,                        , to show the arrangement of particles
                     in nitrogen gas.




                                                                                                                                              1 mark

            (ii)     Zeena carries a personal emergency alarm.
                     It uses nitrogen gas to produce a very loud sound.




                     The nitrogen gas in the container is under much higher pressure than the
                     nitrogen gas in the air.

                     How does the arrangement of nitrogen particles change when the gas is
                     under higher pressure?

                     ......................................................................................................................

                     ......................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                              1 mark
      (b)   Use words from the boxes below to complete the sentence.


                   greater than                                 less than                                   the same as


            The rate at which the nitrogen particles hit the inside of the container is

            .................................... the rate at which nitrogen particles hit the outside of the

            container.

                                                                                                                                              1 mark




                                          Rainford High Technology College 23
Unit 7G (Particle model of solids, liquids and gases) and Unit 7H (Solutions)
     (c)   Zeena pushes the lid down and nitrogen gas escapes through the diaphragm.
           The diaphragm vibrates and produces a sound.

           The pattern on the oscilloscope screen below represents the soundwave
           produced by the alarm.




           (i)    The loudness of the sound produced by the alarm decreases between X
                  and Y.

                  How can you tell this from the graph?

                  ......................................................................................................................

                  ......................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                           1 mark
           (ii)   The pitch of the sound produced by the alarm stays the same between X
                  and Y.

                  How can you tell this from the graph?

                  ......................................................................................................................

                  ......................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                           1 mark
                                                                                                                            maximum 5 marks




                                       Rainford High Technology College 24
Unit 7G (Particle model of solids, liquids and gases) and Unit 7H (Solutions)

15.   Sarah and Jim investigated the effect of temperature on the solubility of copper
      sulphate.

      They dissolved copper sulphate crystals in the same volume of water until no more
      would dissolve. This means the solution was saturated.
      They measured the mass of copper sulphate needed to make a saturated solution
      using water at different temperatures.




      They plotted their results on a grid.


                                60


                                50



           mass of dissolved 40
           copper sulphate
           crystals, in g
                             30


                                20


                                10
                                  30          40     50       60        70    80
                                                temperature of water, in °C




                                Rainford High Technology College 25
Unit 7G (Particle model of solids, liquids and gases) and Unit 7H (Solutions)

     (a)   (i)      One of the mass readings appears to be wrong (anomalous).

                    Circle the anomalous result on the graph.
                                                                                                                                       1 mark

           (ii)     Draw a smooth curve of best fit on the graph.
                                                                                                                                       1 mark

           (iii)    Use the graph to predict a more likely measurement of mass for the
                    anomalous result.

                    ..................... g
                                                                                                                                       1 mark

     (b)   Suggest one mistake Sarah might have made to produce this anomalous result.

           .....................................................................................................................

           .....................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                       1 mark
                                                                                                                              Maximum 4 marks




                                         Rainford High Technology College 26