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ERIC_NO: ED309500
TITLE: Predictors of Learning from Public Service Announcements.
AUTHOR: Sun, Hsiu-hui
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1989
ABSTRACT: A study focused on predictors of people's learning from public service
announcements (PSAs) seen on television. Telephone interviews were conducted with 480
adults randomly selected from residents in Dane County, Wisconsin, in October 1987.
Typical demographic information was obtained: sex, age, income, occupation and education.
Commercial slogans were provided to respondents and they were asked to name products and
brands corresponding to those slogans. The degrees of attention to international affairs, and to
national government and politics, local government and politics, were combined into an index
to measure attention to television public affairs. Five-point Likert scale items were used to
measure world view. People were asked to recall as many PSAs as they could and state what
the PSAs tried to tell people to do. Results indicated that exposure to television public affairs
is not correlated with awareness of PSAs. The regression analysis indicated that attention to
public affairs contributed significantly to awareness and comprehension of PSAs. Other
media predictors did not contribute significantly to the variation of comprehension. People
who believe that the world is understandable were found to pay more attention to public
affairs while fatalistic people appeared to be less likely to pay attention to television public
affairs. It was found that interaction between "knowable world" and attention to public affairs
does not play a role in affecting learning. When testing the interaction between fatalism and
attention to public affairs there was a significant relation in the positive direction. (Fourteen
endnotes and 12 tables of data are included; 48 references are attached.) (MG)
MAJOR_DESCRIPTORS: Audience Awareness; Memory; Television Viewing;
MINOR DESCRIPTORS: Audience Response; Interviews; Mass Media Use; Media
Research;
IDENTIFIERS: Knowledge Acquisition; *Message Perception; *Public Service Advertising

ERIC_NO: EJ454246
TITLE: Using Print and Electronic Ads in the Writing Classroom.
AUTHOR: Pacheco, Anne-Louise; Brickman, Bette
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1992
JOURNAL_CITATION: Teaching English in the Two-Year College; v19 n4 p289-91 Dec
1992
ABSTRACT: Maintains that advertisements are useful in the writing classroom as
nonthreatening "real" writing to promote student discussion, to demonstrate tone and voice, to
demonstrate writing strategies, and to promote critical reading. (SR)
MAJOR_DESCRIPTORS: Advertising; Class Activities; Writing Instruction;
MINOR DESCRIPTORS: Critical Reading; Higher Education; Writing Strategies;
IDENTIFIERS: *Advertisements; Voice (Rhetoric)




ERIC_NO: EJ435582
TITLE: Teaching Advertising: A One-Week Guide.
AUTHOR: Wenthe, Lee S.
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1991
                                                                                         2

JOURNAL_CITATION: Communication: Journalism Education Today (C:JET); v25
n1 p10-11,31 Fall 1991
ABSTRACT: Discusses advertising: what it is, how it gets to the consumer, what
makes it effective, how much it costs, criticisms of advertising, and talents required
in an advertising career.


ERIC_NO: EJ195939 ‫مهم‬
TITLE: Advertising and the Modes of Discourse.
AUTHOR: D'Angelo, Frank J.
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1978
JOURNAL_CITATION: College Composition and Communication; v29 n4 p356-61
Dec 1978
ABSTRACT: Describes how the four traditional kinds of writing (description,
narration, exposition, and argumentation) are used in advertising and suggests ways
that advertising and the four modes may be used to teach composition.


ERIC_NO: EJ225227
TITLE: A Picture Worth Five Hundred Words: Using a Magazine Advertisement to
Generate a Theme Assignment.
AUTHOR: Marchesani, Joseph J.
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1980
JOURNAL_CITATION: Exercise Exchange; v24 n2 p37-40 Spr 1980
ABSTRACT: Describes an assignment in which composition students explain how
the elements in a magazine advertisement contribute to its overall strategy. Indicates
that the assignment fosters students' critical judgment and audience awareness. (TJ)


ERIC_NO: EJ212144
TITLE: Developing Critical Skills through Media Analysis.
AUTHOR: Armellino, Barbara Ann
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1979


ERIC_NO: EJ360610
TITLE: Line Lengths and Starch Scores.
AUTHOR: Moriarty, Sandra E.
                                                                                       3

PUBLICATION_DATE: 1986
JOURNAL_CITATION: Visible Language; v20 n4 p448-55 Fall 1986
ABSTRACT: Investigates readability of different line lengths in advertising body
copy, hypothesizing a normal curve with lower scores for shorter and longer lines,
and scores above the mean for lines in the middle of the distribution. Finds support
for lower scores for short lines and some evidence of two optimum line lengths rather
than one.




ERIC_NO: EJ646960
TITLE: Advertising and Interpretive Analysis: Developing Reading, Thinking, and
Writing Skills in the Composition Course.
AUTHOR: Henry, Matthew
PUBLICATION_DATE: 2002
JOURNAL_CITATION: Teaching English in the Two-Year College; v29 n4 p355-66
May 2002
ABSTRACT: Suggests that students need to learn to "read" the cultural texts
surrounding them. Argues that there is great need for including analyses of popular
culture in the college curriculum. Presents a unit to help students gain a greater
appreciation for the influence that advertising has upon them and the subtlety with
which it manipulates people, mainly to their detriment.




ERIC_NO: EJ393480
TITLE: An Experimental Study of the Effects of Style and Organization on Reader
Perceptions of Text.
AUTHOR: Hilton, Chadwick B.; And Others
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1989
JOURNAL_CITATION: Journal of Business Communication; v26 n3 p255-70 Sum
1989
ABSTRACT: Reports on an investigation of whether or not persuasive writers
actually can engineer a match between their stylistic and organizational intentions
and their readers' perceptions of those elements of a text. Finds that a consistent
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writer/reader perceptual match can be achieved.




ERIC_NO: EJ236485
TITLE: Effects of Abbreviations on Comprehension of Classified Employment
Advertisements.
AUTHOR: Pyrczak, Fred
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1980
JOURNAL_CITATION: Journal of Reading; v24 n3 p249-52 Dec 1980
ABSTRACT: Describes an investigation that showed that abbreviations in classified
ads are difficult to comprehend and suggests that instruction be given in
understanding abbreviations as a real life reading skill.
ERIC_NO: EJ266956
TITLE: Assessing the Reading Process When Women Read Advertisements.
AUTHOR: Rogers, C. D.
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1982
JOURNAL_CITATION: Reading Improvement; v19 n2 p114-16 Sum 1982
ABSTRACT: Concludes that (1) when women read advertisements, they screen
them through their own personalities, including their personal and family marketing
needs, and (2) the process they use to do this depends more on the product
advertised and its usefulness than on the advertisement.




ERIC_NO: ED243141
TITLE: Episodic and Semantic Memory: Implications for the Role of Emotion in
Advertising.
AUTHOR: Thorson, Esther
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1984
ABSTRACT: In an examination of the way people store and retrieve information from
advertising, this paper draws a distinction between "semantic" memory, which stores
general knowledge about the world, and "episodic" memory, which stores
information about specific events. It then argues that episodic memory plays a more
significant role in advertising's effects than has been previously thought. The paper
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applies episodic memory to questions concerning the role that emotional appeals
play in influencing memory, choice, and purchase, concluding that conceptualizing
emotional effects in terms of the episodic memory model is both consistent with the
psychological literature on memory and useful in understanding how emotion
operates in the persuasive process.




ERIC_NO: ED207049
TITLE: Antecedents of Children's Comprehension of the Purpose of Television
Advertising.
AUTHOR: Faber, Ronald J.; And Others
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1981
ABSTRACT: A study was conducted to compare the relative importance of several
different variables from different theoretical perspectives in explaining how children
understood the advertising on commercial television. Sixty-seven first and third grade
students were interviewed individually to assess their current stage of logical
operations and role taking, their exposure to television, and their understanding of
the purpose of television commercials. In accordance with the hypotheses that were
proposed, the role-taking stage was the variable most highly correlated with
understanding the purpose of advertising. Role taking continued to account for a
significant amount of the variance after all other variables were entered into the
model. These results support R. Selman's (1976) theory that the social skill of role
taking is more basic to children's comprehension of other social stimuli such as
advertising than the physical skill of logical operations. It appears that children need
to have developed some rudimentary ability in understanding others' points of view
and in stepping outside their own perspective before they can comprehend the more
abstract perspective of the advertiser.


ERIC_NO: ED386911
TITLE: The Effect on Listening Comprehension of Using Television Commercials in a
Chinese-as-a-Second-Language Class.
AUTHOR: Lee, Frances Y.
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1994
ABSTRACT: This study measured the difference of the effect on students' learning
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of Chinese as a second language with the use of Chinese television commercials
with both audio and video and Chinese commercials with audio only. Subjects were
students (n=201) at Brigham Young University (Utah). Approximately 60 hours of
commercial television videos, most in Mandarin Chinese, were recorded from Taiwan
television. A pilot test of 5 commercials was conducted. Ten students were given
pretests and posttests for each of the video and audio lessons during a 12-lesson
course. There was a significant difference in student comprehension between video
and audio sessions. Results of a statistical analysis suggest that although both
methods produce gains, the use of video is shown be more effective in developing
student comprehension than the use of audio alone. The audio-only approach did not
offer as many cues to meaning and students were dependent on the instructor to
explain things not seen. It is suggested that the potential impacts of teacher bias and
training and test design be investigated in more detail as well as the potential impact
of television commercial impact versus television programming impact. (Contains 86
references.)


ERIC_NO: ED378825
TITLE: A Cross-Cultural Study of Implicatures in Brazilian TV Commercials.
AUTHOR: Silva, Rosangela Souto
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1994
ABSTRACT: A study investigated the extent to which native speakers (NSs) and
non-native speakers (NNSs) of Portuguese understand implicatures in Brazilian
television commercials in Portuguese. Subjects were nine Brazilian graduate
students and 11 American students of Portuguese at the University of Illinois at
Urbana/Champaign. Correct inference of the implicatures was measured by a
multiple-choice test, followed by an oral interview. Results revealed that the NSs'
interpretation of implicatures was very uniform, with an average of correct answers
(93.3 percent). Conversely, the performance of the NNSs varied, with an average of
47.3 percent correct answers. This was found to be true even in cases in which the
implicatures in Brazilian Portuguese operated the same as in American English.
Analysis of the data suggest that each case of successful inference requires some
specific knowledge that may not be equally shared among NSs and NNSs. It is
recommended that the pragmatic competence of American learners of Portuguese
be addressed in language instruction. (MSE)
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MAJOR_DESCRIPTORS: Advertising; Commercial Television; Cross Cultural
Studies; Listening Comprehension; Portuguese;
MINOR DESCRIPTORS: College Students; Discourse Analysis; Foreign Countries;
Higher Education; Language Patterns; Language Research; Native Speakers;
Second Language Learning; Semantics;


ERIC_NO: EJ641271
TITLE: Verso la comprensione: l'applicazione di un modello (Towards
Comprehension: The Application of a Model).
AUTHOR: Brusco, Simona
PUBLICATION_DATE: 2001
JOURNAL_CITATION: Italica; v78 n4 p540-60 p79-99 Win 2001
ABSTRACT: Argues comprehension is a complex, non-linear process, conditioned
by multiple individual and contextual factors. Outlines DeMauro's models of
comprehension, presents an integrated model that combines the interlacing and the
circular models, uses the integrated model to analyze a series of interviews based on
viewing of a magazine advertisement. Offers a graphical representation of the
different factors at play. (Author/VWL)


ERIC_NO: ED214108
TITLE: Abbreviations: Their Effects on Comprehension of Classified Advertisements.
AUTHOR: Sokol, Kirstin R.
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1981
ABSTRACT: Two experimental designs were used to test the hypothesis that
abbreviations in classified advertisements decrease the reader's comprehension of
such ads. In the first experimental design, 73 high school students read four ads (for
employment, used cars, apartments for rent, and articles for sale) either with
abbreviations or with all abbreviations eliminated. Both forms of ads were followed by
comprehension questions. The 93 high school students participating in the second
experimental design read the ads both with and without the abbreviations but in
different orders of presentation and sometimes with a lapse of one week between
readings. The findings were the same in both of the experimental designs.
Regardless of test conditions, order of presentation, and time lapse between
completions of both forms of experiment, the mean correct scores of the subjects
                                                                                          8

were significantly lower on the form with abbreviations than on the form without
abbreviations. A grade-by-grade analysis of the data showed that the differences
between scores on the two forms occurred in all grades, although the differences
were not significant in the twelfth grade sample. The analysis by grade also showed
a trend of decreasing differences between the two forms as educational level
increased.


ERIC_NO: ED120758
TITLE: Maturational and Social Factors in Children's Understanding of TV
Commercials.
AUTHOR: Robertson, Thomas S.; Rossiter, John R.
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1975
ABSTRACT: The findings of this study indicated that children's capacity to
comprehend television advertising is primarily a developmental phenomenon,
although social and experiential factors may have a moderate positive and a minor
negative influence, respectively. Research subjects were 289 elementary school
boys of first, third, and fifth grade levels, equally divided among the three groups.
Canonical correlation analysis was utilized in a broad application of Piaget's theory to
assess the relative contribution of developmental, social and experiential factors to
children's comprehension of television advertising. Comprehension was operationally
defined as cognitive understanding of the general structure and intent of commercials
and demonstration of a selective attitudinal response toward them. (RB)


ERIC_NO: EJ326205
TITLE: Do Young Children Understand the Selling Intent of Commercials?
AUTHOR: Macklin, M. Carole
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1985
JOURNAL_CITATION: Journal of Consumer Affairs; v19 n2 p293-304 Win 1985
ABSTRACT: In a study that included nonverbal measures, young children indicated
little understanding of the selling intent of commercials. Researchers interested in
advertising effects on children are urged to consider the necessity and desirability of
improved nonverbal measures in dealing with a subject population with limited
language facility.
                                                                                         9

ERIC_NO: EJ297890
TITLE: Cognitive and Affective Factors of TV Advertising's Influence on Children.
AUTHOR: Wartella, Ellen
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1984
JOURNAL_CITATION: Western Journal of Speech Communication; v48 n2 p171-83
Spr 1984
ABSTRACT: Reviews the research on children's understanding of the intent of
advertising, the persuasive impact of television commercials, and children's cognitive
defenses and resistance to such persuasion. Concludes that any model which tries to
account for advertising's influence on children must incorporate affective as well as
cognitive components. (PD)




ERIC_NO: EJ164039
TITLE: Influence of Advertising on Spelling in the Elementary Grades
AUTHOR: Ayers, Jerry B.; Ayers, Mary N.
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1977
JOURNAL_CITATION: Reading Improvement; 14, 2, 116-9, Sum 77
ABSTRACT: Discusses a study which found that the purposeful misspelling of words
in advertising influenced the correct spelling of the words by children; these results
have implications for the teaching of spelling and reading. (JM)


ERIC_NO: EJ347292
TITLE: A Beginning Reading Strategy.
AUTHOR: Aldridge, Jerry T.; Rust, Debra
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1987
JOURNAL_CITATION: Academic Therapy; v22 n3 p323-26 Jan 1987
ABSTRACT: First-graders (identified as high-risk for reading difficulties) were taught
to read examples of "environmental print" (words on candy wrappers, grocery bags,
newspaper advertisements) and were able to identify and write words when logos
and supporting detail were removed, indicating that activities using environmental
print can effectively supplement reading instruction. (CB)
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ERIC_NO: EJ286528
TITLE: How to Read an Ad: Learning to Read between the Lies.
AUTHOR: Kehl, D. G.
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1983
JOURNAL_CITATION: English Journal; v72 n6 p32-38 Oct 1983
ABSTRACT: Analyzes the persuasive techniques of advertisements and suggests
strategies to promote students' critical reading of these ads.




ERIC_NO: ED127550
TITLE: A Study of the Influence of Advertising Techniques on Selection of
Instructional Reading Materials by Prospective Teachers.
AUTHOR: Greenlaw, M. Jean; And Others
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1973
ABSTRACT: This study examined the effect of three different modes of presentation
on elementary education majors' selection and rating of materials for reading
instruction. Materials were chosen to represent each of the following propaganda
techniques: glittering generalities, name calling, transfer, testimonial, bandwagon,
and card stacking. Students in two undergraduate reading classes were randomly
assigned to three modes of presentation: group one studied six sets of materials;
group two studied the brochures which advertised the materials; and group three
studied only the content of the brochures, in mimeographed form. The materials were
then rated on a four-point scale. No significant differences were revealed among the
three modes of presentation, between the two classes, or in the interaction of modes
and classes. Significant differences were apparent in the rating of the six sets of
materials and in the interaction of the modes of presentation and the materials. While
the interaction of classes and materials was significant, the interaction of modes of
presentation, classes, and materials was not.




ERIC_NO: EJ219503
TITLE: An Examination of the Perceptions of Newspaper Advertisements.
AUTHOR: Hale, F. Dennis
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1980
                                                                                  11

JOURNAL_CITATION: Newspaper Research Journal; v1 n2 p59-64 Feb 1980
ABSTRACT: Analyzes newspaper readers' evaluations of specific categories of
newspaper content, including four advertising categories. Shows that reader demand
for advertising was lower than for news, although most readers desired the same
amount or more advertising in their newspaper.


ERIC_NO: EJ454246
TITLE: Using Print and Electronic Ads in the Writing Classroom.
AUTHOR: Pacheco, Anne-Louise; Brickman, Bette
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1992
JOURNAL_CITATION: Teaching English in the Two-Year College; v19 n4 p289-91
Dec 1992
ABSTRACT: Maintains that advertisements are useful in the writing classroom as
nonthreatening "real" writing to promote student discussion, to demonstrate tone and
voice, to demonstrate writing strategies, and to promote critical reading.




ERIC_NO: EJ422524
TITLE: Potential Nutrition Messages in Magazines Read by College Students.
AUTHOR: Hertzler, Ann A.; Grun, Ingolf
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1990
JOURNAL_CITATION: Adolescence; v25 n99 p717-24 Fall 1990
ABSTRACT: Surveyed advertisements in magazines read by college students in
nutrition class for hidden food and nutrition messages. Hidden messages for females
could imply beauty through fashion products, beauty aids, and supplements but with
nutrition slimming plan. Males may be receiving subtle message that food choices do
not matter and that alcohol and supplements are desirable in everyday life.




ERIC_NO: ED284212
TITLE: Simple Writing Doesn't Mean Simple-Minded: The Issue of Readability of
Print Advertising Copy.
                                                                                           12

AUTHOR: Wesson, David A.
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1987
ABSTRACT: A study investigated the relationship between readability of advertising
copy and conventional measures of ad readership. It was hypothesized that
readership scores would be higher for advertisements containing copy with the
highest and lowest computed readership grade levels. Fifty-five full-page
advertisements that met arbitrary minimal copy length criteria were chosen from a
women's and a men's magazine. The copy from each ad was transcribed onto a
computer and analyzed using a program for computing Gunning Readability Index
scores. Comparable-sized ads were grouped to accommodate analysis of the
extremes of low and high that the hypothesis dictated. Results supported the
hypothesis and suggested the possibility of "pure cases," since there appeared to be
a reader preference for copy written with short words and short sentences
characteristic of a "poetic" style and for copy with longer words and sentences
characteristic of more "technical" style. When the copy mixed these characteristics,
readership appeared to suffer. (A table of results is included.) (NKA)




ERIC_NO: ED173808
TITLE: Some Communication Effects of Charity Advertising Campaigns.
AUTHOR: Moore, Roy L.; And Others
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1979
ABSTRACT: A study was conducted to examine the relationship of advertising
exposure to a variety of cognitive and affective variables in a nonprofit charity
campaign. The study also tested the transactional model of advertising effects, which
combines exposure, motivations, and gratifications for viewing. A sample of 350
adults was randomly selected and interviewed by telephone. Television exposure
and attention variables were considered, along with four independent factors:
information seeking (gratification), social utility (gratification), alienation (avoidance),
and anxiety (avoidance). Results indicated that gratification/avoidance measures
were more important and had a higher impact in the cognitive stage of attitude
formation than did exposure variables, which were more important in the affective
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stage of attitude formation. The findings suggest that a well-designed mass media
charity advertising campaign can increase consumers' levels of awareness, levels of
liking, and degrees of action through gratification/avoidance; that gratification/
avoidance measures can serve as guidelines for message positioning; and that the
use of short messages with high repetition may be appropriate for charity promotion.




ERIC_NO: ED106873
TITLE: Classroom Techniques to Evaluate Advertising in Magazines.
AUTHOR: Tutolo, Daniel J.
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1975
ABSTRACT: Teachers should understand how the persuasive process employed by
advertisers affects consumers' cognitive responses. They should also be aware of
the purposes and techniques employed by the American consumer movement, which
is attempting to augment the rights and power of buyers in relation to sellers. Since a
review of the current rights of buyers and sellers suggests that the balance of power
lies with the seller, teachers should consider ways to equalize the situation. For
example, students and teachers might discuss the fact that product categories may
be classified as either desirable, salutary, pleasing on a short-term basis only, or
deficient. Next, students might select several ads. Since studies have shown that a
person's predisposition toward a product is a good indicator of whether or not the
person will buy that product, students' predispositions toward the products mentioned
in their ads might be measured. If students are predisposed to buy the advertised
product, and if, in addition, the product is classified as either deficient or merely
immediately pleasing, students might role play a counterattitudinal advocacy situation
in order to inoculate them against the advertiser's persuasion. (TS)




ERIC_NO: EJ541237
TITLE: Developing Advertising and Promotion Strategies for Higher Education.
AUTHOR: Berger, Karen A.; Wallingford, Harlan P.
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1996
JOURNAL_CITATION: Journal of Marketing for Higher Education; v7 n4 p61-72
1996
                                                                                      14

ABSTRACT: Outlines an approach to college and university marketing that focuses
on identification of buyer readiness state and selection of appropriate communication
goals. This approach uses a hierarchy of communication goals (awareness,
knowledge, liking, preference, conviction, purchase) widely used in consumer
advertising. Argues that little has been done to tie advertising to the customer's state
of mind or product/service understanding.




ERIC_NO: EJ354968
TITLE: Smart Kids' Guide to TV Advertising.
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1987
JOURNAL_CITATION: Instructor; v96 n9 p88-92 May 1987
ABSTRACT: Four reproducible pages containing activities to help children
understand the effect of television, to question what they watch, to study how they
use television, and to explore aural and visual awareness.




ERIC_NO: EJ252130
TITLE: Critical Listening/Reading of Advertisements.
AUTHOR: Tutolo, Daniel
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1981
JOURNAL_CITATION: Language Arts; v58 n6 p679-83 Sep 1981
ABSTRACT: Discusses techniques used in advertising parity products (products that
do not differ from brand to brand) to attract children's attention and advocates
consumer education for children to make them aware of advertising claims.




ERIC_NO: ED463666
TITLE: The Strategies Used in Japanese Advertisement.
AUTHOR: Kurose, Yuki
PUBLICATION_DATE: 2002
ABSTRACT: This paper investigates the possibility of using Japanese advertising
language as a teaching tool in the second language classroom. First, it reviews the
aims of advertising and the advantages of learning advertising language in the
                                                                                         15

classroom based on previous research. Next, it discusses language strategies used
in Japanese advertising, presenting typical examples for each. The strategies are
divided into linguistic-oriented strategies and sociocultural strategies. Finally, the
paper suggests some teaching plans for Japanese classrooms, where teachers can
utilize advertising language as one of the language teaching materials. These plans
cover the strategies unique to the Japanese language and the strategies that require
some background knowledge of Japanese society and culture.




ERIC_NO: ED388072 ‫مهم‬
TITLE: Linking Multilingual Advertising to Foreign Language Teaching.
AUTHOR: Martin, Elizabeth
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1995
ABSTRACT: It is suggested that print advertising is particularly well suited to
classroom second language teaching because it is attractive, entertaining, contains
powerful emotional or factual messages, and is concise. Research indicates that
multilingual or code-mixed advertising is common and reveals interesting linguistic
phenomena, including semantic, grammatical, and syntactic ambiguity, word-border
displacement, lexical innovation, idiom transformation, and phonetic repetition as well
as code mixing. Advertisements also reflect cultural traits and images, including
connotations associated with use of certain orthographic systems. English is the
most popular language with which another language is paired, but is also
considered inappropriate in some cultures. Characteristics of multilingual ad copy
containing English include explicit cues to meaning or to English pronunciation.
Several examples of possible use of code-mixed advertising in language teaching
are offered, with illustrations from ad copy. Suggestions include vocabulary or
grammar activities based on ad content, pronunciation exercises, and discussion of
cultural clues and influences in format and language use. Brief guidelines for
selecting and adapting advertisements for the foreign language classroom are also
presented.


ERIC_NO: ED324948
TITLE: The Language-Culture Interface in German Advertisements.
AUTHOR: Gramberg, Anne-Katrin
                                                                                       16

PUBLICATION_DATE: 1989
ABSTRACT: A comparison of German and American advertising reveals differences
in technique and structures. Persuasion is central in both, but the grammatical
structures and illocutionary devices available in each language vary. The culture is
also reflected in the type and degree to which each language uses techniques of
persuasive language. The findings can be applied in the foreign language
classroom, allowing students to better understand German marketing techniques,
German verbal and nonverbal communication, the function of German strategies and
structures used for persuading, and perceived and actual cultural differences.
Comparison of automobile ads from the two countries, using both pictures and text,
suggests significantly different approaches to the audience, with the German version
using a much more interpersonal communication style and the American ad stressing
facts. The level of communication in the ads also varies. The German ad uses
conversational turn-taking, handwriting, more personal pronouns, and an
identification of buyer and seller belonging to the same group. The American ad is
clearly constructed as a monologue, focusing on the product alone.


ERIC_NO: ED322530
TITLE: Teaching the Language of Advertising.
AUTHOR: Dodson, Charles Brooks
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1989
ABSTRACT: Serving as a way to sum up or apply many of the principles students
have been studying in a general semantics course, a unit on advertising language is
devoted to examining how advertisers select language for its affective and directive
uses. The unit shows how language is used to stimulate consumer interest in a
product and often to mask the lack of extensionally verifiable information presented
about the product. A major feature of the unit is that the students are asked not only
to examine existing advertisements but to become advertisers themselves, to create
their own advertising copy. In the major written assignment of the unit, students
compose and explain an "institutional advertisement" (an ad whose immediate
purpose is to favorably dispose the reader toward a company, institution, or
organization that sponsors the ad). Coming at the end of a course, the unit usually
perks up students who are growing jaded and weary as another long semester of
                                                                                             17

college is drawing to an end.




ERIC_NO: ED166701
TITLE: Advertising and Student Rhetoric.
AUTHOR: Stone, William B.
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1978
ABSTRACT: Rhetoric, the persuasive use of language to influence public thought
and action, is experienced in advertising, and advertising can be used as a medium
for teaching rhetoric. Advertising demonstrates both admirable and creative use of
English and despicable corruption of both language and thought. Both aspects can
be employed in teaching composition. In one course that used advertising as a basis
for teaching composition, students were assigned six papers on advertising topics
during a semester. The six topics were: explain why an ad is effective; discuss a poor
ad; compare or contrast two ads on any basis; write a public service ad and explain
why it is effective; argue that advertising is one of society's evils, that it ought to be
controlled by the government, or that it benefits the consumer; and write on a
controversial thesis regarding some aspect of advertising in the United States.
Students learned about variety in diction, connotations, sentence structure, openings,
use of detail, economy of expression, the sound of language, and persuasion
through indirection.




ERIC_NO: EJ532602
TITLE: The Bilingual Advertising Decision.
AUTHOR: Grin, Francois
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1994
JOURNAL_CITATION: Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development; v15
n2-3 p269-92 1994
ABSTRACT: Examines the relationship between linguistic plurality and the rationale
of advertising decisions. The article presents a simple model of sales to different
language groups as a function of the level of advertising in each language,
language attitudes, incomes, and an advertising response function. The model is
                                                                                      18

intended as a benchmark, and several extensions are suggested.




ERIC_NO: EJ593209
TITLE: State of the Ad: The Role of Advertisements in EFL Teaching.
AUTHOR: Picken, Jonathan
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1999
JOURNAL_CITATION: ELT Journal; v53 n4 p249-55 Oct 1999
ABSTRACT: Examines the main arguments for using ads in the English-as-a-
Foreign-Language classroom. With reference to recent research, focuses on some
of the appealing uses of language, visual elements, and culture in advertising, and
on how language teachers could exploit them in their classes.




ERIC_NO: EJ527288
TITLE: Structural Ambiguities and Written Advertisements: An Inventory of Tools for
More Resourceful Advertisements in English.
AUTHOR: Oaks, Dallin D.
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1995
JOURNAL_CITATION: Journal of Technical Writing and Communication; v25 n4
p371-92 1995
ABSTRACT: Discusses some types of writing tasks, such as advertising, in which a
writer might want to create ambiguous wordplays. States that a more conscious
understanding of the structure of a language could make the generation of structural
ambiguities easier. Examines some structural features of English that could prove
useful to advertisers who wish to cause deliberate structural ambiguities.




ERIC_NO: EJ664669
TITLE: Advertising as a Site of Language Contact.
AUTHOR: Piller, Ingrid
PUBLICATION_DATE: 2003
JOURNAL_CITATION: Annual Review of Applied Linguistics; v23 p170-83 2003
ABSTRACT: Reviews work on language contact phenomena in advertising. More
                                                                                        19

emphasis is being placed on multilingual discourses in advertising and the ways in
which these index identities, both of the products and services with which multiple
cods are associated and of the consumers who peruse them. Also examines the
various functions of different contact languages in advertising.




ERIC_NO: ED352859
TITLE: Advertisements in the Basic Skills Writing Class.
AUTHOR: Brickman, Bette
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1992
ABSTRACT: Advertising in the mass media contains a wide variety of psychological,
emotional, and cultural messages. In basic skills and English-as-a-Second-
Language writing instruction, ads can be used to exemplify writing models presented
in class. Basic skills students often come to writing classes discouraged or prepared
for failure, and the structure of most writing textbooks is confusing and/or patronizing.
By contrast, advertisements provide real-life illustrations of argument, cause and
effect, and persuasion. They can be particularly effective, when carefully chosen, in
teaching foreign students. Learners can collect ads containing examples of concepts
being taught in class, idioms, and figurative language. Because they contain
persuasive information, ads may be easier to decipher than many other materials.
Analysis of ads also lends itself to collaborative learning. Ads are readily available in
a wide range of forms, some with intentional grammatical or spelling errors.
Comparison of advertising for similar products across audiences or media (e.g.,
magazine versus television), analysis of layout and placement in a publication, and
examination of content and appearance are useful exercises. With training, students
can learn to think critically, distinguish faulty from sound logic, and analyze the
influence ads have on the consumer.


ERIC_NO: ED327899
TITLE: Language Implications for Advertising in International Markets: A Model for
Message Content and Message Execution.
AUTHOR: Beard, John; Yaprak, Attila
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1989
ABSTRACT: A content analysis model for assessing advertising themes and
                                                                                         20

messages generated primarily for United States markets to overcome barriers in the
cultural environment of international markets was developed and tested. The model
is based on three primary categories for generating, evaluating, and executing
advertisements: rational, emotional, and moral. Focusing on computer advertising as
an example, it is argued that technology shapes language and culture. An
exploratory study hypothesized that in lesser developed countries there is more use
of rational advertising appeals than of emotional advertising appeals. In contrast, for
countries with more advanced technologies the emphasis will be on greater visual
orientation. These concepts are illustrated through a comparative study, after which
models for content analysis are presented as a proposed empirical study. It is hoped
that the new model will benefit instructors who teach students to appreciate
differences in language and culture and who also teach appreciation of the general
economy.




ERIC_NO: ED272009 ‫مهم‬
TITLE: Teaching Commercial German Through Advertisements.
AUTHOR: Heyer, Elfriede A.
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1985
ABSTRACT: Advertisements can be used in many ways to facilitate the teaching of a
commercial language. If reproduced as slides or other visual aids, they serve as a
visual warm-up exercise for each class period, either reinforcing previously discussed
topics or introducing new ones. Catchy headlines in commercials promote rapid
expansion of vocabulary and are often excellent examples of difficult grammatical
structures, convincing students of the usefulness of such structures. Idioms and
cultural idiosyncracies are easily illustrated with advertising. Advertisements can be
given a broader function when organized according to themes and general topics,
such as banking, insurance, transportation, and categories of consumer goods. A
variety of classroom activities can be derived from advertisements: fine print can be
used for translation exercises, testing of reading skills, or discussion; students can
guess concealed headlines or fill in words, phrases, or text segments from overhead
projections; and students can compare American and foreign advertising or provide
comparable wording in the target language for American advertisements.
                                                                                       21

ERIC_NO: ED253055
TITLE: Advertisements: An Overlooked Resource in the Foreign Language
Classroom.
AUTHOR: Deutsch, Rena
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1984
ABSTRACT: The use of newspaper and magazine advertisements for teaching
foreign language skills in listening, speaking, reading, and writing as well as
vocabulary, idiomatic expressions, grammar, pronunciation, and culture is
encouraged and discussed. Suggested lessons and classroom activities are
presented in four categories: vocabulary, grammatical rules and relationships,
culture, and further activities. Lesson topics include understanding how
advertisements use various kinds of puns or manipulate language, finding ads in
which grammatical rules are broken, finding cultural generalizations in advertising,
and using mail order catalogs to obtain cultural information. Each lesson lists an
objective, materials, procedure, class activities, and in some cases, instructional
suggestions. The section on further activities briefly, lists 12 classroom and
assignment uses, and variations, for advertising.




ERIC_NO: EJ361128
TITLE: Puns in Spanish Advertising: An Americanized Culture "Ad"-dition to the
Spanish Language.
AUTHOR: Vande Berg, Michael
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1987
JOURNAL_CITATION: Hispania; v70 n3 p684-90 Sep 1987
ABSTRACT: Teachers can further Spanish language students' appreciation of the
language's variety and richness through consideration of the use of puns in
contemporary Spanish advertising. The puns are useful in introducing and reinforcing
grammatical points and for providing culturally relevant and interesting material to
students.




ERIC_NO: EJ253825
TITLE: El lenguaje de la publicidad (The Language of Advertising).
                                                                                          22

AUTHOR: Blanco Lazaro, Enrique T.
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1981
JOURNAL_CITATION: Yelmo; n48-49 p25-26 Apr-Sep 1981
ABSTRACT: Analyzes the language of advertising and the expressive devices it
uses to capture the attention of the consumer and arouse his/her interest. Condemns
the artificiality of this language and the social values it reflects, quoting profusely
from the works of Herman Glaser and other contemporary authors.




ERIC_NO: EJ215865
TITLE: Cross-Examining the Commercial: The Language of TV Advertising.
AUTHOR: McGarvey, Jack
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1980
JOURNAL_CITATION: Media and Methods; v16 n5 p47-49 Jan 1980
ABSTRACT: Argues that television advertising is now the most powerful language in
existence. Provides a "TV advertising test" to prove the point and outlines a unit
designed to make students aware of the language of television commercials while
improving their writing and thinking skills.




ERIC_NO: EJ204956
TITLE: "A Tiger in Your Tank": Advertisements in the Language Classroom.
AUTHOR: Mollica, Anthony
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1979
JOURNAL_CITATION: Canadian Modern Language Review; v35 n4 p691-743 May
1979
ABSTRACT: Describes the use of advertisements in language instruction, with
particular attention to the language of advertisements, including the conative and
emotive functions, linguistic shock, translation, humor, and cultural information.




ERIC_NO: ED377864
TITLE: Job Opportunities for Special Librarians: A Content Analysis of Job
Advertisements Appearing in the Special Libraries Association's Newsletter
                                                                                         23

"SpeciaList" in 1992 and 1993.
AUTHOR: Kelly, Patricia S.
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1994
ABSTRACT: This research aimed to determine the job qualifications and
opportunities in the special library job market. The study utilized job advertisements
appearing in the newsletter of the Special Libraries Association, "SpeciaList," in 1992
and 1993. Each advertisement was studied for: (1) type of library; (2) area of
expertise; (3) job qualifications including an MLS, foreign language, years of
experience, additional degrees, library skills, computer skills and database searching
skills; (4) geographic location; and (5) compensation, including salary and benefits.
Major findings indicate that the majority of positions required at least an MLS
(41.1%), and that a large number of positions require more than one degree (51.0%).
The subject area of greatest demand is in the field of science, with 69.9% of
advertisements requiring expertise in science and engineering, science and
technology or health/biological/life sciences. Experience was almost always
necessary (87.7%), management and computer skills were needed (61.6% and
76.0%, respectively), and salaries tended to fall in the $25,001 to $30,000 range.
Fifteen tables summarize the data.




ERIC_NO: ED349840 ‫مهم‬
TITLE: Relevance Theory and the Language of Advertising. CLS Occasional Paper
No. 31.
AUTHOR: Byrne, Barbara
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1992
ABSTRACT: Relevance theory, the premise that a hearer will make the effort to
process a communication if he or she feels it will alter or enrich his/her cognitive
environment, can be useful for increasing the effectiveness of advertising
communication. It is particularly helpful for analyzing and improving the effectiveness
of the creative devices often used in advertising language to add interest and
additional meaning to the text. While essentially a theory of pragmatics, relevance
theory gives a complete account of the recovery of meaning of an utterance.
Advertising text commonly contains variations on accepted standards of
grammaticality and specific contextual implications. Analysis of the text using
                                                                                          24

relevance theory can expose the text/context interaction and illustrate the role of
linguistic style as a tool for conveying more than is actually verbalized. Areas that can
be targeted by such analysis include disambiguation and referential assignment,
readers' anticipatory hypotheses, examination of phonetic effects, repetition, text
length, media-specific contextual implications, intertext devices, illocutionary force,
and cancellation of implicature.




ERIC_NO: ED348870
TITLE: Teaching Culture through Advertising.
AUTHOR: Stock, Janet C.
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1992
ABSTRACT: Some of the literature on the role of teaching culture in second
language instruction is reviewed, with some emphasis on the work of Ortunio and
the Kluckholn model of French culture. One instructor's use of French print and
television advertising to teach French culture is described. Values such as
intellectuality, traditionalism, and patriotism are cited. The teaching approaches
include examining a large number of issues to identify appropriate ads, discussing
with the class how advertisers appeal to consumers with both open and covert
messages, and sensitizing students to hidden promises of the ads. Small group
discussions among the students focus on specific French qualities or values to
which the ads appeal. Differences between French and American ads are also
discussed.




ERIC_NO: ED292734
TITLE: Reflections of History. Customs, Styles, Language and Interests as Seen
through the Advertisements of Five Periods between the 1890's and the 1950's.
Perspectives.
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1985
ABSTRACT: This unit of study, one of a series of eight, provides a method for
                                                                                        25

students to study U.S. history through reviewing the advertising of specific periods to
learn about customers, styles, language, and interests of specific eras. The
advertising of the past chronicles everyday people and everyday life. Advertising is
used to examine five periods in U.S. history: the 1890s, 1910-1920, the 1920s, 1941-
1945, and the early 1950s. The material can be used as a separate unit or as lead-in
activities to study each period in U.S. history. The unit relies on material from the
Procter and Gamble Archives and other primary source documents, especially
advertisements from each of the periods reviewed. An overview of the historical
periods, objectives, teaching procedures, vocabulary lists, student handouts, and
ways to use economic concepts to understand historical development are presented.




ERIC_NO: ED283184
TITLE: The Impact of Culture on International Advertising Campaigns: A
Managerial Perspective.
AUTHOR: Kanso, Ali
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1987
ABSTRACT: A study investigated advertising executives' perceptions of the
importance of culture in international advertising, as well as advertising message
approaches used by international corporations. It was hypothesized that more
nonculturally oriented managers would agree to the use of the same creative
strategies to advertise in both domestic and foreign markets than would culturally
oriented managers. The sample consisted of 118 firms from the 1985 Fortune
magazine directory of the 500 largest industrial companies; of these, 96 international
advertising managers whose companies' business networks represented 120
countries, completed a mailed questionnaire. The hypothesis was supported. Results
indicated that managers generally perceive culture to be somewhat important in
international advertising campaign. These executives placed more importance on
language, aesthetics, and values than they did on other cultural variables, such as
economics, kinship, technology, social structure, religion, attitudes, and literacy.
Findings also indicated that two groups of advertising managers emerged from the
analysis of data: culturally oriented managers and nonculturally oriented managers.
In designing messages for foreign markets, culturally oriented managers emphasize
the use of diverse frames of reference through the use of varied message content,
                                                                                         26

layout, symbols, appeals, and themes, as opposed to managers who use the same
message elements regardless of any particular country or situation. Findings
indicated that about 75% of the firms followed a localized approach in their
international advertising campaigns, and that the use of a standardized approach
seems to be decreasing.




ERIC_NO: ED271756
TITLE: Evaluation of Breakfast Cereals and Cereal Advertising by a Young Adult
Audience.
AUTHOR: Gagnard, Alice
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1986
ABSTRACT: A study examined the knowledge of and attitudes toward nutrition in
general and specifically toward cold breakfast cereals and cereal advertising with
different creative appeals. Subjects, 117 undergraduate university students,
completed a questionnaire about their use of cold breakfast cereal and their sources
of information about nutrition. After reading advertising copy for four fictitious cereals,
subjects rated as most favorable the cereal employing a "taste" appeal, followed by a
cereal with a "health" appeal, which used language suggesting a link between eating
the cereal and prevention of certain kinds of cancer. Rated less favorably were
cereals with a "fiber" appeal and a "natural ingredients" appeal. The advertising copy
for the "taste" appeal cereal was also rated most informative and important, though
the "health" cereal advertisement was judged most believable and true. Respondents
who indicated Bran-Fiber cereals as their favorites scored significantly higher than
other cereal eaters on tests of general nutrition knowledge, general nutrition concern,
and cereal nutrition concern. Subjects rated nutrition labeling on cereal boxes as their
most important source of cereal nutrition information. The results suggest that the
study be administered to different age groups to obtain information on evaluation of
advertising content and nutrition knowledge for groups at other stages of formulation
of dietary habits.




ERIC_NO: ED158328
TITLE: Where Does the Teaching of Advertising Belong: The Case for the
                                                                                         27

Journalism School.
AUTHOR: Jugenheimer, Donald W.
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1978
ABSTRACT: In order to determine whether advertising should be taught in the
journalism school or the business school, it is necessary to consider the strengths of
both schools and then to compare them to the objectives of advertising education
and the needs of advertising students. The strengths of the business school grow
from its systems approach while the strengths of the journalism school grow from its
emphasis on language, thinking, and creativity. Among the reasons given for
selecting their major, advertising students often list a desire to be creative, an interest
in writing, and a desire to be involved with their work. All of these reasons fit into the
journalism environment. Further, many of the objectives of advertising are the same
as those of journalism. Advertising, then, should be a part of the journalism school
curriculum. However, in light of the long struggle for legitimacy by advertising
education, both sides of the controversy should be working together toward the same
goals. Advertising should be taught within the broader framework of business and
journalism programs, not as an isolated institution, but as an integral part of living in
the modern world.




ERIC_NO: ED153493
TITLE: Magazine Advertisements in Beginning Language Classes.
AUTHOR: Coombs, Virginia M.
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1978
ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the ways in which pictures in current German
magazine advertisements can be employed as effective visual aids in basic grammar
drills. The structures discussed here are the reflexive verb construction and two
aspects of the passive voice construction, namely the passive to indicate activity-as-
such and the contrast between the passive voice and the statal passive. Reference is
made to the presentations of these grammar points and the accompanying drills in
two secondary level texts, "ALM Level II" and "Level III" and "German Today Two,"
as well as two college level texts, "First-Year German" and "Deutsch heute." The
construction of the drill and descriptions of the various appropriate advertisements
                                                                                        28

that accompany the drill are described; full drill sequences are presented in Appendix
A. Suggestions for selecting and preparing the materials are also included.


ERIC_NO: ED139002
TITLE: An Introduction to Advertising Research; A Report from the Communications
Research Center.
AUTHOR: Haskins, Jack B.
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1976
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this volume is to present, in nontechnical language,
most of the basic concepts of advertising research. Since the volume is intended to
be comprehensible to the lay person, discussion does not go too deeply into the
technical details of advertising or research methodology. However, used as an
introduction and outline to be supplemented by outside readings, the book can be
useful as a guide to greater mastery of advertising research practices. An
introduction describes advertising and research processes and outlines the most
common advertising research plans. Major sections are devoted to research on
advertising media, advertising messages, and money and management. Additional
facets of advertising research--miscellaneous tools and techniques and the public's
attitudes toward advertising in general--are also investigated.




ERIC_NO: ED138277
TITLE: To the Federal Trade Commission in the Matter of a Trade Regulation Rule
on Over-the-Counter Drug Advertising.
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1977
ABSTRACT: This report supports amending the proposed Federal Trade
Commission (FTC) Rule on Over-the Counter (OTC) Drug Advertising to insure better
protection for children, illiterate populations, the deaf and the blind, from advertising
on the air-waves. Several points are addressed: (1) the difficulties of combining the
rule making schedules of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the FTC; (2)
the nature of OTC advertising and labeling, particularly for large child audiences; (3)
behavioral studies on techniques of television commercials; (4) ambiguous
interpretations of FDA language on the part of those regulated; and (5) the
vulnerabilities of the functionally illiterate, the deaf, and the blind.
                                                                                         29




ERIC_NO: ED059486
TITLE: Effective Advertising.
AUTHOR: Foley, Eugene P.; And Others
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1965
ABSTRACT: The 14th publication in a series of subject presentations in the field of
administrative management for use by educators and businessmen who teach
management courses is presented. These presentations are intended to be
particularly useful to Distributive Education in the smaller community where library
research facilities are limited and equipment for the production of visual aids is not
readily available. The lecture is designed to be presented to the businessman in
nontechnical language. The Lesson Plan is an outline of the material covered which
may be used as a teaching guide. The Presentation may be used as written or
modified to meet local needs and conditions. The Visual Aids are photographic
copies of the set of visual aids which are available for this topic. These visuals are 8-
by 10-inch colored transparencies prepared for use on overhead projectors. The
Supply Department contains materials which may be reproduced locally for
distribution to course participants. Cases in Point are short actual small-business
management cases which may be used to augment the presentation and to develop
discussion. The Incubator contains ideas for stimulating further thought and
discussion by the participants.




ERIC_NO: EJ459654
TITLE: Gaining Competence in Communication and Culture through French
Advertisements.
AUTHOR: Doering, E. Jane
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1993
JOURNAL_CITATION: French Review; v66 n3 p420-32 Feb 1993
ABSTRACT: Printed advertisements from magazines and billboards, stored on
slides, are recommended as fertile sources of cultural information for French
language instruction. They create a simultaneous visual impact on all students, are
                                                                                       30

easily stored and used, can be kept current, and promote communicative activities in
the classroom.




ERIC_NO: EJ452730 ‫مهم‬
TITLE: Language in Food Advertisements.
AUTHOR: Plata, Maximino
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1992
JOURNAL_CITATION: Reading Improvement; v29 n3 p193-99 Fall 1992
ABSTRACT: Analyses 476 food advertisements in newspapers from 3 different sized
cities. Finds that brand names, food names, and descriptive vocabulary comprise the
majority of language in food ads across newspaper groups. Offers suggestions for
using newspaper ads in the classroom.




ERIC_NO: EJ449586
TITLE: A Review of Advertisements in Children's Magazines.
AUTHOR: Heinzerling, Barbara; Chandler, Tomasita
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1992
JOURNAL_CITATION: Journal of Consumer Education; v10 p32-37 1992
ABSTRACT: Using the Children's Advertising Review Unit guidelines, analysis of
142 ads in 14 children's magazines found (1) lack of emphasis on positive social
standards; (2) failure to substantiate product claims; (3) lack of encouragement for
good nutrition; and (4) disclosures and disclaimers in language not understood by
children.




ERIC_NO: EJ332828
TITLE: The Language of Advertising vs. Standard English.
AUTHOR: Wyckham, Robert G.
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1986
JOURNAL_CITATION: English Journal; v75 n4 p57-58 Apr 1986
                                                                                        31

ABSTRACT: Discusses syntactic and stylistic errors in the language of advertising
and the reason for these linguistic irregularities. Suggests ways of dealing with the
problem.




ERIC_NO: EJ316621
TITLE: Facets: Grammatical Deviance in Advertising Language: Is It Undermining
Our Teaching of Correct Usage?
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1985
JOURNAL_CITATION: English Journal; v74 n4 p18-21 Apr 1985
ABSTRACT: Four practicing teachers discuss the effect of advertising language and
how it affects the teaching of correct usage.




ERIC_NO: EJ308240
TITLE: Students' Linguistic Skills and the Language of Television Advertising.
AUTHOR: Wyckham, Robert G.
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1984
JOURNAL_CITATION: English Quarterly; v17 n1 p21-30 Spr 1984
ABSTRACT: Details a survey of 264 Canadian elementary school teachers to
determine their views on the influence of television advertising language on students'
ability to learn standard English usage. Calls for research to ascertain whether the
cause and effect relationship seen by a significant portion of the respondents has a
basis in fact.




ERIC_NO: EJ296651
TITLE: Advertising: A Research Subject for Persuasive Writers.
AUTHOR: Malachowski, Ann Marie
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1984
JOURNAL_CITATION: Exercise Exchange; v29 n2 p34-35 Spr 1984
ABSTRACT: Describes using the parallels between developing the persuasive essay
and an advertisement to help advertising students become aware of the importance
                                                                                            32

of voice, point of view, and audience. Students complete a written essay modeled
after the language and techniques employed by advertisers.




ERIC_NO: EJ261719
TITLE: L'utilisation de la page publicitaire: l'instantane (ou le flash) culturel (Use of
the Full-Page Advertisement: A Snapshot [or a Cultural Shot]).
AUTHOR: Trescases, Pierre
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1982
JOURNAL_CITATION: Francais dans le Monde; n166 p18-25 Jan 1982
ABSTRACT: Reports on the use of magazine advertisements in an elementary
French class to give insights into aspects of traditional and contemporary French
civilization. Included are techniques for presentation, use of students' native
language, what the ads reflect, outline of possible themes, and reproductions of
several advertisements.




ERIC_NO: EJ249952
TITLE: Narration et argumentation en publicite (Narration and Argumentation in
Advertising).
AUTHOR: Peninou, Georges
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1981
JOURNAL_CITATION: Francais dans le Monde; n163 p28-38 Aug-Sep 1981
ABSTRACT: Analyzes the language and rhetoric of persuasive discourse as
employed in advertising. Uses a selection of bank advertisements as a corpus,
identifying and discussing four basic models of discourse. The discussion focuses on
the rhetorical devices that characterize each type of text.




ERIC_NO: EJ171900
TITLE: L'enfant--le Publicitaire--l'Information syntaxique (The Child--Advertising--
Syntactic Information)
AUTHOR: Bentolila, Alain
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1977
                                                                                           33

JOURNAL_CITATION: Etudes de Linguistique Appliquee; 26, 9-19, Apr-Jun 77
ABSTRACT: A comparison of the linguistic development of the young child and the
language of advertising. It is noted that relative structural identity exists between
certain advertisements and certain linguistic productions of the child because of the
similarity of conditions in which the linguistic tool is used.




ERIC_NO: EJ119636
TITLE: La publicite (The Advertisement)
AUTHOR: Ganderton, Denise; McBride, Nicole
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1975
JOURNAL_CITATION: Francais dans le monde; 114, 26-33, Jul 75
ABSTRACT: Outlines a procedure for using oral and written commercial
advertisements in the French language classroom.




ERIC_NO: ED408945
TITLE: Questing toward Cohesion: Connecting Advertisements and Classroom
Reading through Visual Literacy.
AUTHOR: Pailliotet, Ann Watts
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1997
ABSTRACT: Connecting visual and print literacies in the classroom can bridge
distances in students' experiences, because all literacies are complementary and
interdependent. This article discusses this rationale for connecting students'
communication experiences in and out of classrooms to foster relevant literacies
needed in contemporary society. Next it identifies common literacy principles, textual
structures, and reader processes that print advertisements and content area texts. It
then explains an analytic method called Deep Viewing, which consists of three levels-
-literal observation, interpretation and evaluation/application--that can be applied to
both types of texts. The following code categories that guide viewers through
interpretive and applied/evaluation levels of Deep Viewing are described: sequence
and structure; semes and forms; language and discourse; proximity and spacing;
culture and context; and effects and production. Twenty-two additional classroom
activities to connect and extend students' literacies are offered. Finally, the benefits
                                                                                          34

of connecting literacy principles, textual structures, and reader processes through the
use of print advertisements and academic texts are discussed. These include: (1)
students demonstrate high levels of motivation, interest, and social interaction; (2)
following initial analysis, new critical insights are fostered during subsequent readings
of academic texts; (3) student curiosity may be sparked, which can lead to self-
initiated learning; and (4) students are assisted in forging cohesive understandings
and developing sound literacy strategies for all modern media and communications
environments.




ERIC_NO: EJ567501
TITLE: Translation Assessment: Notes on the Interlingual Transfer of an Advertising
Text.
AUTHOR: Horton, David
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1998
JOURNAL_CITATION: IRAL; v36 n2 p95-119 May 1998
ABSTRACT: Attempts to measure translation quality raise important questions about
the nature of textual transfer, the relationship between source- and target-language
texts, and translation functions. Examination of a typical advertising text, translated
from English to German, shows the degree of freedom with which texts are
manipulated in professional practice and demonstrates difficulties that this presents
for quality assessment.




ERIC_NO: EJ577135
TITLE: Reflections of Education: A Case Study of Educational Technology
Advertisements.
AUTHOR: Alexander, Mary S.; Petkanas, William
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1998
JOURNAL_CITATION: New Jersey Journal of Communication; v6 n2 p185-98 Fall
1998
ABSTRACT: Examines advertisements directed at instructors in higher education.
Reveals six assumptions about education and technology: educational technology is
the agent of learning; education is a function of production values; traditional
                                                                                          35

educational methods are obsolete; geography is the major impediment to education;
confusion of language and reality; and technology industry is an educational
institution.




ERIC_NO: ED372458
TITLE: Gorgias on Madison Avenue: Sophistry and the Rhetoric of Advertising.
AUTHOR: Matcuk, Matt
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1994
ABSTRACT: Using sophistic theory and focusing on intersections in the practice and
reception of sophistry and advertising, a study analyzed a contemporary advertising
campaign. A number of extrinsic similarities between sophistic and advertising
rhetoric exist: their commercial basis, their popular reception as dishonest speech,
and the reception of both as nonetheless entertaining. Besides surface parallels,
there are also intrinsic correlations. The techniques of antithesis, parataxis, and
probability employed by the Sophists reappear in late 20th century advertising. The
current campaign for the Saturn automobile allows for rhetorical analysis. The
common theme of the Saturn print campaign (as seen in three representative ads)
could be stated as: "real" people are the people who buy Saturns, because "real"
people also recommend them. The ads all feature ordinary people who are much
more in evidence than the product itself. Contemporary advertising employs a
rhetoric not of fixed, monologic, hypotactic certainty, but one of fluid, antithetical,
paratactic reasoning--that of sophistry. Although it may be a stretch to conclude that
the persuasive techniques championed by a small group of orators in the fifth century
B.C. directly inform the rhetoric of advertising, a web of connections links the two.
With the proliferation of advertising and with its power to motivate and persuade,
access to every analytical tool is needed. This use of the Sophists can serve as an
effective instructional exercise, both in the advertising course and in the rhetoric
course.




ERIC_NO: ED166701
TITLE: Advertising and Student Rhetoric.
AUTHOR: Stone, William B.
                                                                                             36

PUBLICATION_DATE: 1978
ABSTRACT: Rhetoric, the persuasive use of language to influence public thought
and action, is experienced in advertising, and advertising can be used as a medium
for teaching rhetoric. Advertising demonstrates both admirable and creative use of
English and despicable corruption of both language and thought. Both aspects can
be employed in teaching composition. In one course that used advertising as a basis
for teaching composition, students were assigned six papers on advertising topics
during a semester. The six topics were: explain why an ad is effective; discuss a poor
ad; compare or contrast two ads on any basis; write a public service ad and explain
why it is effective; argue that advertising is one of society's evils, that it ought to be
controlled by the government, or that it benefits the consumer; and write on a
controversial thesis regarding some aspect of advertising in the United States.
Students learned about variety in diction, connotations, sentence structure, openings,
use of detail, economy of expression, the sound of language, and persuasion through
indirection.




ERIC_NO: ED281251
TITLE: Courting the Buyer: The Relationship of Newspaper, Audience, and
Advertisers.
AUTHOR: Thompson, Timothy N.
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1987
ABSTRACT: By applying Kenneth Burke's concepts of Order, the Secret, and the Kill
to the newspaper-audience-advertiser relationship, the narrow imagery that depicts
that relationship only in economic terms can be counteracted. Burke's maps of
hierarchy, mystery, and transcendence in human action allow the depiction of a
complex meshing of patterns, increasing our understanding and appreciation of the
news marketplace. Newspapers can be seen as the perfecting of The System and
various subsystems in which the news and reader identify, such as national, state,
and local systems or the economic and ecological systems. The mounting of
hierarchies and the phasing from unknowns to knowns in the mystery process are
forms of transcendence. Victimage and the cult of the Kill are keys for understanding
transcendence as "rising above." Newspapers provide the reader with a fresh sense
of transcendence through self-comparison with the negatives and evils of society,
                                                                                        37

and thus serve a redemptive function. In a culture fixated with quantities, the
newspaper can be seen as a "perfection measurement" report. The perfecting of
athletics, for example, draws a heavy readership, mostly due to the rhetorical appeal
of the "climb to the top" in each sporting hierarchy--the "mounting impulse" in which
the readers can vicariously participate. The newspapers court readers with secrets to
be made sense of ("Who will win the contest?" "Why did the killer do it?"),
establishing the realm of questions--the mystery--to which they will provide the
answers. Burke's concepts are "shorthand terms" for how people mesh their patterns
of experience, explanations for why and how people join in communicative
structures.




ERIC_NO: ED159728
TITLE: How to Defend Ourselves Against Corporate Image and Ideology
Advertising.
AUTHOR: Bennett, James R.
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1978
ABSTRACT: Since teachers have been encouraged to give attention to advertising,
product advertising has been the subject of study, but because of the large amount of
money spent on them, two other aspects of advertising need special attention:
corporate-sponsored image (which deals with characteristics and image of the
company rather than with products or services) and ideology advertising (the
propagation of ideas and controversial social issues in a manner that supports the
interests of the sponsor while downgrading the sponsor's opponents). The student
should use such tools as classical rhetorical awareness of the speaker, knowledge
of informal fallacies, and Hugh Rank's "Intensify/Downplay" approach. Study of a
corporate-sponsored film would include questions such as: Who paid for it? What are
the explicit and implicit purposes? How truthful are the claims and assertions? How
does it intensify the sponsor's own good and its opponents' bad? What does it
conceal that might alter our opinion of the claims? What are the formal and informal
fallacies in the message? and What verbal and nonverbal devices are employed to
persuade? These tools and questions, or slightly modified ones, can be applied to
study such advertising as the corporation film put out by Chesebrough-Pond
Corporation, "Family," and the ideology advertisement published by Chromalloy
                                                                                      38

American Corporation.




ERIC_NO: EJ544160
TITLE: Audience as a Cultural Condition: Using Popular Advertisements in College
Writing Assignments.
AUTHOR: Swyt, Wendy
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1996
JOURNAL_CITATION: Journal of Teaching Writing; v15 n1 p51-63 1996
ABSTRACT: Compares two advertising assignments to demonstrate how different
approaches to audience radically affect students' critical understanding of popular
media texts. Argues that "audience" needs to be present in writing assignments as a
cultural experience rather than a merely static rhetorical category.




ERIC_NO: EJ249956 ‫مهم‬
TITLE: Procedes de langage dans la publicite (Linguistic Devices in Advertising).
AUTHOR: Corbellari, Michel
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1981
JOURNAL_CITATION: Francais dans le Monde; n163 p69-73 Aug-Sep 1981
ABSTRACT: Analyzes the linguistic devices and styles employed in advertisement
writing. Illustrates the use of rhetorical figures and gives examples of word creation,
of puns based on polysemy or paronyms, of alliteration, and of rhyme. Concludes
with the suggestion that advertisement texts could profitably be put to use in the
classroom.


ERIC_NO: EJ575128
TITLE: Social-Process Rhetorical Inquiry: Cultural Studies Methodologies for Critical
Writing about Advertisements.
AUTHOR: McComiskey, Bruce
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1997
JOURNAL_CITATION: JAC: A Journal of Composition Theory; v17 n3 p381-400
1997
ABSTRACT: Proposes a turn toward "social-process rhetorical inquiry" in
                                                                                        39

composition, a turn that requires further pedagogical adaptations of cultural studies
methodologies in writing classrooms. Notes that the social-process heuristic is based
on a cyclical model of writing processes, a model comprising cultural production,
contextual distribution, and critical consumption. Includes an advertising analysis
assignment based on this heuristic.




ERIC_NO: ED388072 ‫مهم‬
TITLE: Linking Multilingual Advertising to Foreign Language Teaching.
AUTHOR: Martin, Elizabeth
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1995
ABSTRACT: It is suggested that print advertising is particularly well suited to
classroom second language teaching because it is attractive, entertaining, contains
powerful emotional or factual messages, and is concise. Research indicates that
multilingual or code-mixed advertising is common and reveals interesting linguistic
phenomena, including semantic, grammatical, and syntactic ambiguity, word-border
displacement, lexical innovation, idiom transformation, and phonetic repetition as well
as code mixing. Advertisements also reflect cultural traits and images, including
connotations associated with use of certain orthographic systems. English is the
most popular language with which another language is paired, but is also considered
inappropriate in some cultures. Characteristics of multilingual ad copy containing
English include explicit cues to meaning or to English pronunciation. Several
examples of possible use of code-mixed advertising in language teaching are
offered, with illustrations from ad copy. Suggestions include vocabulary or grammar
activities based on ad content, pronunciation exercises, and discussion of cultural
clues and influences in format and language use. Brief guidelines for selecting and
adapting advertisements for the foreign language classroom are also presented.




ERIC_NO: ED251870
TITLE: Communications and Advertising: The Non-Aligned Disciplines.
AUTHOR: Mester, Cathy Sargent
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1983
ABSTRACT: Limitations to the goals educators set for their students originate
                                                                                         40

primarily from two sources: (1) students' individual abilities and attitudes, and (2)
cultural influences that contradict or countermand instruction rather than reinforce it.
These contradicting cultural influences are particularly evident in reference to the
skills and knowledge teachers try to develop in oral and written communication. The
fields of marketing and advertising are the sources of most of the negative influences
that disrupt students' development of communication skills, with examples of
incorrect grammar, syntax, and spelling reaching students through every medium.
Speech communication and English teachers must begin to do some serious
adapting of instructional approaches, including reforming educational goals,
discussing with students the balance needed between accuracy and creativity in
syntax, and directly confronting professionals in marketing and advertising regarding
the issue of linguistic corruption for the sake of increased profit margins. (HTH)




ERIC_NO: ED113751
TITLE: A Study of Certain Critical Thinking Skills Among Fifth Graders in the Area of
Propaganda in Advertising.
AUTHOR: Harris, Nancy E.
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1975
ABSTRACT: This study attempted to better define the nature of critical thinking and
its component skills (with a focus on the interpretation, analysis, and evaluation of
data) by investigating the relationship between critical thinking competency and an
activity card method of instruction, individual or small group work patterns,
achievement, and sex. The propaganda techniques found in magazine
advertisements were selected by the researcher as a valid curriculum stimulus for the
critical thinking of fifth graders. Eighty fifth-grade students in one elementary school
were divided equally into two experimental classes exposed to the activity card
treatment and two control classes involved in noncritical thinking activities of equal
duration. Each was further divided into either an individual or a small group pattern of
interaction with the activity card treatment on nontreatment activities. A pretest and
posttest design was followed. Interactions between the method of instruction,
grouping pattern, and sex were insignificant except in the case of interactions
between the boys and small group learning, which was significant. The researcher
                                                                                          41

concluded that affective factors are involved in growth in critical thinking as well as
intelligence and achievement.


ERIC_NO: EJ578927
TITLE: Teaching Critical Thinking Skills for the 21st Century: An Advertising
Principles Case Study.
AUTHOR: Celuch, Kevin; Slama, Mark
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1999
JOURNAL_CITATION: Journal of Education for Business; v74 n3 p134-39 Jan-Feb
1999
ABSTRACT: Describes how to teach business using critical thinking methods and
how to assess elements of critical thinking including standards for judging it.
Illustrates teaching methods, materials, and student activities for a course using a
critical thinking approach to advertising principles.




ERIC_NO: ED322554
TITLE: Undressing the Ad: A Method for Deconstructing Advertisements.
AUTHOR: Frith, Katherine Toland
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1990
ABSTRACT: Deconstruction is a critical literary theory which focuses on the
unintentional meanings of a text and aims to achieve an unprejudiced, value-free
vision of the social and political power structures in society that combine to produce
the text. The development of such critical skills in advertising students will deepen
their ability to judge the quality of their work and the work of others. A series of
examples of students' deconstruction of advertisements provide examples of how
students can "undress the ad" to (1) show how cultural messages are woven into
sales messages, and (2) discuss mythology and symbolism, cultural stereotypes of
men and women, and sexual fantasy. Deconstruction holds great promise for raising
the standards of professionalism in advertising and for shaping a more scholarly
approach to the study of advertising.
                                                                                          42

ERIC_NO: ED249121
TITLE: Advertisements Demand Sense.
AUTHOR: Clanton, Brandolyn; And Others
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1983
ABSTRACT: Self-contained units of study on advertising will help secondary
students to critically analyze the utility, completeness, and accuracy of various
sources of product information. In the first of five units, students are asked to think
about the many benefits consumers and producers derive from advertising. The
second unit makes students aware that advertisements are only one source of data
on goods and services available to the consumer and that purchasers do not always
obtain all the information available to them. In the third unit students learn that there
are costs other than the price charged for the goods and services which can be
incurred when making a purchasing decision. The fourth unit involves students in
analyzing six common advertising techniques. The concluding unit teaches students
that as consumers they have power in the marketplace. Information provided for
each unit includes teacher background information, the classroom lesson, and
supplementary activities. Activities vary and involve students in participating in
classroom discussions, brainstorming, listening to guest speakers, analyzing
advertisements, discussing scenarios, and role playing. (RM)




ERIC_NO: EJ531841
TITLE: Critical Literacy: Does Advertising Show Gender and Cultural Stereotyping?
AUTHOR: Russo, Elizabeth
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1996
JOURNAL_CITATION: Good Practice in Australian Adult Literacy and Basic
Education; n31 p17-19 Jul 1996
ABSTRACT: The critical literacy component of an adult program developed skills in
analyzing media advertising; using math for data analysis, graphing, and
computation; interpreting data; and becoming aware of advertising's part in
reenforcing gender roles. (SK)
                                                                                        43

ERIC_NO: EJ440952
TITLE: Reactions to Lexical, Syntactical, and Text Layout Variations of a Print
Advertisement.
AUTHOR: Motes, William H.; And Others
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1992
JOURNAL_CITATION: Journal of Business and Technical Communication; v6 n2
p200-23 Apr 1992
ABSTRACT: Assesses reader reactions to a broad range of lexical, syntactical, and
text layout conditions, both in isolation and interactively. Finds that, although the role
of these elements in affecting readers' perceptions is not as critical as was
presumed, certain perceptions are significantly affected by specific lexical,
syntactical, and layout combinations.




ERIC_NO: EJ391911
TITLE: The Rhetoric of Issue Advertising: A Rationale, a Case Study, a Critical
Perspective--And More.
AUTHOR: Heath, Robert L.
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1988
JOURNAL_CITATION: Central States Speech Journal; v39 n2 p99-109 Sum 1988
ABSTRACT: Supports the use of issue advertising. Argues that speech
communication scholars can facilitate the responsible and effective use of issue ads.
Reviews critics and proponents of issue advertising. Develops a rationale to guide
the practice of issue advertising. Examines issue advertising in the current pro-
nuclear campaign.




ERIC_NO: EJ575128
TITLE: Social-Process Rhetorical Inquiry: Cultural Studies Methodologies for Critical
Writing about Advertisements.
AUTHOR: McComiskey, Bruce
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1997
JOURNAL_CITATION: JAC: A Journal of Composition Theory; v17 n3 p381-400
                                                                                        44

1997
ABSTRACT: Proposes a turn toward "social-process rhetorical inquiry" in
composition, a turn that requires further pedagogical adaptations of cultural studies
methodologies in writing classrooms. Notes that the social-process heuristic is based
on a cyclical model of writing processes, a model comprising cultural production,
contextual distribution, and critical consumption. Includes an advertising analysis
assignment based on this heuristic.




ERIC_NO: EJ652959
TITLE: Advertising Content in Physical Activity Print Materials.
AUTHOR: Cardinal, Bradley J.
PUBLICATION_DATE: 2002
JOURNAL_CITATION: American Journal of Health Promotion; v16 n5 p255-58 May-
Jun 2002
ABSTRACT: Evaluated the advertising content contained in physical activity print
materials. Analysis of print materials obtained from 80 sources (e.g., physicians'
offices and fitness events) indicated that most materials contained some form of
advertising. Materials coming from commercial product vendors generally contained
more advertising than materials coming from nonprofit, government, and professional
association sources.




ERIC_NO: ED295251
TITLE: An Instrument for the Systematic Study of Advertising Creative Appeals.
AUTHOR: Secrist, Mark
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1988
ABSTRACT: Although the generation of creative appeals is the heart and soul of
advertising, there has been little methodology developed for the classification and
study of the appeals themselves. The paper recommends the use of an instrument
which provides a technique that will enable the advertising researcher to develop
descriptive studies of ad appeals. The technique involves compiling the existing
appeals used in advertising (from ad copywriter's perspective and terminology) and
categorizing them into a motivational framework (from the consumer or receiver's
                                                                                      45

perspective), in order to develop a tool for their systematic study. The four categories
developed in the paper (a conceptual expansion of John Maloney's marketing
framework) are: rational/functional; sensory/aesthetic; social; and ego-attitude
support. The paper suggests that Maloney's framework, designed as a classification
of consumer motivations, can be adapted to the study of creative appeals and that
possible applications include (1) usage rates of appeals; (2) time series analysis of
trends in appeals usage; and (3) the comparison of appeals usage between different
media and between specific advertising vehicles. The framework's strength is that as
new appeals become evident they can be added as specifics under Maloney's broad
categories.




ERIC_NO: EJ370120 ‫مهم‬
TITLE: A Content Analysis of Visuals Used in Print Media Advertising.
AUTHOR: Moriarty, Sandra E.
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1987
JOURNAL_CITATION: Journalism Quarterly; v64 n2-3 p550-54 Sum-Fall 1987
ABSTRACT: Provides a content analysis of advertising visuals--illustrations and
photographs--to determine the frequency with which the basic visual communication
functions are used. Finds that photographs are the most frequently used type of
visual and that symbolic visuals are more prevalent than literal visuals.




ERIC_NO: EJ553743
TITLE: Portrayals of Latinos in Magazine Advertising.
AUTHOR: Taylor, Charles R.; Bang, Hae-Kyong
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1997
JOURNAL_CITATION: Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly; v74 n2
p285-303 Sum 1997
ABSTRACT: Offers a content analysis of U.S. magazine advertisements aimed at
general audiences, finding that Latinos are highly underrepresented in magazine
advertising. Shows that, although Latinos represent 10.5% of the U.S. population,
they were present in just 4.7% of ads, and only 2.2% contained a Latino model in
                                                                                        46

major role. (SR)




ERIC_NO: EJ171900
TITLE: L'enfant--le Publicitaire--l'Information syntaxique (The Child--Advertising--
Syntactic Information)
AUTHOR: Bentolila, Alain
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1977
JOURNAL_CITATION: Etudes de Linguistique Appliquee; 26, 9-19, Apr-Jun 77
ABSTRACT: A comparison of the linguistic development of the young child and the
language of advertising. It is noted that relative structural identity exists between
certain advertisements and certain linguistic productions of the child because of the
similarity of conditions in which the linguistic tool is used.




ERIC_NO: EJ144882 ‫مهم‬
TITLE: Some Registral Features of Matrimonial Advertisement in Indian English
AUTHOR: Mehrotra, R. R.
PUBLICATION_DATE: 1975
JOURNAL_CITATION: English Language Teaching Journal; 30, 1, 9-12, Oct 75
ABSTRACT: Examines these distinct registral features of matrimonial newspaper
advertisements in English in India: incongruity, deletion of preposition, miscellaneous
deletions, two-word sentence, new abbreviations, registral confusion, stylistic
variation.

				
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