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Psychological Testing and Screening of Candidates for Priesthood

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					           Psychological Testing and the Screening of Candidates
                       for Admission to Seminaries:
     A Survey Conducted by the NCEA Seminary Department and CARA
        At the 2005 National Catholic Educational Association (NCEA) Seminary Department
annual meeting in Philadelphia, rectors, vocation directors, and other seminary personnel
discussed the role of psychological assessment and its use in the admission of candidates to
seminary formation programs with a panel of three psychologists. It became evident to the group
that, across the United States, ―assessment‖ varies widely in scope, administration, and feedback
procedures. Those attending also noted the variation of expertise and experience among the
psychologists who conduct evaluations. This range extends from ―very experienced clinicians,‖
those who have a clear understanding of seminary formation and the qualities necessary for
priestly ministry and diocesan needs, to those psychologists who offer testing services without
clear criteria or understanding of the issues relevant to priestly formation. Furthermore, there
seemed to be diverse practices used by seminary administrators with regard to how testing results
are communicated to potential candidates and used by vocation directors or admissions
committees. Questions regarding confidentiality and retention of these tests from both civil and
canon law perspectives raised many new issues and concerns. With the publication of the fifth
edition of the Program of Priestly Formation (PPF) in September 2006, psychological testing
became normative (see Program of Priestly Formation, #44, #47, #51, #52, #53) for the
admission process. Members of the Seminary Department felt the need to continue this dialogue
with its constituency as well as the need for broader consultation with the larger church.

        In 2006, the Seminary Department began to explore the possibility of conducting a study
of the psychological assessment process with the primary objective of developing
recommendations for seminaries. To this end, the Seminary Department consulted with the
Center for Applied Research in the Apostolate (CARA) at Georgetown University along with
various experts in psychological assessment, priestly formation, and priestly life, about the
desirability and feasibility of conducting such a study.

        In 2007, the Seminary Department received the necessary funding for the study and
commissioned CARA to design and conduct a series of surveys and focus groups with diocesan
and religious vocation directors, psychologists, seminary rectors, and other formators. The
purpose of the research was to gather information about policies, procedures, and practices used
by dioceses, religious institutes, and seminaries to test and screen candidates for admission to
priestly formation.

        During May of 2007, the Seminary Department convened an advisory group to inform
and guide the study. The advisory group included representatives from the United States
Conference of Catholic Bishops, the Conference of Major Superiors of Men, the National
Conference of Diocesan Vocation Directors, the National Religious Vocation Conference, the
National Association of College Seminaries, the Midwest Association of Theological Schools,
the Organization for the Continuing Education of Roman Catholic Clergy, the Legal Resource
Center for Religious, and psychological assessment and treatment centers that serve priests and
religious.


                                                                                                   1
        The Seminary Department convened a consultation in January 2008 on confidentiality
and privacy issues related to psychological assessment. The consultation had two purposes: to
identify practices with respect to confidentiality, privacy rights, access to data, and record-
keeping policies in order to maintain the integrity of the ―internal forum‖ of the candidate; and to
establish a framework for the review of the information collected by CARA. In addition to the
many members of the advisory group, the meeting included experts in civil and canon law,
psychological assessment, priestly formation, and priest personnel issues.

        Later that year, CARA conducted a series of surveys of diocesan and religious vocation
directors (n=215)1, seminary rectors (n=58)2, and psychologists (n=55)3 who conduct the
psychological testing for dioceses, religious institutes, and seminaries. The research collected
data on current admissions policies, procedures, and practices that dioceses, religious institutes,
and seminaries have in place to screen and test candidates. It also examined how the results of
psychological testing and evaluation are used in the formation process, and how records of
psychological assessment are maintained both during formation and after ordination.

         After the data were collected, CARA conducted focus groups to gain insight into the
initial findings with vocation directors at the annual meeting of the National Conference for
Diocesan Vocation Directors and with seminary personnel at the annual meeting of the Midwest
Association of Theological Schools. In addition, CARA consulted the formation committee of
the Conference of Major Superiors of Men, the East Coast Rectors, and the National Association
of College Seminaries for reactions and recommendations on how the findings might be
presented.

        In June 2009, members of the advisory group synthesized the research findings into the
present document. This document incorporates pertinent texts from Program of Priestly
Formation, fifth edition (USCCB, 2006); Pastores dabo vobis (John Paul II, 1992); and
Guidelines for the Use of Psychology in the Admission and Formation of Candidates for the
Priesthood (Vatican, 2008). It is our consideration that these foundational texts, which guide and
direct all of seminary formation, provide support for this project on ―Title of Our Project.‖

        The format of this document gives special consideration to the survey respondents,
namely vocation directors, seminary rectors, and psychologists. Their responses have highlighted
practices and procedures that are seen as important by vocation directors, seminary formation
faculty, psychologists, canon lawyers, civil lawyers, and psychologists experienced in working
with seminarians. Our findings suggest that dioceses, religious institutes, and seminaries would
benefit from ongoing conversations with psychologists involved in the screening process to
acquaint the psychologists with the qualities desirable and necessary for priestly formation and
priesthood. This will create ―the atmosphere of faith, prayer, and meditation on the word of God,
the study of theology and community life—an atmosphere that is essential so that a generous
response to the vocation received from God can mature‖ (Guidelines, 2008, p. 5).

1
  Questionnaires received from diocesan vocation directors represent a 73% response rate. The data received from
vocation directors from religious institutes represent a 43% response rate. The ―n‖ represents the total number within
the sample of returned surveys.
2
  Questionnaires received from rectors of theologates and colleges reflect a 90% response rate.
3
  Questionnaires received from psychologists reflect a 67% response rate.

                                                                                                                    2
        Where applicable throughout this document, the responses from diocesan vocation
directors, religious formation directors, seminary rectors, and psychologists are presented side by
side in tables to illustrate commonalities and differences among them, which include:


          Components of the admissions process, such as policies, procedures for admission,
           admissions committee members, and admissions requirements

          Background and history of the candidate

          Types of documentation and background checks, if required

          Characteristics and abilities assessed, such as capacity for spiritual growth and
           conversion, psychosexual development, capacity to live celibate chastity, affective
           maturity, capacity for critical thinking and levels of self-knowledge

          A review of psychological tests used in the process for admission, as well as the
           process for feedback to the candidate and the vocation director, religious community
           or seminary

          Requirements and guidelines for mental health professionals

          Rights to privacy and confidentiality

          Reporting results of psychological testing and evaluation

          Comments on record retention and access to records

        The analysis includes comments and reflections from vocation directors, seminary
rectors, and formators that highlight commonly used practices in the admissions process that may
be helpful for those involved in admitting candidates to seminary formation programs.




                                                                                                  3
                      Part I: Components of Assessment and Screening

                                       Admissions Policy

       When asked if their seminary has a written admissions policy for candidates for priestly
formation, nine in ten rectors (90 percent) report that it does. By contrast, only 65 percent of
diocesan vocation directors, compared to 80 percent of religious vocation directors, say their
arch/diocese has such a policy. Typically, all three groups reported that their policy has been
updated since 2007.

       About two-thirds of diocesan vocation directors and seminary rectors
       reported that their arch/diocese has procedures for admission to priestly
       formation that are separate from those for admission to the seminary. By
       contrast, 20 percent of the religious vocation directors reported that
       candidates for their institute or society are required to undergo a separate
       screening process for admission to priestly formation.

                            Components of the Admissions Process
       The respondents were asked to identify whether the components listed in table 1 are
included in the admissions process for candidates for priestly formation. Later sections of the
surveys explored several of these components in greater detail.

       Diocesan and religious vocation directors reported that personal interviews, letters of
recommendation, psychological assessment, medical assessment, autobiography, and
background checks are part of the admissions process for their arch/diocese or religious institute.
Most rectors also reported that these are part of their admissions process.

  Table 1. Components of Admissions Process

  Which of the following are included in the admissions process for candidates for priestly
  formation in your arch/diocese, religious institute, or seminary?

                                          Diocesan            Religious           Seminary
                                          Vocation            Vocation             Rectors
                                          Directors           Directors
    Personal interview(s)                   100%                100%                  93%
    Letter(s) of recommendation              100                 99                   98
    Psychological assessment                 100                 95                   97
    Autobiography                             99                 95                   90
    Medical assessment                        98                 97                   93
    Background check(s)                       98                 89                   93
    Behavioral assessment                     62                 77                   47

        What is important to note in the table 1 is the fact that behavioral assessment is less
commonly reported among diocesan vocation directors and seminary rectors. This could be due
to the fact that some diocesan vocation directors and rectors see behavioral assessment as part of

                                                                                                   4
the entire admissions process. Behavioral assessment includes analyzing levels of interpersonal
maturity and development, emotional intelligence, affective maturity, and achievement, to name
a few. It is also important to note that ongoing behavioral assessment is part of the ongoing
human formation that seminaries require of their candidates in preparation for ordination.

Candidate’s Background and History
        Those surveyed were asked to identify the aspects of the candidate‘s background and
history that are explored as part of the application process (see table 2).

        Nearly all of the vocation directors explore family and educational background,
employment history, physical and mental health, spiritual development, vocational discernment,
and financial status as part of the application process. Most seminaries or seminary rectors also
explore the same areas of a candidate‘s background, but they are slightly less likely to investigate
the candidate‘s financial status, employment history, ministry experience, and social
relationships.

  Table 2. Candidate’s Background and History

  Please indicate which aspects of a candidate’s background and history are explored as
  part of the application process.

                                          Diocesan            Religious           Seminary
                                          Vocation            Vocation             Rectors
                                         Directors            Directors
    Employment history                   100%                    98%                  88%
    Family background                     99                  100                     95
    Educational background                99                      99                  97
    Physical health                       99                      99                  93
    Mental health                            99                   99                  93
    Spiritual development                    98                   99                  95
    Vocational discernment                   98                   98                  95
    Financial status                         97                   98                  78
    Ministry experience                      94                   91                  86
    Social relationships                     92                   94                  85

       Financial status is an important indicator of a candidate‘s stability and sense of
responsibility. While it reports a candidate‘s financial portfolio, it may also indicate addictive
behavior such as gambling, unwise investments, and irresponsibility. Seminary rectors typically
follow the diocesan and community guidelines regarding the financial standing of a candidate.
This may explain why only 78 percent of rectors explore a candidate‘s financial status.

       All of the psychologists surveyed indicated that the exploration of a
       candidate’s educational background, family background, mental health,
       family history, and social relationships are part of the psychological
       assessment process.


                                                                                                     5
Documentation and Background Checks

   At the diocesan level, the primary responsibility for overseeing
      the admissions process belongs to the bishop. Ultimately, of
  course, it is the responsibility of the bishop or religious ordinary
         to decide whether or not to admit candidates to priestly
       formation, in accordance with the criteria which have been
  properly established. The bishop or religious ordinary shares his
       responsibility with the vocation director or vocation team,
    perhaps also with a vocation board or commission, and with the
      local parishes. The admissions process requires sacramental
 records, autobiography, a review of the psychological and medical
          assessment (with due regard for CIC, c. 241, and Ratio
   fundamentalis, no. 39), observations of the potential candidates
     during the course of their visits to the seminary, interviews,
        transcripts, criminal background checks, and immigration
  documentation as well as letters of reference. Bishops, religious
      superiors, and rectors must have moral certitude about the
      psychological and physical health of those they admit to the
    seminary. In particular, they should be assured that applicants
   have a requisite level of affective maturity and the capacity to
 live celibate chastity. They will determine the means necessary to
        arrive at such certitude, including, for example, their own
    interviews with applicants, the reliable testimony of those who
        have known the applicants, and psychological and physical
    assessments made by expert consultants. (Program of Priestly
                            Formation, no. 39).

        The respondents were asked to specify the types of documentation or background checks
that are required as part of the application and admissions process. In table 3, the areas of
documentation or background checks are grouped into types, such as sacramental records and
previous academic or formation experience.




                                                                                            6
        All of the vocation directors and nearly all of the seminary rectors reported that a
baptismal certificate is required as part of the admissions process. Nearly all reported that a
confirmation certificate is required. The lower percentages requiring a parents‘ marriage
certificate is a reflection of the change from the 1917 Code of Canon Law. The 1983 revised
Code no longer requires proof of the parents‘ legal, valid, or sacramental marriage.

        The data suggest that seminaries in general need to be more cognizant of whether or not
the arch/diocese or religious institute conducts state and federal background checks. The Charter
for the Protection of Children and Young People (USCCB, 2002) mandates that all candidates
for priestly formation undergo both local and national background checks. In many cases, the
federal and local background check includes information regarding social security status, prior
military service, and any notations on a driving record. This may explain why the percentages
reporting driver‘s license, employment history, and credit history checks are lower than for some
other categories. Some seminaries check employment records and credit history for older
candidates, but not for younger candidates.

Table 3. Documents Required with Application

Which types of documentation or background checks are required as part of the application
and admissions process?

                                                        Diocesan        Religious       Seminary
                                                        Vocation        Vocation         Rectors
                                                        Directors       Directors
Sacramental Records
 Baptismal certificate                                    100%             100%            97%
 Confirmation certificate                                  98               97             97
 Marriage records (of applicant), if applicable            94               82             71
 Marriage certificate of applicant‘s parents               54               35             43
Previous Academic or Formation Experience
 Academic transcripts                                      100              94              97
 Previous seminary records, if applicable                   98              85              93
 Previous religious order records, if applicable            95              81              88
 Standardized test scores                                   57              32              67
Legal or Personal Background
 Proof of citizenship or immigration status                 84              83              74
 Medical records                                            81              82              86
 Social Security status                                     68              69              50
 Military records (discharge papers, for example)           61              64              36
 Driver‘s license check                                     59              52              47
 Employment records                                         51              49              21
 Credit record                                              41              56              26
Criminal Records or Abuse Registries
 State criminal record                                      96              81              85
 Federal criminal record                                    87              81              76
 Abuse registries                                           76              72              57

                                                                                                   7
  Additional Requirements for International Students
          Most vocation directors and seminary rectors reported that the admissions requirements
  for their arch/diocese, religious institute, or seminary are the same for international candidates as
  for other candidates. Some offered comments regarding the difficulty international students had
  during the assessment process. One diocesan vocation director writes, ―If a candidate‘s first
  language is not English, he is unable to interview with the members of the board.‖ Many
  international candidates are required to reside within the diocese for a few years prior to
  admittance. Often, these candidates study English, pass a TOEFL examination, and may live in a
  parish before the vocation director permits them to apply to the seminary.

         With regard to psychological assessment, some arch/dioceses acquire the assessment
  from the country of origin, while others seek out a bilingual psychologist within their
  arch/diocese. As stated in the Program for Priestly Formation, no. 52: ―Due care should be
  observed in correctly interpreting the results of psychological testing in light of the cultural
  background of applicants.‖

                 Almost all of the rectors reported that most requirements are the
          same for foreign-born candidates as for other candidates. Additional
          requirements for foreign-born candidates could include:

                    Visa/immigration status/I-20 or proof of U.S. citizenship

                    International academic evaluation of transcripts

                    ESL/TOEFL requirement

  Minimum Time Requirements
         For each of the circumstances listed below, the respondents were asked to indicate
  whether there is a minimum waiting period before candidates for priestly formation can be
  accepted for admission.

        About nine in ten vocation directors and seminary rectors indicated that they have a
  minimum waiting period for a recent convert to the faith, which is typically two or three years.

Table 4. Circumstances when a Minimum Waiting Period is Required

                                                              Diocesan        Religious       Seminary
                                                              Vocation        Vocation         Rectors
                                                              Directors       Directors
 Recent convert to the faith                                     90%             93%             89%
 Recently returned to the faith                                  76              67              70
 Previous experience in the seminary or religious life           63              60              68
 Residency in the arch/diocese                                   50              n/a             n/a
 Meeting with the vocation director                              43              65              n/a
 After novitiate before beginning priestly formation             n/a             37              n/a
                                                                                                      8
         Seven in ten rectors report that there is a minimum waiting period before someone who
recently returned to the faith can be admitted to the seminary. The waiting period is generally
about two years. A similar percentage of rectors report that there is a minimum waiting period of
at least two years for someone with previous experience in the seminary or religious life.

        Slightly more than six in ten vocation directors report that they have a minimum time
requirement of about two years for candidates who have previous experience in the seminary or
religious life.

        Two-thirds of religious vocation directors require a potential candidate to meet regularly
with the vocation director over a period of time before he can be accepted for admission to the
institute or society. The minimum length of time varies considerably, but typically ranges
between six months to one year. Four in ten diocesan vocation directors require this. Close to
four in ten require a period of time after novitiate before beginning priestly formation, typically
ranging between one and three years.



     If an applicant has been dismissed from a program of priestly
   formation or from an institute of consecrated life or a society of
  apostolic life, no subsequent application will be considered in the two
    years following such dismissal. If the departure was other than a
  dismissal, sufficient time should be allotted to evaluate carefully his
                        application and background.

                                         Commentary
  This waiting period is intended both to assist the applicant by giving
  him sufficient time to deal with the issues that led to his departure
    and to safeguard the diocese or religious community against the
    unnecessary risks of a speedy readmission. Reconsideration of a
  decision to dismiss should rarely, if ever, be undertaken, and only if
    demonstrably clear and positive reasons to the contrary can be
   established. (Program for Priestly Formation, Addendum A, Norms
          for Evaluation of Applications in These Cases, no. 2.)
        The data clearly shows that the majority of vocation directors, arch/dioceses, and
seminaries uphold the minimum requirements for readmission prescribed in the Program of
Priestly Formation.


                                                                                                      9
                          Part II: Areas of Assessment


  Candidates for admission, in other words, should have attained, at
   least in some measure, growth in those areas represented by the
 four pillars or in the integrated dimensions of formation identified
in Pastores dabo vobis: human, spiritual, intellectual, and pastoral. In
    trying to determine what is sufficient growth or development in
 these areas, seminaries ought to be clear and specific. For example,
sufficient human formation for admission means not only an absence
       of serious pathology but also a proven capacity to function
      competently in ordinary human situations without need to do
   extensive therapeutic or remedial work to be fully functioning, a
     psychosexual maturity commensurate with chronological age, a
    genuine empathy that enables the applicant to connect well and
  personally with others, a capacity for growth or conversion, and a
      deep desire to be a man for others in the likeness of Christ.
  Sufficient spiritual formation means a well catechized person who
  prays daily, belongs to a parish, participates at least weekly in the
 Sunday Eucharist and regularly in the Sacrament of Penance, and is
     drawn to explore and deepen his spiritual life and share it with
others. Sufficient intellectual formation means proven capacities for
critical thinking, an ability to understand both abstract and practical
    questions, and the capacity to understand other persons and to
  communicate effectively with them in both oral and written form.
 Sufficient pastoral formation means having a fundamental sense of
  the Church’s mission and a generous willingness and enthusiasm to
 promote it and knowing how the ordained priesthood contributes to
 the mission; having a sensitivity to the needs of others and a desire
  to respond to them; and having a willingness to initiate action and
     assume a position of leadership for the good of individuals and
         communities. (Program for Priestly Formation, no. 37).



                                                                      10
        Table 5 lists the various areas that are covered in the psychological assessment of
 candidates. Listed below are the area percentages reported by vocation directors, rectors and
 psychologists.
Table 5. Assessment Components

To what extent does the process for admitting candidates to priestly formation assess the
following?*
          Percentage Responding ―Very Much‖

                                           Diocesan       Religious      Seminary      Psychologists
                                           Vocation       Vocation        Rectors
                                           Directors      Directors
 Capacity to live celibate chastity           80%            87%             74%             71%
 Psychosexual development                     77             82              81              80
 Capacity for growth and conversion           70             75              70              51
 Affective maturity                           68             74              70              89
 History of substance abuse                   66             73              67              73
 Interpersonal skills                         64             64              60              82
 Sexual orientation or inclination            58             64              53              73
 Ability to communicate effectively           55             55              44              62
 Level of self-knowledge                      55             68              50              67
 Sexual experience                            53             64              63              78
 Capacity for empathy                         51             61              54              80
 Capacity for leadership                      46             35              37              44
 Manner of dealing with authority             46             54              51              67
 Decision-making skills                       40             43              30              42
 Capacity for critical thinking               38             38              33              36
 Ability to grasp practical questions         36             36              39              40
 Ability to grasp abstract questions          24             29              32              46
 Cross-cultural adaptability                  n/a            n/a             n/a             16

*Note: Psychologists were asked ―To what extent do you assess the following in the psychological
 testing and evaluation process for candidates for priestly formation?‖


          The data clearly portray a pattern suggesting that affective maturity, psychosexual
 development, and the capacity to live a celibate lifestyle are emphasized by all groups as
 priorities for the admissions process. In contrast, intellectual ability, capacity for leadership,
 manner of dealing with authority, and problem solving seem to be less emphasized. This is
 consistent with the findings that psychologists report in these areas. One reason for the lesser
 emphasis may be that many of the cognitive abilities are addressed through transcript analysis,
 graduate records exams, and standardized testing by the seminaries in the admissions process.
 Pastoral leadership formation, decision-making skills, and the manner of dealing with authority
 are areas that seminaries typically address during the formation process. Cross-cultural



                                                                                                   11
adaptability is likely to be a growing area in the assessment of candidates for the admissions
process.

       Some of the highlights in the data include the following observations:

          Vocation directors are more likely than seminary rectors and psychologists to report
           that they assess the capacity to live celibate chastity.

          About eight in ten respondents in all categories indicate that assessment of
           psychosexual development is ―very much‖ a part of the admissions process for
           candidates.

          About three-fourths of respondents report that affective maturity and the capacity for
           growth and conversion are assessed as part of the admissions process. Psychologists
           are even more likely to report that they assess affective maturity, but they are less
           likely to assess the capacity for growth and conversion.

          Skills associated with the ability to relate to and interact with others are also relatively
           high on the list of qualities and characteristics likely to be assessed.

          Similarly, a majority of the respondents assess sexual orientation or inclination and
           sexual experience.


     The human formation of candidates for the priesthood aims to
  prepare them to be apt instruments of Christ’s grace. … A person of
   affective maturity: someone whose life of feelings is in balance and
  integrated into thought and values; in other words, a man of feelings
   who is not driven by them but freely lives his life enriched by them;
     this might be especially evidenced in his ability to live well with
    authority and in his ability to take direction from another, and to
   exercise authority well among his peers, as well as an ability to deal
                   productively with conflict and stress.
                (Program for Priestly Formation, no. 76.6).

          Affective maturity, interpersonal skills, capacity for empathy, and psychosexual
           development are the characteristics that are most likely to be part of the psychological
           assessment process. At least eight in ten psychologists reported that these are
           assessed.

        Vocation directors and rectors also find the assessment information necessary, as well as
helpful, in the area of human formation. According to one college rector, ―I find the assessment

                                                                                                    12
on affective maturity and sexual history most helpful in assessing the candidate‘s suitability for
college seminary.‖ Another rector said, ―The counselor‘s interview proves to be the most helpful
in our experience.‖ A number of rectors found that assessment reports help identify human
formation concerns for the candidate, such as estimated levels of maturity, personality
characteristics, suggested areas for growth, and potential issues with substance abuse or addictive
behavior.

        One religious vocation director wrote, ―[Psychological testing] helps us complete the
picture we have from conducting interviews, confirms our assessment, and defines strengths and
weaknesses regarding the candidate‘s formation.‖

     The whole work of priestly formation would be deprived of its
   necessary foundation if it lacked a suitable human formation.” This
    statement by the synod fathers expresses not only a fact which
   reason brings to our consideration every day and which experience
      confirms, but a requirement which has a deeper and specific
      motivation in the very nature of the priest and his ministry.
                      (Pastores dabo vobis, no. 43).

        A diocesan vocation director wrote, ―While I am still relatively new in the position, the
main thing that we look for ‗in close collaboration with the diocesan seminary‘ is the personal
history and indications of potential areas of concern in the future. Questions we want to have
answered through the clinical evaluation and interviews are: Does the candidate have a stable
employment history? Does he have a normal range of friends of his own peer group? What are
the reasons for entering religious life at this time? Are there major concerns in the family of
origin? We use the psychological assessment as an aspect of the application process. If there are
major red flags that are raised in the report, we do raise them against my judgment and the
experience of the formation team at the seminary.‖


 Lastly, we must not forget that the candidate himself is a necessary
  and irreplaceable agent in his own formation: All formation, priestly
 formation included, is ultimately a self formation. No one can replace
   us in the responsible freedom that we have as individual persons.
                     (Pastores dabo vobis, no. 69).




                                                                                                13
                                Use of Psychological Assessment


  Seminaries should specify thresholds or foundations in a way that
    permits those charged with admitting candidates to have clear
   criteria available. This approach to admissions assumes that the
  seminary formation program is not the place for long term therapy
    or remedial work, which should be completed prior to a decision
    concerning admission. (Program for Priestly Formation, no. 43).


        Nearly all respondents reported that they use the results of the psychological assessment
for both screening out applicants and as a resource for formation. Eight in ten religious vocation
directors use the results for screening out applicants, and more than nine in ten use them as a
resource for formation. Psychologists also report that in their experience, the results of the
psychological assessments are used by diocesan vocation directors, religious institutes, and
seminaries for screening out applicants, and as a resource for formation.

        According to one diocesan vocation director, ―The assessments round out a picture of the
candidate; determine acceptance of a candidate; provide insight into possible problem areas in a
candidate‘s personality; [and] confirm suspicions or assist in sorting out questions raised about a
candidate.‖ A religious vocation director commented, ―The assessment is most helpful for
formation and alerting to issues for growth. Usually, the truly psychologically ill are screened out
before this phase. Also, sometimes it helps confirm one‘s own sense of [an] individual with more
objective data.‖ One rector said, ―It is good to know that a professional has worked with the
student. Sometimes I find when the student is having trouble that something helpful is in his
file.‖ One rector commented, ―The interview given by the psychologist after testing provides
insights into the overall psychological health of the candidate.‖ Another diocesan vocation
director recommended ―getting to know those professionals who conduct these tests for the
diocese; meeting with them annually.‖




                                                                                                 14
Interviews
        Almost all of the vocation directors reported that they conduct interviews with candidates
as part of the application and admissions process.

   Table 6. Who Interviews the Potential Candidate?

   If interviews with the potential candidate are part of the application and admissions
   process, who typically conducts them?

                                          Diocesan             Religious           Seminary
                                          Vocation             Vocation             Rectors
                                          Directors            Directors
    Vocation director                        98%                  95%                  76%
    Bishop                                   56                   n/a                  22
    Major superior                           n/a                  44                   n/a
    Novice/formation director                n/a                  43                   n/a
    Vocation team                            54                   43                   32
    Seminary admissions board                51                    *                   50
    Seminary rector                          28                   20                   70
    Formation personnel/team                 20                   26                   41
    Other                                    22                   30                   15

   *Seminary rector or admissions board combined for religious vocation directors.


        The data demonstrates that vocation directors see personal interviews as integral to the
application process. One diocesan vocation director commented, ―[Psychological assessment] is
a very valuable tool or component of our evaluation of a candidate‘s suitability for priestly
ministry. However, it does not substitute for my own responsibility in getting to know a
candidate, guiding his development, and ultimately judging his capacity for leadership.‖

        More than half of diocesan vocation directors reported that the bishop personally
interviews the candidate and close to half of the religious vocation directors reported that the
major superior meets with the candidate. While 70 percent of the seminary rectors interview
candidates, 30 percent of rectors rely on the material from diocesan vocation directors.




                                                                                                   15
                              References and Recommendations

        Table 7 below indicates the references or recommendations required by diocesan and
religious vocation directors and seminary rectors. Most respondents reported that references or
recommendations are required from the candidate‘s pastor.

  Table 7. References or Recommendations Required for Application

  If references or recommendations are part of the application and admissions process,
  from whom are they required?

                                          Diocesan            Religious           Seminary
                                          Vocation            Vocation             Rectors
                                          Directors           Directors
    Pastor(s)                               100%                 87%                 91%
    Employer(s)                              63                  67                  40
    Teacher(s)                               54                  40                  42
    Friend(s)                                50                  54                  23
    Family member(s)                         43                  41                  18
    Ministry supervisor(s)                   37                  40                  49
    Coworker(s)                              24                  34                  16
    Other                                    31                  23                  42

        The data suggest that employers, teachers, and friends are selected by the candidate to
offer a letter of recommendation. ―Other‖ persons from whom references or recommendations
are required include priests, previous seminary rectors, and vocation directors (in the case of men
applying to a major seminary having completed the college seminary or a pre-theology program).


    Applicants must undergo a thorough screening process. Personal
  interviews with the applicants, evaluations from their pastors and
     teachers, records and evaluations from a previous seminary or
   religious community if applicable, academic records, standardized
    test scores, psychological evaluations, and criminal background
 checks are all components of an effective admission program and are
  weighed together with an assessment of the applicant’s motivation.
      Those who do not fulfill these entrance requirements of the
                    seminary must not be admitted.
                (Program of Priestly Formation, no. 47).




                                                                                                  16
                              Part III: Psychological Evaluation

Guidelines for Psychological Evaluation


 Seminaries should draw up guidelines for psychologists and admission
   personnel and describe those human traits and qualities that are
consonant with an authentic vocation to the priesthood as well as those
   counter-indications that would suggest that the applicant is not a
    suitable candidate. Seminaries as well as dioceses and religious
  communities must be assured that those who conduct psychological
 evaluations for them are well versed in and supportive of the Church’s
expectations of candidates for the priesthood, especially expectations
          concerning celibacy and permanence of commitment.
                 (Program of Priestly Formation, no. 51).
        Vocation directors and seminary rectors were asked if they provided guidelines to those
conducting psychological testing. Most reported that they do (88 percent of diocesan vocation
directors, 73 percent of religious vocation directors, and 82 percent of seminaries). Table 8
below shows the specific areas they want test administrators to evaluate.

Table 8. Guidelines Given for Evaluations

If the arch/diocese, religious institute, or seminary provides guidelines to those conducting the
psychological evaluation, do the guidelines specify the following?

                                                Diocesan     Religious    Seminary     Psychologists
                                                Vocation     Vocation      Rectors
                                                Directors    Directors
 The traits and qualities consonant with a
   vocation to religious life and to the           78%          80%           84%            69%
   priesthood
 The Church‘s expectations regarding                78           72           82             40
   celibacy
 Counter-indications that would suggest that
   an applicant is not suitable                     58           63           73             38
 The Church‘s expectations regarding
   permanence of commitment                         66           62           76             27
 The types of tests to be conducted                 79           52           71             51




                                                                                               17
        In table 8 above, psychologists reported lower percentages, indicating that it is not always
clear to them what areas they should be testing. Effective psychological evaluation requires a
clear set of expectations expressed in a question, for example, Is this person capable of the rigors
of community life or rectory living? While psychologists have knowledge of the global
expectations and tests to be used, they lack understanding regarding such particulars as celibacy,
permanence of commitment, and the capacity to live priestly life. Psychologists would benefit
from clear and direct communication from vocation directors and rectors regarding the Church‘s
guidelines and lifestyle requirements.

Requirements of Those Who Conduct Psychological Evaluation



     In a spirit of reciprocal trust and in cooperation with his own
   formation, the candidate can be invited freely to give his written
 consent so that the expert in the psychological sciences, who is bound
 by confidentiality, can communicate the results of the consultation to
           the formators indicated by the candidate himself.
                         (Guidelines, 2008, p. 13).

        Diocesan and religious vocation directors, along with seminary rectors, were asked to
indicate if they require psychologists to have a degree of familiarity with the Church,
seminarians, priests, the arch/diocese and religious life.

    Table 9. Requirements for Psychologists

    Does the arch/diocese, religious institute, or seminary require the following of those
    who conduct psychological evaluation?

                                                          Diocesan     Religious    Seminary
                                                          Vocation     Vocation      Rectors
                                                          Directors    Directors
     Familiarity with the Catholic Church                    88%         90%            83%
     Experience working with seminarians                     66           55            59
     Familiarity with arch/diocese and religious life        64           89            n/a
     Experience working with priests                         47           48            45

        All three groups require that the psychologists have a familiarity with the Catholic
Church. The low percentage that require ―experience in working with priests‖ suggests that many
see this as less important than experience working with seminarians. Religious vocation directors
are more likely to require psychologists to understand the lifestyle of the religious institute,
thereby insuring that they would be in a position to assess the capacity to live that charism.
Vocation directors could improve the utility of the psychological evaluation by more clearly


                                                                                                 18
articulating specific criteria that reflect the ministerial components, and living and rectory
dynamics, required of diocesan priests.

Psychologist or Other Clinical Professional who Conducts the Screening

Note: the citations in the box below need to be revised and corrected.


  Boundaries of Competence: Psychologists provide services, teach,
  and conduct research with populations and in areas only within the
   boundaries of their competence. (American Psychological Association
      Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code Of Conduct, 2002, page 4)


                                             ———

     The test user’s [psychologist’s] key function is to make valid
    interpretations of test scores and data, often collected from
   multiple sources, using proper test selection, administration, and
 scoring procedures. To provide valid interpretations, it is important
     that test users be able to integrate knowledge of applicable
 psychometric and methodological principles, the theory behind the
       measured construct and related empirical literature, the
  characteristics of the particular tests used, and the relationship
  between the selected test and the particular testing purpose, the
   testing process, and, in some contexts, the individual test taker.
  (American Psychological Association Task Force on Test User Qualifications,
                               2000, page 32).




                                                                                                 19
       Diocesan and religious vocation directors and seminary rectors reported using the
following types of professionals for screening and evaluation.


  Table 10. Testing Professionals

  Which type of professional typically conducts the testing?

                                       Diocesan          Religious          Seminary
                                       Vocation          Vocation             Rectors
                                       Directors         Directors
   Psychologist                          91%                95%                 91%
   Psychiatrist                       18                    15                  11
   Clinical social worker              2                     6                   7
   Counselor                           2                     1                   5
   Other                               2                     1                   0
  *Note that percentages sum to more than 100 because respondent could select more than
  one category of response.

         Ninety-six (96) percent of the professionals identified by vocation directors and seminary
rectors as those conducting evaluations were psychologists. The survey did not ask whether the
other mental health professionals who conduct these evaluations also utilize psychological tests
in their evaluations.

       The psychologists surveyed had the following credentials:

          99 percent are licensed, with one pending licensure

          On average, respondents reported 26 years of experience in assessment, of which 16
           years was specific to evaluating candidates for priestly formation

          On average, a typical psychologist works with three dioceses, four religious institutes,
           and three seminaries

        As table 10 shows, more than 90 percent of all evaluations are conducted by
psychologists. Each psychologist averaged 143 candidate assessments, or nine per year. Almost
all professionals are licensed or supervised by a licensed psychologist, which is consistent with
professional standards. The experience level of the psychologists reflects individuals who are
well experienced not only in psychological assessments but in evaluating candidates for
seminary formation.


Psychological Tests Utilized

Clinical Interview



                                                                                                20
       Almost all psychologists (98 percent) report using a clinical interview as part of the
evaluation process.

Specific Tests Used
        Respondents were asked to indicate the specific tests they include as part of the typical
battery of psychological tests for candidates. These tests were categorized according to cognitive
assessment tests, objective personality tests, projective personality tests, and other psychological
tests. Assessment of non-English speaking candidates will be discussed in the section under
culturally sensitive assessments. (See Appendix C for a brief definition and description of the
measures discussed in this section.)

       Cognitive Assessment Measures
       Across all participants, the following intellectual tests were used with the highest
frequency (over 70 percent):

          Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–Third Edition (WAIS–III)

          Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI)

       Other intellectual tests utilized included: Shipley Institute of Living Scale (SILS);
Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Second Edition (KBIT–2); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test,
Fourth Edition (PPVT–4); and the General Ability Measure for Adults (GAMA).

       Neuropsychological tests and specific tests of learning were used less than 10 percent of
the time. These included: Conners‘ Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS); the
Neuropsychological Impairment Scale (NIS); Wechsler Individual Achievement Test–Second
Edition (WIAT–II, ); California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition, Adult Version (CLVT–II,
); Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, Second Edition (Bender Gestalt–II); and a Mental Status
Evaluation.

        Finally, some psychologists rely upon academic history, including college grades and
GRE scores, to determine the applicant‘s intellectual functioning. The overwhelming majority of
psychologists utilize one of the Wechsler scales of intelligence and they seem to be reflective of
a standard protocol for cognitive assessment. The tests that respondents reported they utilize are
widely researched and validated with good predictability of academic performance. They are
widely used in academic settings and assess such areas as: problem solving, coping skills, and
the ability to navigate stressful events. Some measures of intellectual functioning are utilized for
cost effectiveness. The use of past academic performance can be effective in determining the
extent and necessity of the assessment tools used.




                                                                                                  21
Personality Assessment: Objective Tests

       Objective personality tests/inventories An objective test that attempts to
       measure the range of individual differences (Peterson, 1997). Such tests and
       inventories have norms or a substantial body of research that helps with
       identifying individual differences.


       Two major assessment subgroups emerged from the data. The first subgroup focuses on
pathology, abnormality, or deficits. The second subgroup focuses upon strengths, abilities, and
adaptive traits (dispositional aspects of personality) and skills.

Pathology-focused measures:
       The most commonly used test in this subgroup, utilized by 90 to 100 percent of the
responding testing professionals, is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–2 (MMPI-
2).

Other pathology-focused measures used included:
       Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory–III (MCMI–III); Personality Assessment Inventory
(PAI); California Psychological Inventory, Third Edition (CPI); Millon Index of Personality
Styles Revised (MIPS Revised); Symptom Checklist–90–Revised (SCL–90–R), and Beck
Depression Scale.

Strength-focused measures:
       The most commonly used test in this subgroup is the Sixteen Personality Factor
Questionnaire, Fifth Edition (16PF), with approximately 30 percent of respondents reporting its
use.

Other strength-focused measures used included:
       Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS), FIRO-B (Fundamental Interpersonal
Relations Orientation-Behavior), NEO, and Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI).

        The balance of pathology- and strength-focused tests allows the psychologist to identify
specific strengths and weaknesses in the candidate that are relevant to the formation process.
Pathology is addressed through highly standardized and validated measures of assessment.

       The MMPI–2 is used in almost all dioceses and religious institutes, which suggest a
common standardization. These evaluations have provided excellent measures of personality
functioning.

Projective testing often involves asking individuals to respond to
  ambiguous stimuli. Since the stimuli do not demand particular
 reactions, anything the individual responds to them reveals the
         workings of their personality. (Peterson, 1997).

                                                                                               22
Personality Testing: Projective Measures

      Among projective personality assessment tests, the most commonly used is the
Rorschach (inkblot test). Approximately 60 percent of evaluations include this test.

       Other projective personality measures included: Rotter Incomplete Sentences Blank,
Second Edition (RISB), Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), Personal Sentence Completion
Inventory (PSCI), projective drawings, and the Szondi Test.

       While the exact scoring system for the Rorschach was not asked, it is likely that many of
the psychologists utilize the Exner scoring system which is regarded as the standard at this time.

Other Tests
         A variety of other measures were reported by psychologists. These are used by
psychologists to understand validity issues and concerns, or specific issues that the individual
may be experiencing, as well as concerns identified by the diocese or religious community. Some
of the listed measures included: Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS), Cross-Cultural Adaptability
Inventory (CCAI), Strong Interest Inventory, Career Assessment Inventory, Paulhus Deception
Scales (PDS), Irrational Beliefs Scale, Multimodal Life History Inventory, and Implicit
Association Test (IAT).

      Additionally, various measures of sexual behavior were assessed using the St. Luke
Psychosexual Test, Internet screening measures, and Abel Screening.

       The data suggest:

              The use of additional testing may be requested by vocation directors and rectors
               for candidates whose initial profiles raise red flags.

              The dimensions assessed seem to be focused upon specific areas that need to be
               more deeply explored.


                       Assessment of Addictions or Addictive Behaviors

       In addition to being asked about specific tests, the psychologists were asked if the
evaluation process is designed to assess certain types of addictions or addictive behaviors.


             Table 11.
             Please indicate if the evaluation process is designed to assess the
             following types of addictions or addictive behaviors?

                                                                       Percentage
              Alcohol                                                     96%
              Drugs                                                        96
              Pornography                                                  80
                                                                                                  23
              Internet use                                                  62
              Gambling                                                      47
              Other                                                         16

       The data suggest:

          Use of alcohol, drugs, and pornography are included in most assessments.

          In contrast, addictive behaviors related to Internet use and gambling are assessed less
           often.


                                    Specific Issues in Testing

       Vocation directors, seminary rectors, and psychologists were asked a series of open-
ended questions in order to obtain more detailed responses to certain aspects of the psychological
assessment policies that were addressed in the survey.

       Is there anything you do differently in the psychological testing and evaluation process
for candidates for priestly formation for dioceses versus religious institutes?

        Approximately half of the psychologists responding indicated that they assessed both
religious candidates and diocesan candidates. They make adjustments in their interviews by
noting different behavioral and contextual requirements between religious and diocesan clients.
Psychologists reported the need to be:

          Aware of the culture or charism of the religious community and ask questions in the
           interview to assess the candidate‘s understanding of this charism to determine if his
           personality style is suited for it. This requires a clear understanding of the unique
           charism or lifestyle of the specific religious institute.

          Aware of a communal lifestyle in order to determine if a candidate would exhibit
           such factors as interdependence, group orientation, ease of living with others, and in
           monastic settings the ability to live in close and constant relationship with others.

          Aware of the dynamics required for diocesan priesthood: such as, the capacity to live
           alone; the skills to handle the demands of parish life; the capacity for leadership and
           collaboration; and communication and conflict resolution skills.

          Aware of the candidate‘s understanding of the religious vows of poverty, chastity,
           and obedience or the clerical promises of celibacy and obedience to the bishop.

       While the assessment measures used are generally the same for diocesan candidates and
for candidates for religious institutes, psychologists reported that the following adjustments are
made to their interview process:




                                                                                                  24
           Different questions are asked and different nuances are listened for that help the
            psychologist assess each candidate‘s understanding of the above-mentioned
            differences.

           Including or excluding specific tests based upon the requests of the diocese or
            religious institute.

        In your experience, what aspects of the psychological assessment process are most
helpful in evaluating a candidate for admission to priestly formation?

         Approximately 90 percent of the psychologists described aspects of the following issues
in their comments:

       1.   The value of an integration of data from several sources including:

             Background history, often extensive

             In-depth clinical interview(s)

             Psychological measures reflecting cognitive functioning and personality
               assessment utilizing both objective and projective measures to varying degrees

       2. The battery of tests administered depends upon the psychologist‘s assessment style
          and his or her comfort, training, and belief in the specific tests.

       3. The value of a team approach in the assessment insured some degree of reliability in
          the conclusions about the candidate.

       4. There is a need to communicate these findings in a clear and effective manner by
          integrating the data into a meaningful report with less emphasis upon test scores and
          general statements and more upon the individual‘s strengths and weaknesses.

       5. A feedback session with the vocation board and, when possible, the seminary staff
          once the candidate is accepted.

       Are there other tests that should be part of the typical battery?

       Approximately half of the psychologists suggested that the following types of measures
be added to the testing process:

           Measures of emotional intelligence.

           Measures of psychopathy.

           Measures of religious maturity or faith development.

           Measures of substance abuse.


                                                                                                 25
          Specific measures may be considered when an issue arises over an individual‘s
           history or a concern is identified during the assessment process. For example, one
           psychologist identified using measures for possible learning disorders based upon the
           history.

          Some psychologists commented that they rely upon empirically-validated or
           evidence-based measures. Other psychologists commented upon the use of projective
           measures.

     Please describe any requirements that are different—or any accommodations that are
made—for foreign-born candidates.

       Approximately three-quarters of the psychologists responding commented on the
processes used in their evaluation of international applicants. The following areas were listed:

       1. An assessment of the candidate‘s ability and proficiency to take the test in English or
          with accommodations for conducting the evaluation in his native language. This
          included:

              Actual assessment of reading skills in English, such as WRAT-R

              Use of translators or interpreters for the interview process

       2. Based upon the degree of proficiency, the following factors are considered in test
          selection:

              Use of non-English versions of the tests that the psychologist commonly uses in
               evaluation

              Review of items to determine if the questions are readable, culturally relevant, or
               meaningful for the candidate

              Use of dictionaries to assist the candidate in completing objective measures

              Specific translation of items into the native language of the candidate

       3. Adaptation of the clinical interview and background history to include assessment of
          the level of acculturation that the candidate has experienced.

       4. In the interpretation of the test results, several issues were identified:

              Use of standardized norms for the respective population of the candidate, such as
               Hispanic/Latino norms for Hispanic/Latino candidates

              Extreme caution in the interpretation of findings in relationship to cultural
               differences, particularly when accommodations were made or non-English norms
               were not available

                                                                                                   26
              The need to understand the culture of the candidate when the psychologist
               interprets the findings, for example, in Asian candidates, the avoidance of eye
               contact and the lack of any affect to the results needs to be understood as
               culturally normative rather than pathological

       The multicultural assessment practices reported in this survey are consistent with
guidelines and standards of practice outlined by the American Psychological Association (APA,
2002). For further multicultural assessment resources and practical suggestions, see Appendix A.




                                                                                                 27
                           Part IV: Canonical and Legal Concerns


       There are no laws or norms that specifically govern the policy of files and records of
psychological testing of candidates for priesthood studies and for ordination. However, there are
some principles that help formulate what would be the best practices in this regard.

       The first principle is that under canon law a person has a right to his good name and
privacy (canon 220). Therefore, any policy about files, records, and their retention must
safeguard the good name and the privacy of a candidate.

        The second principle is that psychological assessments belong to the candidate unless he
releases them. Therefore, the candidate should know to whom and for what purposes the
assessments are being done in order for him to give informed consent to any release.




                                                                                               28
                             Rights to Privacy and Confidentiality


         Concerning the results of psychological testing and other
        confidential materials, the seminary must observe all legal
 requirements, inform the applicant in writing of his specific rights to
    privacy and confidentiality, and utilize appropriate release forms.
  Throughout the admission process and, if accepted, after entrance
       into the seminary, the candidate’s right to privacy should be
 respected and the careful management of confidential materials is to
         be observed. This is especially true in the case of sharing
 confidential information with a team of formators, while at the same
   time ensuring that those charged with the candidate’s growth and
 integration have the clear and specific information they need so that
 they can help the candidate achieve the growth necessary to become
   a “man of communion.” The rector must observe a careful vigilance
    that protects the privacy and reputation of the seminarian in his
   relationship with the formation faculty. The traditional distinction
      between internal and external forum is to be maintained. Clear
  policies must be enunciated concerning who may have access to any
     of the admissions materials. Clear directives must be in place to
  determine any further use of psychological testing results or other
     admissions materials for formation or even counseling purposes.
                  (Program of Priestly Formation, no. 57).

       Almost all of the respondents reported that the candidate is informed of his rights to
privacy and confidentiality regarding the results of the psychological testing.




                                                                                                29
     Table 12. Informed Consent
                Percentage Responding

     If the candidate is informed of his rights to privacy and confidentiality regarding the
     results of the psychological testing, is the candidate informed:

                                          Diocesan            Religious           Seminary
                                          Vocation            Vocation             Rectors
                                          Directors           Directors
      Orally                                 27%                 27%                 33%
      In Writing                             24                  22                  35
      Both                                   49                  51                  33

        The data suggest that about half of diocesan and religions vocation directors, compared to
only a third of the seminary rectors, inform candidates both orally and in writing. Rectors of
college seminaries are more likely than rectors of theologates to say that candidates are only
orally informed of their rights to privacy and confidentiality. It is preferred that both an oral and
a written form of consent be provided to the candidate. This ensures he understands it (oral) and
that there is a record of it (written). If a candidate is a minor (17 or younger), a parent must give
consent, along with the candidate.


Release Form or Waiver


  To arrive at a correct evaluation of the candidate’s personality, the
  expert can have recourse to both interviews and tests. These must
  always be carried out with the previous, explicit, informed and free
           consent of the candidate. (Guidelines, 2008, p. 5).




                                                                                                  30
        Nearly all of the diocesan and religious vocation directors and seminary rectors reported
that the candidate is required to sign a waiver to release the results of psychological testing. A
more detailed description of what is included in the release form is provided below. Most of the
respondents specify to whom the results will be released.

  Table 13. Test Results Waiver

  If the candidate is required to sign a waiver to release the results of psychological testing,
  does the release form:

                                                      Diocesan        Religious      Seminary
                                                      Vocation        Vocation        Rectors
                                                      Directors       Directors
   Specify to whom the results will be released          90%             94%             94%
   Explain how the results will be used                   68             79              69
   Specify who will have access to the results            61             75              59
   Specify how long the results will be kept              18             41              18

       The majority of respondents specify who will have access to the results and how they will
be used. However, a significant number do not include this information in the release form as
required by the Program of Priestly Formation. Most do not specify the length of time results
should be kept. A clear policy included in the release form should be established in every
diocese, religious institute and seminary on release and access to records as well as the time
frame for their retention .


Reporting the Results of Psychological Testing and Evaluation


                       Explaining Assessment Results
    Psychologists take reasonable steps to ensure that explanations of
      results are given to the individual or designated representative
       unless the nature of the relationship precludes provision of an
      explanation of results (such as in some organizational consulting,
    reemployment or security screenings, and forensic evaluations), and
    this fact has been clearly explained to the person being assessed in
                       advance. (APA, 2002, page 14)




                                                                                                   31
       The individuals who receive the results of the psychological tests and evaluations are
shown in table 14, below. All of the psychologists surveyed indicate that the vocation director
receives a report of the results.

Table 14. Recipients of Test Reports

Who receives a report of the results of the psychological testing and evaluation?

                                       Diocesan      Religious     Seminary Psychologists
                                       Vocation      Vocation       Rectors
                                      Directors      Directors
 Vocation director                        97%            84%          85%       100%
 Seminary rector                          70             54*           86        36
 Bishop                                   63             n/a          47**       15
 Major superior                           n/a            59            **        13
 Candidate                                61             78            57        75
 Seminary admissions board                54              *            31         9
 Vocation team                            23             26            10        11
 Novice/formation director                n/a            51            n/a       n/a
 Formation personnel                      17             22            12         9
 Other                                     9              8             5         7
*Seminary rector or admissions board combined for religious vocation directors.
**Bishop or major superior combined for seminary rectors.

        Three-fourths of the psychologists disclosed that they give a report to the candidate.
Psychologists surveyed are less likely to give a report to the seminary, bishop, or major superior.
Most vocation directors and seminary rectors responded that the seminary receives a report of the
results of the psychological testing. Almost two-thirds of the diocesan vocation directors and
almost half of the seminary rectors receive a report of the results. Among religious vocation
directors, most responded that the major superior receives a report. Half of the diocesan vocation
directors and close to one-third of the seminary rectors answered that the seminary admissions
board receives a report of the results.

       This suggests that psychological reports are reviewed by key individuals during the
admissions process. However, there is some indication that the testing results are provided to
those who will be working with these candidates in the formation process. Information was not
provided regarding the criteria used in sharing the data with other personnel.




                                                                                                  32
Candidate
        The psychologists, vocation directors, and seminary rectors who indicated that the
candidate receives a report of the results most commonly responded that the candidate receives
an oral report by the clinician.

Table 15. Results Received by Candidate

If the candidate receives the results, what does he receive?*

                                        Diocesan     Religious   Seminary Psychologists
                                        Vocation     Vocation     Rectors
                                        Directors Directors
 Oral report by the clinician              67%          72%          58%            76%
 Oral report by the vocation director      32           12         24               n/a
 Full written report                       24           29         12               32
 Summary written report                    19           24         15               15
 Raw scores                                 3            2            3              2
 Other                                      5            4         12                5
*Note that percentages sum to more than 100 because respondent could select more than one
category of response.

        One-third of the vocation directors who indicated that the candidate receives a report of
the results say that he receives an oral report by the vocation director. They are less likely to
report that the candidate receives a full or summary written report or raw scores. However, about
one-third of the psychologists say that the candidate receives a full written report. The vocation
directors and especially the seminary rectors were less likely to indicate this, which suggests that
rectors may not be aware of the report given by the psychologist to the candidate. Several
vocation directors mentioned other types of reporting, including a meeting with both the vocation
director and the clinician present.

        One vocation director responded: ―We receive the report in a feedback session which
includes the psychologist, the candidate, and the vocation director. This provides opportunities to
ask questions about the report as well as providing further feedback on the candidate based on
his responses.‖

Vocation Director
       The respondents who indicated that the vocation director receives a report of the results
provided a description of the type of report he receives. Most commonly, the vocation director
receives a full written report.




                                                                                                   33
Table 16. Results Received by Vocation Director

If the vocation director receives the results, what does he receive?*

                                       Diocesan      Religious     Seminary Psychologists
                                       Vocation       Vocation      Rectors
                                       Directors     Directors
 Full written report                      91%           85%            82%            98%
 Summary written report                   30             25            16           4
 Raw scores                               27             22            18               6
 Oral report by the clinician             24             32            12              27
 Other                                     2              1             2               2
*Note that percentages sum to more than 100 because respondent could select more than one
category of response.

         While the vocation director typically receives the full written report, he is less likely to
 receive the summary report, oral report, or raw scores. Thirty percent of the diocesan vocation
 directors who responded that the vocation director receives the results answered that he receives
 a summary written report of the results.

        One vocation director commented in response to what he finds most helpful in evaluating
 a candidate for admission to priestly formation: ―The full written report which combines
 personal history, psychological findings, and results of the clinical interview. This either
 confirms or expands on my own assessment of the candidate. I wish to know his emotional
 maturity, potential for growth, and response to authority.‖

          Another vocation director commented: ―Our psychologist not only gives us the results of
 the testing, but presents us with a summary of some salient factors: leadership style, interacting
 with others, making decisions, dependability, etc. In the final part of the assessment, our
 psychologist suggests some areas for ongoing formation.‖

 Seminary
       The respondents who indicated that the seminary receives the results of the testing most
 commonly answered that they receive a full written report.

Table 17. Results Received by Seminary

If the seminary receives the results, what does it receive?*

                                           Diocesan        Religious      Seminary       Psychologists
                                           Vocation        Vocation        Rectors
                                           Directors       Directors
 Full written report                          91%             60%             88%             80%
 Summary written report                       24               21             14              10

                                                                                                    34
 Raw scores                                 21            11             20              5
 Oral report by the vocation director        6             9              2             n/a
 Oral report by the clinician                3            11             10              5
 Other                                       1             2              2              5
*Note that percentages sum to more than 100 because respondent could select more than one
category of response.

          Although a majority of religious vocation directors indicated that the seminary receives a
 full written report, a significant number do pass the report on to the seminary. From the seminary
 perspective, a full written report would most likely be helpful for admissions and formation of all
 of its seminary students.

         One seminary rector stated that he prefers, ―an assessment that is done by a competent,
 thorough psychologist who is concerned about assisting the Church and helping seminarians be
 as healthy as possible, i.e., good written reports, with thoughtful insights and suggestions for
 formation. Often reports are simple summaries that are not helpful.‖

         Another seminary rector commented, ―The written narrative and interpretation of the
 assessment results are most helpful. It helps me to be aware of potential issues that may require
 attention.‖

 Access to Results of Psychological Testing and Assessment
        Nearly all respondents reported that the vocation director has access to the results of
 psychological testing and assessment, and most reported that the bishop has access to the results.

         Table 18. Access to Test Results

         Who has access to the results of the psychological testing and assessment?

                                                Diocesan      Religious      Seminary
                                                Vocation      Vocation        Rectors
                                               Directors      Directors
          Vocation director                        96%           72%            40%
          Bishop                                    86            n/a           45**
          Major superior                           n/a            70             **
          Seminary rector                        71                *             85
          Seminary admissions board                 49            29*            14
          Candidate                                 36            44              5
          Spiritual director                       n/a            n/a            21
          Vocation team                             21            17              3
          Formation personnel                       20            21             36
          Other                                      6             2              9
         *Seminary rector or admissions board combined for religious vocation directors.
         **Bishop or major superior combined for seminary rectors.



                                                                                                 35
       Most religious vocation directors reported that both the vocation director and the major
superior have access to the results of the psychological testing and assessment.

        Seminary rectors and diocesan vocation directors indicated that the seminary rector has
access to the testing and assessment results. However, few religious vocation directors reported
that the seminary rector or the seminary admissions board have access to these results, because
their screening is primarily done by the religious community, often before admission to the
seminary occurs. Some vocation directors and seminary rectors indicated that formation
personnel have access to the psychological data. Access to this information might be a worthy
question for formation teams to discuss in terms of its value for the formation process.


      In a spirit of reciprocal trust and in cooperation with his own
    formation, the candidate can be invited freely to give his written
     consent so that the expert in the psychological sciences, who is
      bound by confidentiality, can communicate the results of the
    consultation to the formators indicated by the candidate himself.
     The formators will make use of any information thus acquired to
    sketch out a general picture of the candidate’s personality and to
  infer the appropriate indications for the candidate’s further path of
  formation or for his admission to ordination. (Guidelines, 2008, p. 8).



Policy Regarding the Results of Psychological Testing and Assessment
        Rectors were also asked if the seminary has a written policy regarding the use of the results
of psychological testing and assessment during priestly formation and, if so, if it specifies who has
access to the results and how the results will be used. Close to half reported that their seminary has
a written policy regarding the use of results of testing and assessment. Among those who have a
written policy, three-fourths say the policy specifies who has access to the results and almost
two-thirds say the policy explains how the results will be used (for example, for formation or
counseling purposes).

Psychological Assessment and Counseling during Priestly Formation
        The rectors were asked if the annual evaluation of each seminarian includes an assessment
of his psychological health and if the seminary has a written policy regarding psychological
counseling during priestly formation. A majority of rectors did not respond to these two questions.

          About half of the rectors who responded to the first question reported that the annual
           evaluation includes an assessment of psychological health.




                                                                                                   36
          Two-thirds of the rectors who responded to the second question reported that the
           seminary has a written policy regarding psychological counseling during priestly
           formation.

       The rectors were asked to report whether the seminary makes provision for psychological
counseling for seminarians. Most reported that counseling is made available through referrals.




Table 19. Seminarian Access to Counseling

Does the seminary make provision for psychological counseling for seminarians?

                                                                       Percentage
 Yes, made available through referrals                                    76%
 Yes, provided by seminary staff                                           29
 No                                                                         2
 Other                                                                      7


    On occasion, consultation with a psychologist or other licensed
   mental health professional can be a useful instrument of human
  formation. Some patterns of behavior, for example, which became
set in the candidate’s early family history, may impede his relational
  abilities. Understanding one’s psychological history and developing
    strategies to address elements of negative impact can be very
  helpful in human formation. This kind of counseling or consultation
 ought to be distinguished from extensive psychotherapy, which may
be needed to address deeply entrenched personal issues that impede
    full functioning of the person. If such extensive and in-depth
 therapy is necessary, it ought to take place outside of the seminary
     context prior to the decision concerning admission; or, if the
    necessity for such therapy emerges after admission, then the
student ought to withdraw from the program and pursue the therapy
    before being considered for re-admission to the seminary and
                  resuming his advancement to orders.
                (Program of Priestly Formation, no. 80).

                                                                                              37
Record Retention

       A particular issue is the retention of the assessments. While the retention
       may be useful in the event that a liability claim is made against the diocese,
       institute, or society because of behavior of a priest, the use of the assessment
       records for ministerial assignments or other purposes may have little or no
       value. Therefore, the candidate must have a clear understanding of the
       purpose for retention and access to the materials after ordination.

        Most diocesan vocation directors reported that the results of the psychological testing and
assessment are retained after ordination. Among those who reported this, two-thirds indicated
that the full report is retained, while one-fifth indicated that only the summary report is retained.

        The diocesan vocation directors who reported that the results are retained were asked to
identify who maintains the records. Most commonly, the chancellor or the vicar for clergy
maintains the records. Among religious vocation directors who reported that the results are
retained after ordination, the most common response was that the major superior maintains the
records.

          Table 20. Record Maintenance, Post-Ordination

          If the results of the psychological testing and assessment are retained after
          ordination, who maintains the records?

                                                               Diocesan       Religious
                                                               Vocation       Vocation
                                                               Directors      Directors
            Chancellor                                            37%            n/a
            Major superior                                        n/a           70%
            Vicar for clergy                                       22            n/a
            Novice/formation director                             n/a            22
            Vocation director                                      20            20
            Bishop                                                 18            n/a
            Director of clergy personnel                        10               n/a
            Director of ongoing formation                         n/a             7
            Seminary                                                9             7
            Director of ministry or personnel placement           n/a             2
            Other                                                   9             7

        The seminary rectors were asked to indicate how not only psychological test results, but
also records of annual assessments and counseling, are handled after the graduation or ordination
of a seminarian.

       The results of psychological testing are most likely to be destroyed, while the annual
evaluations are most likely to be retained by the seminary. Records of psychological counseling
are equally likely to be destroyed or retained by the seminary.

                                                                                                  38
  Table 21. Record Disposition

  Please indicate the disposition of records or reports for each of the following after the
  graduation or ordination of a seminarian.

                                            Psychological        Annual           Psychological
                                               Testing          Evaluation         Counseling
   Destroyed                                     43%               12%                 36%
   Retained by the seminary                      36                 66                 35
   Forwarded to the major seminary,
   if applicable                                   5                 14                  3
   Forwarded to the vocation director              5                 24                 10
   Forwarded to the bishop or
   major superior                                 12                 35                 12

       Compared to other handling methods, psychological counseling records are less likely to
be forwarded to the vocation director, major superior, or major seminary. However, the question
about forwarding the records to the major seminary is applicable only to college seminaries.

        Psychologists reported that they typically retain the results of the testing from five to
fifteen years. On average, the psychologists retain the results for nine years. Psychologists
reported that they typically retain the records that the testing took place from five to twenty-nine
years. On average, the psychologists keep these records for seven years.

        The data suggest that there is not a firm standard or policy for retaining records after
ordination. The establishment of a record retention policy would be helpful for the good order of
the Church.




                                                                                                  39
                                          References


American Psychological Association, Practice and Science Directorates. (2000). Report of the
task force on test user qualifications (p. 32). Washington, DC.

American Psychological Association. (2002). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of
conduct. Washington, DC.

Grocholewski, Zenon Card. (2008). Guidelines for the use of psychology in the admission and
formation of candidates for the priesthood. Rome: Congregation for Catholic Education.

John Paul II. (1992). Pastores dabo vobis. Boston: Saint Paul Books and Media.

Peterson, Christopher. Psychology: A Biopsychosocial Approach. 2nd edition. NY: Longman,
       1997.

United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (USCCB). (2002). Charter for the protection of
children and young people. Washington, DC.

United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (USCCB). (2006). Program of Priestly Formation
(5th ed.). Washington, DC.




                                                                                               40
                                           Appendix A

                            Assessment of International Applicants

Ethical Guidelines

       ―Psychologists are aware of and respect cultural, individual, and role differences,
       including those based on age, gender, gender identity, race, ethnicity, culture, national
       origin, religion, sexual orientation, disability, language, and socioeconomic status and
       consider these factors when working with members of such groups‖ (APA, 2003).

       ―When interpreting assessment results, including automated interpretations, psychologists
       take into account the purpose of the assessment as well as the various test factors, test-
       taking abilities, and other characteristics of the person being assessed, such as situational,
       personal, linguistic, and cultural differences, that might affect psychologists' judgments
       or reduce the accuracy of their interpretations‖ (APA, 2003).

Practical Suggestions

Table A1. Ethical Considerations for Interviewing International Applicants

Domain                     Ethical Principle                       Cultural Considerations
Bases for Assessments      Psychologists should base opinions      Assess candidate‘s cultural
                           on all relevant data. If sufficient     orientation prior to testing (such
                           data are not available, this should     as acculturation and
                           be made clear                           enculturation)

                                                                   Proceed to use culturally
                                                                   sensitive and appropriate
                                                                   assessment measures
Use of Assessments         Psychologists should use reliable       Ensure the adequacy of the
                           and valid measures for purposes         translation and adaptation of
                           that are appropriate given current      assessment measure
                           research and evidence
                                                                   Use culturally competent
                           Psychologists should attempt to         interpreters/translators
                           use assessments in the language of
                           the client
Informed Consent in        Psychologists obtain informed           Establish credibility and be
Assessments                consent for assessments except          aware of cultural differences
                           under very specific circumstances       (such as involve family network
                           (including legal mandate or when        in case of collectivistic
                           assessment is used to evaluate          cultures)
                           decision-making capacity)

                                                                                                   41
                                                                   Respect culturally related
                                                                   defenses
Release of Test Data        If client has provided consent,        Provide feedback on
                            psychologists release test data to     assessment findings in a
                            client or client‘s representative,     culturally sensitive context and
                            unless psychologist feels that doing manner
                            so would endanger client or others
Test Construction           Psychologists use appropriate          Be aware of standardization of
                            psychometric procedures to design translated instruments,
                            and evaluate tests                     implications of using original
                                                                   versus local/indigenous norms,
                                                                   and consider gaps in culturally
                                                                   relevant constructs
Assessment by               Unless it is for training purposes,
Unqualified Persons         psychologists do not promote test
                            use by individuals who are
                            unqualified
Obsolete Tests and          Psychologists do not use tests that
Outdated Test Results       are outdated or obsolete for the
                            current purpose
Test Scoring and            Psychologists retain final
Interpretation Services     responsibility for test interpretation
                            even when tests are initially
                            interpreted by a computer or other
                            interpretation service
Explaining Assessment       Psychologists take steps to ensure
                            that test results are explained to
                            clients or the client‘s representative
                            or guardian
Sources: Data from American Psychological Association (APA). (2002). Guidelines on
multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for
psychologists. Washington, DC: Author; data adapted from Cheung, F. M., & Cheung, S. F.
(2003). Measuring personality and values across cultures: Imported versus indigenous measures.
In: W. J. Lonner, D. L. Dinnel, S. A. Hayes, & D. N. Sattler (Eds.), Online Readings in
Psychology and Culture (unit 6, ch. 5). Bellingham, WA: Western Washington University,
Center for Cross-Cultural Research. (http://www.wwu.edu/~culture), ,




                                                                                                 42
                                           APPENDIX B

  Guidelines for Identifying Qualified Psychologists for the Assessment of Applicants for
                                   Seminary Formation

Professional qualifications:
   1. Does the professional have a doctoral degree in the field of psychology from an
       accredited college or university?
           a. Often the program is accredited by the American Psychological Association
               (APA). Such accreditation suggests a national standard of education and training
               that reflects the current state of training in the field of psychological practice as a
               psychologist.
           b. If the psychologist is not from an APA accredited program, then did they
               complete graduate level course in psychological assessment or experience a
               practicum in psychological assessment?
           c. If the individual has a degree in another mental health profession, such as
               psychiatry, social work, and so forth, care must be given to determine if he or she
               is trained and experienced in psychological assessments. Did they have courses on
               psychological assessment, obtain supervised training under a licensed
               psychologist, and can they document such training and experience if required?
   2. Is the professional licensed to practice in the state in which the assessment is being
       conducted?
           a. It is acceptable practice to ask for a copy of the practitioner‘s license.
           b. If the person is not licensed, then who will be supervising his or her work?
           c. If the person is being supervised, it is acceptable practice to inquire about the
               training, background, and licensure of the supervising psychologist.
   3. Does the individual carry professional liability insurance?
           a. It is acceptable practice to ask for a copy of professional liability insurance.
   4. Does the professional have experience in conducting psychological assessments as part
       of his or her regular practice?
           a. It is acceptable practice to inquire as to the nature of the psychological
               assessments conducted, the frequency, and familiarity with conducting
               evaluations of applicants for seminary formation and religious life formation.
           b. It is acceptable practice to ask the professional for references regarding his or her
               assessments of applicants for seminary formation.
   5. Does the professional utilize the psychological tests described in this survey as part of his
       or her evaluations?
           a. While each professional has certain tests and measures that they are most
               experienced in using, are they similar to the more popular ones reported in this
               survey?
           b. Does the professional use the most current version of the tests that are available?
   6. To what degree is the professional aware of the requirements of the diocese or religious
       community for the type of candidate that they are seeking?

                                                                                                   43
        a. Does the professional have any reservations about the candidate‘s living a vowed
           life of chastity or celibacy?
        b. Does the professional understand the life style of diocesan priesthood? Religious
           life priesthood?
        c. For religious communities, does the professional understand the charism of the
           community and the type of members sought?
7. Is the professional able to meet the time lines required for the admissions committee
   reviews?
        a. It is acceptable practice to ask the professional to submit a proposal that outlines
           the nature of the report, the time lines for assessment and reporting back, the
           feedback format, and the associated fees.
8. Ask other vocation directors or seminary rectors for recommendations of professionals
   that they believe are competent and qualified.




                                                                                             44
                                           APPENDIX C
                        Glossary of Psychological Tests Defined and Explained

Cognitive Assessment Measures

Intelligence Tests

General Ability Measure for Adults (GAMA). A self-administered, timed test that uses
abstract designs, shapes, and colors to help measure general ability. It helps estimate an
individual's general intellectual ability and the four subtest scores provide additional information
about the individual's performance. It is can be used with individuals for whom English is a
second language.

Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test-2 (K-BMI2) The second edition of this brief, individually
administered measure of verbal and nonverbal cognitive ability.

Peabody Picture Vocabulary (PPVT-4) The fourth edition of this measure of receptive
vocabulary for standard English and a screening test of verbal ability. It is individually
administered within 20 minutes or less.

Shipley Institute of Living Scale A brief yet robust measure of cognitive ability, generating a
quick estimate of overall cognitive functioning and impairment. A timed test that generally takes
25 minutes or less.

Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) An abbreviated form of the WAIS which
consists of four subtests and yields an overall measure of intelligence as well as verbal and
performance intelligence. It is individually administered generally within an hour or less.

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – III (WAIS-III) This is the third edition of the Wechsler
Adult Intelligence Scale, the standard for the measurement of intelligence in adults. In addition
to a general measurement of overall intelligence, it provides measurement of verbal and
performance intelligence. Its norms allow for use in educational settings as well as in assessment
cognitive impairments (neuropsychological evaluations). It is individually administered and can
take up to 1.5 hours.


Neuropsychological Tests and Specific Tests of Learning

Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test. Assess the maturation of visual-motor perceptions of
children and adults, used as an initial screening for neuropsychological impairment.

California Verbal Learning Test. Comprehensive and detailed assessment of verbal learning
and memory available for older adolescents and adults.

                                                                                                  45
Connors Adult ADHD Rating Scale. Using observer ratings and self-report ratings to help
assess attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and evaluate problem behavior in
children and adolescents.

Neuropsychological Impairment Scale. A brief, self-report test that helps screen adults for
neuropsychological symptoms.

Mental Status Evaluation. A test often used for a mental status evaluation is the Mini Mental
Status Examination. This is a brief, quantitative measure of cognitive status in adults. It can be
used to screen for cognitive impairment, to estimate the severity of cognitive impairment at a
given point in time, to follow the course of cognitive changes in an individual over time, and to
document an individual's response to treatment.

Wechsler Individual Achievement Test. A comprehensive measurement tool useful for
achievement skills assessment, learning disability diagnosis, special education placement,
curriculum planning, and clinical appraisal for preschool children through adults. New norms
also allow for the evaluation of and academic planning for college students with disabilities.


Personality Assessment – Objective Tests

Pathology-focused Measures

Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Assesses the intensity of depression in clinical and
normal patients

California Psychological Inventory (CPI). A test designed to assess normal characteristics in
healthy individuals and personality characteristics important in daily living. Often used in
business for personnel selection.

Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III) The third edition which focuses upon the
aassessment of DSM-IV-related personality disorders and clinical syndromes.

Millon Index of Personality Styles-Revised (MIPS Revised) Designed to assess three
dimensions of normal personalities: motivating, thinking, and behaving styles. It can be used to
help screen for the possible presence of mental disorders in persons who present as normal.

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–II (MMPI-II). The most widely used and
widely researched test of adult psychopathology. Used to assist with the diagnosis of mental
disorders, assessment of major symptoms of social and personal maladjustment, and to identify
suitable candidates for public safety positions. Allows for scoring using general seminary norms.

Personality Assessment Inventory. An assessment of adult personality and psychopathological
syndromes which provides information for clinical diagnosis, treatment planning, and screening
for psychopathology.

                                                                                                 46
The Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R). An assessment instrument that assists in evaluating
a broad range of psychological problems and symptoms of psychopathology.

Strength-focused Measures

16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16 PF, 5th edition). The fifth edition of this instrument
used in the aassessment of normal personality for a variety of purposes including vocational
guidance, hiring and promotion recommendations

Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS). This test is based on the theory of H. A.
Murray, which measures the rating of individuals in fifteen normal needs or motives.

Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation–Behavior (FIRO-B). This instrument
measures behaviors driven by interpersonal needs in three areas—Inclusion, Control, and
Affection—and addresses how such behaviors can affect one‘s interactions with others.

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). Based predominately on Carl Jung‘s theory of
psychological type, this measure sorts personality types along four dichotomies in order to help
in understanding individual differences in healthy personality.

NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R). This instrument is based on the Five-Factor model of
personality and measures the interpersonal, motivational, emotional, and attitudinal styles of
adults and adolescents. It was designed to provide a general description of normal personality
relevant to clinical, counseling and educational situations

Personality Testing – Projective Measures

Incomplete Sentence Blank. A variety of tests fall under this category, the most common of
which is the Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank (RISB). Incomplete sentences are used as a
screening instrument for assessment of the overall adjustment of the individual.

Rorschach Inkblot Test. A series of 10 inkblots are used to assess an individual‘s personality
and mode of perception. Several scoring systems have been developed, the most currently used is
the Exner Scoring System which emphasizes the interpretation of useful clusters of data.

Personal Sentence Completion Inventory. A series of open ended sentences that provide
insight into an individual‘s sexual development.

Projective Drawings. A variety of tests fall under this category, including, the House-Tree-
Person, Draw-A-Person Test. These tests help obtain information concerning an individual's
sensitivity, maturity, flexibility, efficiency, and degree of personality integration. After making
the drawing, the person is given an opportunity to explain the drawings.

Szondi Test. A projective technique based on a person's reaction to a series of 48 photographs of
psychotic patients.

                                                                                                  47
Thematic Aperception Test (TAT). This test assesses personality by focusing on dominant
drives, emotions, sentiments, complexes, attitudes and conflicts. The person is shown pictures
one at a time and asked to make up a story about each picture.

Other Tests

Able Screening (Diana Screen and Abel Assessment for Sexual Interest-2). The Diana
Screen is a child protection screening test that organizations can use to reduce the risk of placing
men and women who present sexual risks to children and teenagers into positions of trust. The
Abel Assessment for Sexual Interest–2 is a more complex test used by mental health
professionals to assess individuals with sexual behavior problems.

Career Assessment Inventory. A test that compares an individual's occupational interests to
those of individuals in specific careers with the goal of advising individuals on career
development

Cross-Cultural Adaptability Inventory (CCAI). A culture general assessment designed to
assess an individual's cross-cultural adaptability that measures psychological factors that are
crucial to success in cross-cultural interactions and situations.

Implicit Association Test. A measurement of implicit attitudes and beliefs that an individual
may be unwilling or unable to report.

Multi-Modal Life History. This is a data collection questionnaire for adult that addresses:
behaviors, feelings, physical sensations, images, thoughts, interpersonal relationships, and
biological factors.

Paulhus Deception Scale. A self-report instrument that measures the tendency to give socially
desirable responses. It is useful in identifying individuals who distort their responses and for
evaluating the honesty of their responses, as it is administered concurrently with other
psychological instruments

Spiritual Well Being Scale An overall measure of the perception of spiritual quality of life, as
well as subscale scores for Religious and Existential Well-Being. The Religious Well-Being
subscale provides a self-assessment of one's relationship with God, while the Existential Well-
Being Subscale gives a self-assessment of one's sense of life purpose and life satisfaction

Strong Interest Inventory. A measurement of career and leisure interests that is often used to
assist individuals in making educational and career decisions

The Saint Luke Institute Psychosexual Inventory. A detailed sexual history inventory used
primarily at this treatment center for clergy and religious.




                                                                                                   48
Note:
      The only other issue is where to place references regarding the Program of Priestly
Formation, the Vatican/Guidelines statement, and the following psychology reference which
we used for definition of objective and projective testing:

     Peterson, Christopher. Psychology: A Biopsychosocial Approach. 2nd edition. NY:
Longman, 1997.




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