American Life in the Roaring Twenties American Pageant Chapter 31 Immigration and Imports In the 1920s, America shunned diplomacy with other nations, denounced communism and socialism, and clanged shut the door of immigration with tariffs (taxes on imports). Specifically, the Fordney- McCumber Tariff witnessed the American government seal off American markets from foreign goods. The Red Scare After the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, Americans had a fear of Communism. Laborers were lumped together with communists. The Red Scare Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer conducted the Palmer Raids which rounded up thousands of “communists”. Some 249 communists were sent back to Russia on the “Soviet Ark”. Labor Unions were also lumped together with communism. The Red Scare The trial of Sacco and Vanzetti was conducted in the height of the Red Scare and resulted in their being executed on questionable evidence. The Red Scare As a result of the aforementioned, the ACLU or American Civil Liberties Union was formed by Felix Frankfurter The Rebirth of the KKK Radical hate group originally founded by Nathan Bedford Forest after the Civil War (1861- 1865) The Rebirth of the KKK Anti Foreign Catholic Black Jewish Pacifist Communist Internationist Anti-Evolutionalist Bootlegger Gambling Adultery Birth Control The Rebirth of the KKK Pro Anglo-Saxon ”Native” Protestant The Rebirth of the KKK Officials of the Klan Grand Goblins King Kleagles Kreatures “Impressive Displays” were Conclaves, Flagwaving Parades Weapon of choice was Cross Burning Stemming the Foreign Flood A. After the World War, South Eastern European immigration rose 600% B. “100% Americans” Did not like this C. The first political party against immigration was the Know Nothing Party Stemming the Foreign Flood D. Emergency Quota Act of 1921 limited the number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 3% of the number of persons from that country living in the United States in 1910 E. Johnson Reid Act, or Immigration Act of 1924, changed the 1921 act to 1890 census and changed the limit from 3% to 2%. Stemming the Foreign Food F. The Immigration Act of 1929 further changed the law because it limited the total immigration to 152,574. Stemming the Foreign Flood G. In 1965, the national-origins system was abolished by Congress. H. The Emergency Quota Act of 1921, Johnson Reid Act of 1924, and the Immigration Act of 1929 were known as the National Origins system. Stemming the Foreign Flood I. The system favored Western European over Eastern European. Japanese Immigration was completely shut off while the law allowed unlimited immigration from Canada and Central America. “Cultural Pluralism” or “Multicultralism” Cultural Pluralism or Multiculturalism was the idea of preserving ones own culture in America. Five early proponents Horace Kallen Randolph Bourne John Dewey Jane Addams Louis Brandeis Prohibition Also known as the Noble Experiment (The _ Amendment) Prohibition outlawed the distilling and sale of liquor. Popular in the South/ West, not so popular in the East Wet= Drinking, Dry= Not Drinking Prohibition did not work because people wanted to drink (no kidding!) Men and women drank bathtub gin at Speakeasies Crime in the 1920s Gangsters like Al Capone ran bootlegging and other illicit activities like… By the 1930s organized crime was a huge business even in labor unions and government contracts. Monkey Business in Tennessee (Scopes Monkey Trial) Christian Fundamentalists believed in a literal interpretation of the bible and was against teaching evolution (Darwinism). In Tennessee, teacher John T. Scopes went to trial for teaching evolution. His lawyer was Clarence Darrow and the prosecution was led by W. J. Bryan. Scopes was found guilty and fined. He was later released. This trial illustrated the fear of change. The Mass Consumer Economy Both the recent war and the tax policies of Andrew Mellon, the Secretary of the Treasury for Presidents Collidge and Hoover led to massive economic growth. The Mass Consumer Economy Powered by cheap energy, factories turned goods for consumption spurred by the new arm of American commerce advertising. Henry Ford mass produced cars. Bruce Barton’s book, The Man Nobody Knows states “J.C. good salesperson” The Mass Consumer Economy People consumed goods by buying on credit. When a recession hit, “all bad all day”. Lack of credit availablility stalls the economy. The Golden Age of Sports Baseball and Boxing Automobile Powers from the 1920s to 1970s The Big Three automakers in the United States were: Chevrolet Ford Chrysler Revolution led by Henry Ford and his “Fordisms” (assembly line techniques), who produced the “Model T” cars. Secondary Industries Secondary to car production were: Rubber Glass Fabrics Highway construction Service Station Garages Oil Humans Develop Wings First flight was by Orville and Wilbur Wright at Kitty Hawk Planes were used during World War I The first solo flight was by Charles Cindenberg in his plan Spirit of St. Louis. The first female to fly was Emila Airhart. Airships like the Hindenberg were also developed. The Radio The radio of the 1920s knitted the nation together. On the radio, jazz music was played, sports were broadcast and politicians spun their stories. The most famous politician on the radio was FDR. Hollywood “The Star System” First movies The Great Train Robbery Birth of a Nation WWI aided the movie industry because… Credit for the film industry goes to Thomas Edison The first “talkie” was The Jazz Singer Movie houses were called Nickelodeons Important Women of the 1920s Alice Paul National Women’s Party Suffrage for women Margaret Sanger Women’s rights champion Flappers Women of the 1920s were called “flappers” Sigmund Freud advocated … “Smooching” turned into … and … Entertainment of the 1920s Jazz was the music of the era and the “Charleston” was the dance. The Harlem Renaissance In New York, a Harlem Renaissance occurred in the black community led by Marcus Garvey who formed the United Negro Improvement ?. He formed the Black Star Line to return blacks to Africa. The “new negro” was … “Cultural Liberation” H.L. Mencken American Mercury F. Scott Fitzgerald Side of Paradise The Great Gatsby Theodore Dreiser An American Tragedy Ernest Hemingway The Sun Also Rises A Fairwell to Arms “Cultural Liberation” Sinclair Lewis Main Street Babbitt William Faulkner The Sound and the Fury As I Lay Dying Absalom, Absalom! Ezra Pound “Make It New” T.S. Eliot “The Waste Land” “Cultural Liberation” Eugene O’Neill Strange Interlude Frank Lloyd Wright The Empire State Building Three “Lost Generation” writers were Claude McKay Langston Hughes Zora Neale The Bull Market Buyers bought “on the margin”, which means they borrowed money to buy stock.