Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Romania by syw11126

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									          Entrepreneurial Potential of
             Russian population:
           GEM Russia (2006-2007)
Head – Prof. Dr. Alexander CHEPURENKO

Team: PhD, Associate Prof. Olga Obraztsova, PhD, Associate
Prof. Tatiana Alimova, Assistant Prof. Maria Gabelko,
Student staff: Alla Alieva, Maria Denisova, Julia Filatova,
Vladimir Lobachev, Linara Mulukova, Ekaterina Murzacheva,
Alexandra Shipilova
                     About GEM:
• Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) – international
  longitudinal comparative project on the state of
  entrepreneurial activity of population and its impact on
  economic growth
• Started in 1999 г. in 10 countries, in 2007 г. - 42
  participating countries.
• Annually published general and special reports (see at:
  www.gemconsortium.org)
• More than 200 researchers
• Russia since 2006 presented by a joint team from St.
  Petersburg State University (Dept. of Management) and
  HSE (Laboratory of Sociological Research)
• Participating universities are obliged to use the full
  datasets for research and education.
                                                             2
  Most important tools of the GEM

• Adult population survey (representative for
  the respective country),
• Experts surveys on Entrepreneurship
  Framework Conditions in respective countries
• Face-to-face in-depth interviews with local
  experts (venture capitalists, financiers, state
  representatives, recognised entrepreneurs,
  analysts etc.)

                                              3
               Project purpose
• To collect and analyse data on entrepreneurial activity
  of population, its structure and role as a factor of
  economic growth




                                                            4
                         The GEM Conceptual Model

            General         Major
            National        Established Firms
            Framewor        (Primary
            k                                    New
                            Economy)             Establishm
            Conditions
                                                 ents
Social,
Cultural,                  Micro, Small and                   National Economic Growth
Political                  Medium Firms                       (Jobs and
Context                    (Secondary                         Technical
                           Economy)                           Innovation)
             Entreprene       Entrepreneurial
             urial            Opportunities
                                                       New Firms
             Framework
             Conditions

                               Entrepreneurial
                               Capacity
                               •Skills
                               •Motivation                                        5
            Stages of entrepreneurial activity

        Entrepreneurial               Established business owners – over
        potential of a society        42 months (regular business based
                                      incomes enabling to maintain it)



Potential entrepreneurs (willing      Early stage entrepreneurship (0
to start-up)                          – 42 months)



                                       New business owners (regular business
  Nascent entrepreneurs
                                       based income, but the possibility to
                                       develop it not yet evident) 3-42 months

Latent entrepreneurs (no incomes           Start-ups (first incomes from
or salaries from the business after        business) 0-3 months
start-up) 0-3 months

                                                                           6
                         Most important indicators
Total Entrepreneurial Activity index (ТЕА) – share of adult population (18 to 64 aged), taking
   part at a start-up or being owners/managers of firma younger than 42 months;
Nascent entrepreneurship rate
• Percentage of 18-64 population who are currently a nascent entrepreneur, i.e., actively
   involved in setting up a business they will own or co-own; this business has not paid
   salaries, wages, or any other payments to the owners for more than 3 months.
New business ownership rate
• Percentage of 18-64 population who are currently an owner-manager of a new business,
   i.e., owning and managing a running business that has paid salaries, wages, or any other
   payments to the owners for more than three months, but not more than 42 months.
Established business ownership rate
• Percentage of 18-64 population who are currently an owner-manager of an established
   business, i.e., owning and managing a running business that has paid salaries, wages, or
   any other payments to the owners for more than 42 months.
High-growth expectation early-stage entrepreneurial activity
• Percentage of 18-64 population who are either nascent entrepreneurs or owner-managers
   of a new business (as defined above) and expect to employ at least 20 employees five
   years from now.
Business discontinuation rate
• Percentage of 18-64 population who have, in the past 12 months, discontinued a
   business, either by selling, shutting down, or otherwise discontinuing an
   owner/management relationship with the business.



                                                                                          7
                 Special issues
• High Growth Report (2005) looked at the how much high
  growth potential entrepreneurship there is the world and
  the characteristics of high growth potential entrepreneurs.
  There is a nearly twice the level of high growth
  entrepreneurship in the US compared to the UK, Canada
  or Germany. 10% of all entrepreneurial start ups expect to
  create more than 75% of the jobs worldwide.
• Women and Entrepreneurship: Systematic differences
  exist in the entrepreneurial activity rates of men and
  women across all countries participating in GEM. Despite
  fewer women then men are involved in starting or owning a
  business, the number of women is increasing and women
  who are well-educated, confident about their skills, have
  higher levels of household income and jobs are more likely
  to be entrepreneurs than their less affluent counterparts.
• Annual Financing Report: covers the financing of start up
  firms within the countries participating in GEM.           8
  Sources of data for Russia, 2006 -
                2007
• Data sets of 2 APS (vendor: Levada-Center,
  May 2006, N = 1894, May 2007, N = 1939)
• Sanple representative for adult population of
  Russia older than 16 years (confidence
  interval – 5 %), but not fot the entrepreneurial
  stratum itself
• Data of 2 years observation not sufficient to
  speak on tendencies
                                                9
    Some figures on
entrepreneurial potential
of Russia in 2006-2007


                            10
Age and Motivation Structure, 2006-2007 (%)

 Age                   Motivation                     Total

         Opportunity    Necessity       Mixed
           driven        driven
         2006   2007   2006   2007    2006   2007 2006    2007

18-24    66,7    75    16,7     5     16,7   20     100   100

25-34    59,5   58,6   27      27,6   13,5   13,8   100   100

35-44    37,5    57    40,6    23,8   21,9   19     100   100

45 and   33,3   47,6   57,1    38,1   9,5    14,3   100   100
 older
Total    49,1   59,3   35,2    24,2   15,7   16,5   100   100
                                                              11
Indicators of entrepreneurial activity as for stages and
            gender (% of adult population)

Index      Potential      Nascent      New       Established
        enterepreneurs               business     business
                                      owners       owners


        2006     2007    2006 2007 2006 2007     2006   2007


 Men     19,7    13,7    3,6   2,2   3,0   1,5   1,9    1,2


Women    12,4     6,5    1,6   0,6   0,7   0,7   0,8    1,7


Total    15,2     9,2    2,4   1,2   1,6   1     1,2    1,5


                                                              12
Cross-country comparisons:
Russia in the context of GEM
           nations



                               13
TEA and GDP per capita compared, GEM 2006




                                            14
                      Indicators of some GEM nations in 2006
                                                                                                  discontin
                         early                      established                    early
                                                                                                     ued
            total       men      women    total     men           women   necess    opportunity
                                                                          ity
Country
Russia         4,86      7,33     2,57       1,19      1,83        0,61    1,44            3,39     1,27
Hungary        6,04      8,09     4,05       6,72      9,03        4,48    1,33            4,64     1,13
Latvia         6,57      9,41     3,92       5,69      8,12        3,41    1,04            5,05     1,98
Serbia         Н/д        Н/д      Н/д       Н/д       Н/д          Н/д    Н/д             Н/д      Н/д
Croatia        8,58      12,35    4,87       4,12       5,8        2,46    3,81            4,41     1,81
Slovenia       4,63      6,93     2,29       4,44      6,42        2,44    0,47            4,05     1,02

Romania        Н/д        Н/д      Н/д       Н/д       Н/д          Н/д    Н/д             Н/д      Н/д
PR China      16,19      18,46    13,79      8,98     11,56        6,26    6,27            9,59     6,18
India         10,42      11,6     9,16       5,6       7,26        3,84    2,86            6,71    15,02
Brazil        11,65      13,74    9,61      12,09     14,77        9,45    5,55            5,99     4,55
Chili          9,19      11,38    7,02       6,79       9,2         4,4    2,59            6,57     3,03
Colombia      22,48      27,97    17,3      10,41     14,19        6,85    8,74        13,68       10,52
Venezuela      Н/д        Н/д      Н/д       Н/д       Н/д          Н/д    Н/д             Н/д      Н/д
                                                                                                  15
UAE            3,74      5,87     0,29       1,39      2,19         0,1    0,32            2,95    4,71
               Indicators of some GEM nations in 2007

                      early                            established                         early           discontinu
                                                                                                               ed
            total    men      women     total          men           women          necessity   opportu
Country                                                                                         nity
Russia        2,67    3,79       1,64           1,68          1,63           1,73        0,51       1,92           1,09
Hungary       6,86    9,29       4,52           4,83          5,88           3,81         1,6       5,01           1,56
Latvia        4,46     7,7       1,41           3,41           4,9           2,02        0,67       3,67           0,74
Serbia        8,56   12,11       5,06           5,27          7,74           2,83        3,94       4,02           2,75
Croatia       7,27    9,44       5,13           4,22          5,79           2,67         2,9       4,16           2,95
Slovenia      4,78    6,84       2,68           4,59          6,84           2,31        0,46       4,24           1,56
Romania       4,02    4,95       3,09           2,51          3,34            1,7        0,56       2,68           2,52
PR China     16,43   19,27      13,43           8,39          9,66           7,04        6,21       9,84          10,34
India         8,53    9,51       7,49           5,53          8,69           2,18        1,67       5,51          15,13
Brazil       12,72   12,73      12,71           9,94          12,7           7,24        5,29       7,23           6,44
Chili        13,43   16,45      10,43           8,73         11,89           5,59         3,2       9,79           4,92
Colombia     22,72   26,91      18,77       11,56            15,49           7,84        9,28      12,57           8,86
Venezuela    20,16    23,5      16,81           5,39          5,87            4,9        6,46      13,33           3,77
                                                                                                             16
UAE           8,55   10,62       5,27           3,42          4,76           1,32        1,47       6,69           8,44
           Percentage of population between 18 - 64 years




           0
               5
                   10
                        15
                             20
                                   25
                                        30
                                              35
                                                   40
                                                        45
     BE
      JP
     SE
      IT
     AE
     DE
     FR
      SI
     SG
     RU
      F
     MXI
     SA
     DK
     NL
     UK
     HU
     TR
     LV
     CA
     ES
      IE
     CZ
     GR
     HR
     NO
                                                             TEA in 2006




     CL
     US
     AR
      IN
     MY
      IS
     BR
     AU
     UY
     TH
     CN
      ID
     JM
     PH
     CO
     PE
17
       Percentage of population between 18-64 years




           0
               5
                     10
                           15
                                  20
                                        25
                                               30
     FR
     RU
     BE
     SA
     M
       X
     DE
      IT
     SE
     SG
      JP
     HR
      S
     CZI
     DK
     LV
     NL
     CA
     US
     UK
      F
     NOI
     ES
     HU
      IN
      IS
     CL
     G
       R
     AR
      IE
     TR
     M
       Y
     AU
     CN
     BR
     CO
                                                      Established entrepreneurship in 2006




     PH
     PE
      ID
18
            Percentage of population between 18 - 64 years




            0
                  5
                          10
                                 15
                                        20
                                               25
                                                       30
     AT
     RU
      PR
      BE
     RO
      SE
      JP
     LV
       SI
       IT
      NL
     DK
       IL
      TR
     GR
     UK
     SW
     HU
       FI
     HR
      ES
       IE
       IN
     AE
     YU
                                                             TEA in 2007




     KZ
     US
     HK
     UY
       IS
     BR
      CL
     AR
     CN
     DO
     VE
     CO
      PE
      TH
19
        Percentage of population between 18-64 years




            0
                 5
                        10
                                15
                                        20
                                                25
      BE
     RU
       IL
      PR
     RO
     LV
     AE
     HR
       SI
      SE
     HU
     US
     AT
     YU
     UK
     VE
      TR
       IN
       IT
     HK
     KZ
     DK
      NL
      ES
     UY
     SW
     DO
       F
     CNI
      JP
      CL
       IS
       IE
     BR
     AR
     CO
     GR
                                                       Established entrepreneurship in 2007




      PE
      TH
20
             Russia compared
•   According to GEM 2006-2007, Russia
    belongs to the biggest cluster of countries
    with a modal early entrepreneurial activity
    rate;
•   Entrepreneurial activity in Russia is
    significantly lower that in countries with
    comparable per capita GDP
•   Among BRIC countries has Russia the
    lowest TEA (2,5 – 3 times lower than in
    other BRIC countries).                     21
      Decline of most indicators
    dynamics in Russia, 2006-2007
• ТЕА decreased: 2,7 % in 2007 compared with
  4,86% in 2006
• Nascent EA – decrease of 61,6 %,
• New business owners EA – decrease of
  21,7%
EEI (Early entrepreneurship increase coefficient
  = Nascent : Discontinued):
• in 2006 = 3,5,
• in 2007 = 1,35.
                                             22
   Some positive signs in Russia,
           2006-2007
Motivation of early entrepreneurship:
• In 2006 Opportunity : Necessity = 5:3,
• In 2007 – ca. 7:1
Gender structure of early entrepreneurship
• Stable high share of women EE (ca. 40 %)




                                         23
Reasons for Russia to participate at the
               GEM
• Possibilities for cross-national comparisons,
• Amending of lack of official statistics on
  entrepreneurial potential of Russian population
• Tools for Quality Assessment on the field of SME
  support policy (some GEM indexes can be used
  as indicators of targeted, real and achieved
  efficiency)
• GEM instruments are relatively simple, cheap
  and effective if used on a regular basis.

                                                24
Thank you for your attention!

          Mote details on GEM:
        www.gemconsortium.org
http://vorona.hse.ru/sites/sip/second/ge
             m_news.aspx

								
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