Foot / Ankle Charles Gordon Tennis Foot Anatomy - Bones Foot Anatomy - Muscles Inspection: Toe Postures • Claw Toes • Hammer Toes • Morton’s Toes • Hallux Abducto Valgus Inspection: Arches • Pes Planus: “Flat Feet” • Pes Cavus: High arches Ankle Anatomy - Bones A. Lateral Malleolus B. Distal Tibiofibular Joint C. Fibula D. Interosseous Membrane E. Proximal Tibiofibular Joint F. Head of Fibula G. Lateral Condyle H. Intercondylar Eminence I. Medial Condyle J. Tibial Tuberosity K. Anterior Crest L. Tibia M. Medial Malleolus Ankle Anatomy - Ligaments • Ligament: Connects bones to other bones. Ankle Anatomy – Muscles • Tendon: Connects muscle to bone. Anatomical Terminology ∙ Anterior • Dorsal • Plantar ∙ Posterior ∙ Superior • Dorsiflexion ∙ Inferior • Plantarflexion ∙ Medial • Inversion ∙ Lateral • Eversion • Internal Rotation • External Rotation Injury Overview • Sprain: Stretching or tearing of ligamentous or capsular tissue. • Strain: Stretching or tearing of muscle fibers. • Tendinitis: Inflammation of the muscle tendon. • Fracture: A break in bone or cartilage. • Dislocation: Disassociation of the joint’s articulating surfaces caused by forces that rupture many of the joint’s soft tissue restraints. • Stress Fracture: A fracture caused by repetitive stress, as may occur in sports, strenuous exercise, or heavy physical labor. Foot Injuries • Plantar Fasciitis – Inflammation of the plantar fascia – MOI: • Acute: Forced dorsiflexion with toe extension • Chronic: Increased activity, additional running distance, changing surface, and/or using new/different shoes Foot Injuries • First Metatarsophalangeal Joint Sprain (“Turf Toe”) – Sprain of the 1st MTP joint. – MOI: • Hyperextension of the 1st MTP joint. Ankle Injuries • Inversion Ankle Sprain – MOI: Inversion, plantarflexion, or talor rotation in any combination • Eversion Ankle Sprain – MOI: Eversion and/or rotation • Syndesmosis Sprains (“High Ankle Sprains”) – MOI: External rotation of the talus and/or dorsiflexion Ankle Injuries • Achilles Tendon Rupture – Rupture of the Achilles tendon – MOI: Forceful plantarflexion with eccentric loading (usually the result of eccentric loading or plyometric contraction of the calf musculature) • Achilles Tendinitis – Inflammation of the Achilles tendon – MOI: Overuse or secondary to acute trauma (example: a blow to the tendon), improperly fitting shoes rubbing on the tendon may also activate the inflammatory response Rehabilitation • Tennis Balls/Frozen Bottles • Baps Board • Therabands • Stable vs. Unstable Surfaces Foot/Ankle Taping • Arch Taping • Turf Toe • Achilles Tendon Taping • Closed Basketweave Questions/Comments?