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Foot Ankle

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					      Foot / Ankle



Charles Gordon   Tennis
Foot Anatomy - Bones
Foot Anatomy - Muscles
              Inspection: Toe Postures
• Claw Toes



• Hammer Toes



• Morton’s Toes



• Hallux Abducto Valgus
              Inspection: Arches

• Pes Planus: “Flat Feet”

• Pes Cavus: High arches
Ankle Anatomy - Bones
               A. Lateral Malleolus

               B. Distal Tibiofibular Joint

               C. Fibula

               D. Interosseous Membrane

               E. Proximal Tibiofibular Joint

               F. Head of Fibula

               G. Lateral Condyle

               H. Intercondylar Eminence

               I. Medial Condyle

               J. Tibial Tuberosity

               K. Anterior Crest

               L. Tibia

               M. Medial Malleolus
          Ankle Anatomy - Ligaments

• Ligament: Connects bones to other bones.
          Ankle Anatomy – Muscles

• Tendon: Connects muscle to bone.
              Anatomical Terminology

∙ Anterior
                            • Dorsal
                            • Plantar
∙ Posterior
∙ Superior
                            •   Dorsiflexion
∙ Inferior
                            •   Plantarflexion
∙ Medial
                            •   Inversion
∙ Lateral                   •   Eversion
                            •   Internal Rotation
                            •   External Rotation
                         Injury Overview
•   Sprain: Stretching or tearing of ligamentous or capsular tissue.
•   Strain: Stretching or tearing of muscle fibers.
•   Tendinitis: Inflammation of the muscle tendon.
•   Fracture: A break in bone or cartilage.
•   Dislocation: Disassociation of the joint’s articulating surfaces
    caused by forces that rupture many of the joint’s soft tissue
    restraints.
• Stress Fracture: A fracture caused by repetitive stress, as may
    occur in sports, strenuous exercise, or heavy physical labor.
                    Foot Injuries

• Plantar Fasciitis
  – Inflammation of the plantar fascia
  – MOI:
     • Acute: Forced dorsiflexion with toe extension
     • Chronic: Increased activity, additional running
       distance, changing surface, and/or using new/different
       shoes
                    Foot Injuries

• First Metatarsophalangeal Joint Sprain (“Turf
  Toe”)
  – Sprain of the 1st MTP joint.
  – MOI:
     • Hyperextension of the 1st MTP joint.
                 Ankle Injuries

• Inversion Ankle Sprain
  – MOI: Inversion, plantarflexion, or
    talor rotation in any combination
• Eversion Ankle Sprain
  – MOI: Eversion and/or rotation
• Syndesmosis Sprains (“High Ankle
  Sprains”)
  – MOI: External rotation of the
    talus and/or dorsiflexion
                          Ankle Injuries

• Achilles Tendon Rupture
  – Rupture of the Achilles tendon
  – MOI: Forceful plantarflexion with eccentric
    loading (usually the result of eccentric
    loading or plyometric contraction of the calf
    musculature)

• Achilles Tendinitis
  – Inflammation of the Achilles tendon
  – MOI: Overuse or secondary to acute trauma
    (example: a blow to the tendon), improperly
    fitting shoes rubbing on the tendon may also
    activate the inflammatory response
               Rehabilitation

• Tennis Balls/Frozen
  Bottles

• Baps Board

• Therabands

• Stable vs. Unstable
  Surfaces
                    Foot/Ankle Taping
• Arch Taping



• Turf Toe



• Achilles Tendon Taping



• Closed Basketweave
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