Nanotechnology and Energy

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					  Nanotechnology and Energy
 Be a Scientist – Save the World!

         RTI 2006 Fellows
           Symposium
        Exploring Frontiers in
        Science: Implications
       for Research and Policy
            April 2 , 2006


Wade Adams, Amy Jaffe, and Rick Smalley
          www.nano.rice.edu
             Professor Richard E. Smalley
                     1943 - 2005
              Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1996


A 6 week
summer
project in
1985
                                        C60
2 – page
paper in                                Buckminster-
Nature                                  fullerene:

with Robert                             Buckyballs
F. Curl and
Harold
Kroto
National Nanotechnology Program
 White House – November 2003
Rick Smalley with his favorite students: anyone, any age!!
      What is Nanotechnology?
• “Nanotechnology now represents no
  less than the next Industrial
  Revolution.” Red Herring, December 2001
• “Nanotechnology is all the rage…
  but what the heck is it?” Scientific
  American, September 2001
• “Anything is nanotechnology that,
  under the rubric of nanotechnology,
  makes money.” Rice Alliance Technology
  Entrepreneurship Workshop, October 2002
What is Nanotechnology?
Molecular Engineering?   Nanobots?
       H
                                                                 C60-wheel-assisted
  C10H21O

                OC10H21


                                            H
                                                                             motions
                      OC10H21
                                    C10H21O
                                                                                              Pivot
  C10H21O
                C10H21O
                                    OC10H21
                                                   OC10H21
                                                                                               motion
                OC10H21
                            C10H21O                               Pivot
       H
                                                                   &
                                    C10H21O

                                                   OC10H21
                                                                  Linear
                                         H
                                                                   motion

No lateral
motion
                            H


                                         OC10H21

                     C10H21O


                                        2


                                                 OC10H21
      C10H21O
                                                             H
                          OC10H21


            H
                 2                          C10H21O 2
                                                                    Pseudo-1D Brownian motion
                                                                                       Y. Shirai, K. Kelly
                          Synthesis of G4 NanoCar “Z”                                                                                                                                             OC 10H21
                                                                                                     TIPS
                                                 I                Pd / Cu, Et3N                                                                                                TIPS                                           H
               1) Et3N-ICl2                                                                                                           1) Pd / Cu, Et3N
  NH 2         2) Pd/Cu, TMSA                          Br
                                                                       95 %                                                                 64 %                                      C10H21O
         Br
                                                                                                            OC 10H21
                3) a:OEt2-BF4,                                                                                                            C10H21O
                     tBuONO                                             TIPS
                                                                                           C10H21O                                                                                          C10H21O              OC 10H21
                   b:NaI
                                                                                                                                      H                            H
                                                 TMS
                32 % over 3 steps                                                                                                                                  2
                                                                               OC 10H21                                                               OC 10H21
                                                                                                            R
                                                            C10H21O                                                                                                               C10H21O               OC 10H21
                                                                                                                           R = Br     2) K2CO3, MeOH / THF

                                                                                                                            R=I                99 %
                                                                                                                                                                                                            OC 10H21
                                                                        H                                           tBuLi, ICH2CH2I
                                                                                                     TMS               84 %                                              H                                             TIPS

                                                                                                                                                                                              C10H21O




                                                                 OC 10H21                            OC 10H21                                                    OC 10H21                             OC 10H21
    1) Pd / Cu, Et3N
              58 %                           H                                                                  H

         C10H21O                                     C10H21O                           C10H21O                                                                                          C10H21O
                                                                                                                                               H C10H21O                                                         H

    H                                 TIPS                                                              1) LHMDS, C60
                                                        C10H21O                OC 10H21                                                                  C10H21O               OC 10H21
                                                                                                        2) TFA
                           OC 10H21
                                                                                                                20 %
     2) TBAF, THF
          88 %                               C10H21O                  OC 10H21                                                                 C10H21O                 OC 10H21


                                      OC 10H21                              OC 10H21                                                  OC 10H21                               OC 10H21

                     H                                                                 H

                         C10H21O                             C10H21O
                                                                                                                          H C10H21O                        C10H21O                      H


Y. Shirai
                                                                                                                                               NanoTruck
                                                                                                                                           Z NanoCar 3
Random Thermal Motion
(Brownian Motion)
                                       Pivot
NanoCars are mobile at high              &
temperature (~194ºC), and              rolling
show random thermal motion.
                                       Pivot
  Lateral motion is parallel to          &
                                       rolling
  NanoCar chassis.
  (Pseudo-1D Brownian motion)
  Supports the idea that              Pivot
                                         &
  NanoCar is rolling,                 rolling
  not sliding via a stick slip
  mechanism
                                NanoCollision!
Y. Shirai
K. Kelly
Nano-Hummer, The New H3
                iPod Nano
Apple's new
Nano music                             If your
player has
several
                                       eyes
features that                          are
are not
found in
                                       good
other iPods,                           enough
such as the
ability to                             to read
display the                            them!
lyrics of
whatever
song is now
playing.



                      Paul Sakuma/Associated Press
          Reality of Nanotech
•   Hard drives
•   Sunscreens
•   Automotive catalysts
•   Car bumpers
•   Paints and coatings
•   Tennis balls and racquets
•   Stain-resistant clothing
•   New cancer therapies

www.nanotechproject.org/consumerproducts
Sean Murdock, NanoBusiness Alliance, 2005
                                                  Metrics
                                         (BY KEYWORD NANO*)
                                   Nurturing Nanoscience into Nanotechnology
         25000
         24000
         23000
                                   USPTO Patents (x10)                                           N
         22000
         21000
         20000
                                   ISI S&T Publications                                          N
         19000
         18000                     Funding ($K x 10)                                             I




                                                                    DOD Nano SRA
         17000
         16000
         15000
NUMBER




         14000
         13000
                                       DARPA ULTRA




         12000
         11000
                    ONR PINS ARI




         10000
          9000
          8000
          7000
          6000
          5000
          4000
          3000
          2000
          1000
             0
             1990                    1992            1994    1996                  1998   2000       2002      2004
           * Roco, Journal of Nanoparticle Research 2004            YEAR
           ** Science Citation Index Expanded, ISI Web of Science                                           Murday, NRL #206   10/02
                    Global Participation in Nanoscience
                                               Sweden
                              Germany          297/320
                              1949/2282/2429
    Canada                                                                Russia
    382/545                                                               854/1025/1128
                          England                        Israel
                          906/1000                       273/253
                         France                                                      Japan
   USA                   1317/1561                                                   2289/3002/3350
   5395/6149/7850                                                       China
                       Switzerland
                       372/369                                          2474/3493/4618
                                                                                          Korea
                                     Italy                                                760/1103/1466
                                     631/829
Mexico                                                                                     Taiwan
166/218                                                                                    282/465/706
                                                                   India
                                                                   461/650/862
                                                                           Singapore
                    Brazil                                                 209/277/439
                    285/311                                                              Australia
                                                                                         236/348/416

                                      CY2002/03/04 PUBLICATION COUNT
                                                (By Keyword Nano*)
Science Citation Index of 5300 Journals Total Worldwide- 18539 /24208 /28177_
Sean Murdock, NanoBusiness Alliance, 2005
Sean Murdock, NanoBusiness Alliance, 2005
Sean Murdock, NanoBusiness Alliance, 2005
            Nanotechnology*
Material or system with at least one constituent
   or phase exhibiting a scalar dimension
               between 1-100 nm

   Designed through processes that exhibit
  fundamental control over the chemical and
     physical attributes of molecular scale
                    structures

  Can be combined to form larger structures
         *Mike Roco, definitions from NNI at www.nano.gov
How small is nano, really?
Mountain                          Child                  Ant
 1 km                              1m                   1 mm

                                1/1000                1/1000 of
                             of mountain                 child
                                                    1/1,000,000 of
                                                      mountain




                Bacteria                      Sugar Molecule
                 1 mm                              1 nm

              1/1000 of ant                  1/1000 of bacteria
           1/1,000,000 of child              1/1,000,000 of ant
                                           1/1,000,000,000 of child
             Nanotechnology

Size
              Bulk Gold = Yellow   Nanogold = Red


Numbers


Surface
Area (S/V)
                                      bulk scaling
                R
                                          x
Quantum
Effects
                    atomic
Nanoshell-Assisted Tumor Ablation
          Professors Naomi Halas and Jennifer West




   20nm
          Nanoshell-Assisted Tumor
                 AblationAntibody ligands on nanoshells
                         match receptor sites specific to
                              targeted cancer cells.           PI: Dr. Jennifer West
                                                               (Rice Bioengineering)

                                                                 Dr. Naomi Halas
                                                                   (Rice ECE )
                                                    Target
                                                             Dr. John Hazle (MDACC)
Nanoshells                                          Cancer
Absorb in IR                                         Cell    Investigating use of Rice
                                                             invention (nanoshells) for
                                                             highly specific, minimally
                                                              invasive cancer therapy
    Demonstrated in Mice
 The inside joke is that the treated mice
  lived much longer than budgeted and                            Funded by NSF
       have become a financial and
       accounting embarrassment.
                                                             Licensed by Nanospectra
                                                                  Biosciences, Inc.
Effect of Nanoshells on Mouse
            Tumor




                       Direction of
                       infrared laser
                       beam
  Nanoshell Treatment
Increases Survival Time
              120

              100
% Surviving




              80
                                                                   Control
              60                                                   Treatment
                                                                   Sham
              40

              20

               0
                    1

                        4

                            7

                                10

                                     13

                                          16

                                               19

                                                    22

                                                         25

                                                              28
                                     Time (days)



                                          CBEN: www.rice.edu/cben
  The future(s) of nanotechnology



Good news futures      Bad news futures
      Technologies: From Wow to Yuck?
DDT cured malaria                        Endangered birds
Pesticides improved crop yields          Toxic to animals
Refrigerants made houses cool            Lead to ozone hole
Asbestos improved insulation             Liability expenses



                            The Public
           Benefits                         Risks
        The future of nanotechnology
DDT cured malaria                 Toxic to animals
Pesticides improved crop yields   Human carcinogens
Refrigerants made houses cool     Lead to ozone hole
Nanotechnology ……



                Nanotechnology provides us with
                 the ideal opportunity to rewrite
                   how emerging technologies
                handle the public question of risk
    Nanotechnology for the Long Haul

                      What will be
Nanomaterials         nanotechnology’s impact
                      on the world’s
                      environment?
                      •   Nanostructured
                          Membranes
                      •   Fate and Transport of
                          Nanomaterials
                     ICON Website




•   International partnership which includes many stakeholders
•   Pooled resources for risk assessment of nanotechnology
•   Effective risk management policies through standards
•   Shared risk communication strategies
                                   Nano Coalition Unveils
                                   Environmental, Health and Safety
      http://icon.rice.edu/        Database - ICON Collects Diverse
                                   Scientific Findings
      Humanity’s Top Ten Problems
           for next 50 years
1.    ENERGY
2.    WATER
3.    FOOD
4.    ENVIRONMENT
5.    POVERTY
6.    TERRORISM & WAR
7.    DISEASE
8.    EDUCATION
9.    DEMOCRACY
                        2003    6.5   Billion People
10.   POPULATION        2050   8-10   Billion People
                     Energy Industry

          “Our Energy will be
     primarily from fossil fuels
         for the next 50 years”
Lewis Norman
Halliburton Energy
Services

                            Economides, M. and Oligney, R.: The Color of Oil,
                           Round Oak Publishing Company, Inc., Katy, TX, 2000
                                    World Oil Reserves
                                     Top Ten Owner
                                       Companies


                               Saudi Aramco
                  China            32%                         795,000 million bbls (80 %)
                   2%
             Nigeria                                                        Iraq
               3%                                                           14%
             Libya
              3%

            Mexico
              6%                                                        Kuwait
          Abu Dhabi                                                      12%
             7%                                     Iran
                   Venezuela                        11%
                     10%
                                      Total World Oil Reserves: Approximately 1,000,000 million bbls

                                                                         Lewis Norman
Source: The Oil Daily, 12/23/1999                                 Halliburton Energy Services
                                              G180-Oil & Gas                                35
“This galaxy he’s from---ask him if it’s got oil.”
Hubbert’s Peak
U.S. Oil Production




            Hubbert’s Peak (2001)
WORLD OIL PRODUCTION




                 Hubbert’s Peak (2001)
Recent
Newspaper
Ad
All I’m saying is now is the time to develop
    the technology to deflect an asteroid.
                      STUDY
Matthew Simmon’s Presentations on Saudi Arabian Oil
               (www.simmons-intl.com)
      and his new book “Twilight in the Desert”
            John Wiley & Sons publishers,
                     May 2005


                                             When Saudi Arabia Peaks
                                             So does the World.

                                             GHAWAR, by far the world’s
                                             Largest and most prolific oil field
                                             may have already peaked.

                                             The days of cheap oil are over.




 Also   Google “peak oil” and look at sites such as “peakoil.com”
  2 Billion Poor – No Electricity
2 Billion Poor – Biomass Heating




                      http://www.undp.org/energy
Global warming over
the past millennium

Very rapidly we have entered
uncharted territory -– what some call
the anthropocene climate regime.
Over the 20th century, human
population quadrupled and energy
consumption increased sixteenfold.
Near the end of the last century, we
crossed a critical threshold, and
global warming from the fossil fuel
greenhouse became a major, and
increasingly dominant, factor in
climate change. Global mean surface
temperature is higher today than it’s
been for at least a millennium.



Slide from Marty Hoffert NYU
                           World Energy
      Millions of Barrels per Day (Oil Equivalent)
    300

                         Very Conservative!
    200



    100



      0
          1860    1900        1940        1980       2020        2060       2100

Source: John F. Bookout (President of Shell USA) ,“Two Centuries of Fossil Fuel Energy”
International Geological Congress, Washington DC; July 10,1985.
Episodes, vol 12, 257-262 (1989).
              Uh Oh – China!!

1 Billion +                     Energy
people!                         Growth
                                Rate
                                ~10%!!




                                National
                                Geographic
                                June 2004
                   Gee, this isn’t my
                   mother-in-law’s Buick!!



From bicycles…….    to Buicks!!
            A Much Better Use for Oil than Gasoline!




Professor Mark Foster and Family (Univ. of Akron Polymer Science Department)
with all their oil-based polymer belongings! -- Nat. Geog. June 2004
                              The ENERGY REVOLUTION
                               (The Terawatt Challenge)
 50                                               2003                                50                             2050
 45
                                                                                      45
 40
                              14 Terawatts                                            40
 35
 30
                              210 M BOE/day                                           35
 25                                                                                                      30 -- 60 Terawatts
                                                                                      30
 20
                                                                                                         450 – 900 MBOE/day
 15
                                                                                      25
 10
  5                                                                            0.5%
                                                                                      20
  0                                                                                   15
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      Source: Internatinal Energy Agency
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                                                                                                                                                  d,
The Basis of Prosperity                                                                                    Fu




                                                                                                                                               in
                                                                                                                                            ,w
                                                                                                                                          ar
                                                                                                                                           l
 20st Century = OIL




                                                                                                                                        So
 21st Century = ??
Energy-efficient Commuting
Small
efficiencies
matter!




    National
    Geographic
    August 2005
Big
efficiencies
matter, too!
Boeing 787


Going in the
right direction –
Efficiency and
economy
Hydrogen – Not a Primary Fuel
   PRIMARY ENERGY SOURCES
        Alternatives to Oil
TOO LITTLE
• Conservation / Efficiency   --   not enough
• Hydroelectric               --   not enough
• Biomass                     --   not enough
• Wind                        --   not enough
• Wave & Tide                 --   not enough

CHEMICAL
• Natural Gas                 -- sequestration?, cost?
• Gas Hydrates                -- sequestration?, cost?
• Clean Coal                  -- sequestration?, cost?

NUCLEAR
•  Nuclear Fission            --   radioactive waste?, terrorism?, cost?
•  Nuclear Fusion             --   too difficult?, cost?
•  Geothermal HDR             --   cost ? , enough?
•  Solar terrestrial          --   cost ?
•  Solar power satellites     --   cost ?
•  Lunar Solar Power          --   cost ?
165,000 TW
of sunlight
hit the earth
every day
PV Land Area Requirements
                Nathan S. Lewis, California
                 Institute of Technology




         3 TW

        20 TW
Solar Cell Land Area Requirements

                          Nathan S. Lewis, California
                           Institute of Technology




     6 Boxes at 3.3 TW Each = 20 TWe
≥ 20 TWe from the Moon


                   “Harvested
                     Moon”



                  David Criswell
                  Univ. Houston
         Energy Nanotech Grand Challenges
                    from Meeting at Rice University May 2003
                               Report available!
1.   Photovoltaics -- drop cost by 100 fold.
2.   Photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to methanol.
3.   Direct photoconversion of light + water to produce H2.
4.   Fuel cells -- drop the cost by 10-100x + low temp start.

5.   Batteries and supercapacitors -- improve by 10-100x for automotive
     and distributed generation applications.

6.   H2 storage -- light weight materials for pressure tanks and LH2
     vessels, and/or a new light weight, easily reversible hydrogen
     chemisorption system

7.   Power cables (superconductors, or quantum conductors) with which
     to rewire the electrical transmission grid, and enable continental, and
     even worldwide electrical energy transport; and also to replace
     aluminum and copper wires essentially everywhere -- particularly in
     the windings of electric motors and generators (especially good if we
     can eliminate eddy current losses).
        Energy Nanotech Grand Challenges
8.    Nanoelectronics to revolutionize computers, sensors and devices.

9.    Nanoelectronics based Robotics with AI to enable construction
      maintenance of solar structures in space and on the moon; and to enable
      nuclear reactor maintenance and fuel reprocessing.

10.   Super-strong, light weight materials to drop cost to LEO, GEO, and later
      the moon by > 100 x, to enable huge but low cost light harvesting
      structures in space; and to improve efficiency of cars, planes, etc.

11.   Thermochemical processes with catalysts to generate H2 from water that
      work efficiently at temperatures lower than 900 C.

12.   Nanotech lighting to replace incandescent and fluorescent lights

13.   NanoMaterials/ coatings that will enable vastly lower the cost of deep
      drilling, to enable HDR (hot dry rock) geothermal heat mining.

14.   CO2 mineralization schemes that can work on a vast scale, hopefully
      starting from basalt and having no waste streams.
    One World Energy Scheme for 30-60TW in 2050:
          The Distributed Store-Gen Grid
• Energy transported as electrical energy over wire, rather than by
  transport of mass (coal, oil, gas)
• Vast electrical power grid on continental scale interconnecting ~ 100
  million asynchronous “local” storage and generation sites, entire
  system continually innovated by free enterprise
• “Local” = house, block, community, business, town, …
• Local storage = batteries, flywheels, hydrogen, etc.
• Local generation = reverse of local storage + local solar and geo
• Local “buy low, sell high” to electrical power grid
• Local optimization of days of storage capacity, quality of local power
• Electrical grid does not need to be very reliable, but it will be
  robust
• Mass Primary Power input to grid via HV DC transmission lines from
  existing plants plus remote (up to 2000 mile) sources on TW scale,
  including vast solar farms in deserts, wind, NIMBY nuclear, clean
  coal, stranded gas, wave, hydro, space-based solar…”EVERYBODY
  PLAYS”
• Hydrogen is transportation fuel
• Transition technology – Plug-in Hybrids
The Blackout from Space

                          Hoax
                          Photo!!




                          But it
                          does
                          nicely
                          outline
                          the
                          black-
                          out
                          area!
                        Carbon
                        Nanotechnology
                        Laboratory
                        “Making Buckytubes
                        “Be All They Can Be”
Founded by Rick Smalley in 2003 as a division of CNST
Coordinates SWNT Research with 10 Faculty in 6 Departments

Prof. James M. Tour – Director
Prof. Matteo Pasquali – Co-Director
Dr. Howard K. Schmidt - Executive Director
Dr. Robert H. Hauge - Technology Director
If it ain’t tubes, we don’t do it!
Why Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes?
 MOLECULAR PERFECTION & EXTREME PERFORMANCE
    The Strongest Fiber Possible.
    Selectable Electrical Properties
            Metallic Tubes Better Than Copper
            Semiconductors Better Than InSb or GaAs
    Thermal Conductivity of Diamond.
    The Unique Chemistry of Carbon.
    The Scale and Perfection of DNA.
    The Ultimately Versatile Engineering Material.
 Graphene Sheet
Texas Chicken Wire
SWNT: ROLLED-UP SHEET OF GRAPHITE
World’s largest SWNT model




        RAJAT DUGGAL
   (inside giant SWNT model)
 22 April 2005, Guinness World Record
 Model of a 5-5 SWNT
 ~65,000 pieces
                                         Cost of the parts: $6,000
 360 m long, 0.36 m wide
 about 100 builders                      Building a 1000-ft SWNT:
 over 1000 in attendance
 “Supremely Silly” (from Rick Smalley)         pRICEless
        Types of SWNT

– Cylindrical graphene sheet
– Diameters of 0.7 – 3.0 nm                armchair (a = 30°)
   • Observed tubes typically < 2 nm
– Both metallic and semi-
  conductor species possible
– Length to diameter ratio as               zigzag (a = 0°)
  large as 104 – 105
   • can be considered 1-D
     nanostructures



                                       intermediate (0  a  30°)
    SWNT Quantum Wire
Expected Features
• 1-10x Copper Conductivity
• 6x Less Mass
• Stronger Than Steel
• Zero Thermal Expansion

Key Grid Benefits
• Reduced Power Loss
• Low-to-No Sag
• Reduced Mass
• Higher Power Density

SWNT Technology Benefits
• Type & Class Specific
• Higher Purity
• Lower Cost
• Polymer Dispersible
   Prototype Wire - SWNT Fibers
   • Producing Neat SWNT Fibers
   • Dry-Spun from Oleum
   • 6 to 14 Wt. % SWNT Dope
   • Extruded as 50 µm Dia. Fibers
   • 109 Tubes in Cross Section
   • 100 Meters Long




Science 305, 1447-1450, 3 September 2004!!!
NASA
Success
Stories
          High Pressure CO (HiPCO) Process
                    Fe, Ni Catalysts
      CO + CO                               CO2 + SWNT + impurities
                           900-1200 C
                           10-40 atm



 Continuous process                     Rice Univ.  Carbon Nanotechnologies, Inc.
 10-100’s g/day                         & NASA
 Small diameters (0.7nm)
 Company spin-off (CNI)
          Roadblocks
• Vision without funding is hallucination.
    • Da Hsuan Feng – UT Dallas


• Vision without hardware is delusion.
    • Lockheed engineer
From the age of Space to the age of Medicine
     New Energy Research Program
       (Smalley’s Nickel & Dime Solution)
•   For FY06-FY10 collect 5 cents from every gallon of oil product
    Invest the resultant > $10 Billion per year as additional funding in
    frontier energy research distributed among DOE, NSF, NIST, NASA,
    and DoD.

•   For the next 10 years collect 10 cents from every gallon;
    invest the >$20 Billion per year in frontier energy research.

•   Devote a third of this money to New Energy Research Centers
    located adjacent to major US Research Universities, especially Zip
    Code 77005.

•   At worst this endeavor will create a cornucopia of new technologies
    and new industries.

•   At best, we will solve the energy problem before 2020,
    and thereby lay the basis for energy prosperity & peace worldwide.
                       Leadership
• President Bush – State of the Union
  Address – Jan 31, 2006
   – “America is addicted to oil”
   – Replace oil imports from Middle East by
     75% by 2025
• DOE Advanced Energy Initiative
  22% increase in clean energy
  research
   –   Zero emission coal
   –   Solar and wind
   –   Clean, safe nuclear
   –   Batteries, Hydrogen, ethanol


• A BIG change from the 2001
  Cheney Energy Report – drill our
  way to independence!
                             But…
• Are these ideas tough or aggressive enough?
• NO!
  – Biofuels budget actually smaller than in FY06
  – No market signal for more efficient vehicles
     • Fuel economy standards – regulatory
         – 40 mpg in 10 years saves 2.5M BOE/day
     • Substantial gas tax – market mechanism
• Up to Congress to execute programs
  – Incentives for alternate fuel production/vehicles
  – Funding for research initiatives
The biggest single challenge for the next few decades:


                              ENERGY
                            for 1010 people

• At MINIMUM we need 10 Terawatts (150 M BOE/day)
       from some new clean energy source by 2050

•   For worldwide energy prosperity and peace we need it to be cheap.

•   We simply can not do this with current technology.

•    We need Boys and Girls to enter Physical Science and Engineering as
    they did after Sputnik.

•    Inspire in them a sense of MISSION
    ( BE A SCIENTIST --- SAVE THE WORLD )

• We need a bold new APOLLO PROGRAM
  to find the NEW ENERGY TECHNOLOGY
                       PhD Degrees in Science and Engineering

               25000
                                                                          Asians citizens
                                                                          All fields of Science &
               20000                                                      Engineering
PhD per year



               15000
                                                                          US citizens, all fields of Science
                                                                          and Engineering, (excluding
               10000                                                      psychology & social sciences)

                                                                          US citizens,
                5000                                                      Physical Sciences and
                                                                          Engineering only

                   0
                   1985          1990         1995         2000         2005
                                              Year
                       Source: Science and Engineering Indicators, National Science Board, 2002




         By 2012, if current trends continue,
         over 90% of all physical scientists and engineers in the world
         will be Asians working in Asia.
                   Education
• American Competitiveness Initiative
  – Double physical sciences research funding in ten
    years (including nanotech, supercomputing,
    alternative energy sources)
  – Permanent R&D Tax Credit
  – HS Math/Science teacher training (70,000) and add
    30,000 M&S professional teachers
• YEA!
  – But will Congress fund the initiatives?
  – And will they sustain the funding??
2999
What Can YOU Do Now?

• Learn as much as possible
  about energy
• Learn as much as possible
  about nanotechnology

 • Encourage kids to study science
     and engineering!!
              Reading Assignments
•   Twilight in the Desert, Matthew R. Simmons
•   Winning the Oil Endgame, Amory Lovins
•   Beyond Oil: The View from Hubbert’s Peak, Kenneth S. Deffeyes
•   Out of Gas, Daniel Goodstein
•   The End of Oil, Paul Roberts
•   The Prize, Daniel Yergin
•   Hubbert’s Peak, Kenneth S. Deffeyes
•   The Hydrogen Economy, Jeremy Rifkin
•   Twenty Hydrogen Myths, Amory Lovins
       (www.rmi.org)
•   Matt Simmons, web site: (www.simmons-intl.com)
•   M.I. Hoffert et. al., Science, 2002, 298, 981,
•   DOE BES Workshop Report on Hydrogen
    (www.sc.doe.org/bes/hydrogen.pdf)
•   2003 State of the Future,
      (www.stateofthefuture.org)
•   Nanotechnology and Energy, 2003 Report,
      (www.cnst.rice.edu)
•   National Nanotechnology Program,
      (www.nano.gov)
Rick was a visionary,
and his charisma and
logic made those he
worked with buy into
the vision. Rick
convinced us that we
could be better,
stronger and take
more chances if we
just tried.
I hope that we don’t
forget – then his
legacy… will make a
lasting transformative
difference.
 -- Robert Curl
October 28, 2005

				
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