POL 102 Study Guide
Chapter 1. The Physical World – a map used to see the physical planet. The political World - shows countries… changes often The ethnic World – Culture areas designate portions of the world where people share similar beliefs, customs, languages, and skills. The world in 1300’s In the 1350’s … Chinese were the shit. They survived the Mongols, developed gunpowder, and the rudder. China was full of luxuries for Europeans In the 800 Arabs had the largest cities, irrigation systems, pharmacies and universities Ottoman Turks united Islam. In Africa the city of Timbuktu was the center of trade in the Mali Empire. It had a great university too. Its wealth depended on gold and salt. Great Zimbabwe was another walled center more south with goods from the Middle East and Asia. In Mexico the Mayans and they had elaborate cities where they invited a calendar. The Hundred year’s war went down in Europe between England and France. The Black Death also happened. Early European Expansion 1400s to Early 1600s – Europeans wanted a direct route to Asia. The Portuguese and Spanish were the masters of early exploration. P led crews to Africa and found gold and slaves. Queen Isabella was with Spain and so was Chris Columbus. Vasco de Balboa saw the Pacific. All of this was economically fueled. Spain mantra “Gold, God, Glory” = disaster for the indigenous folk. Later European Expansion: 1600s to Early 1900s: Reformation. Portugal, France, and UK, all did good. Caribbean started making lots of sugar. Colonialism – refers to the direct administration of a territory and its peoples Imperialism – includes colonialism as well as indirect rule by outsiders over locals. Parts of world considered protectors. Industrialization – shift from handmade products using human and natural shit to machine production using energy and fossil fuels. Drove imperialism. Another factor was Christianizing the pagans. The Suez Canal is not looked upon fondly. France considers it theirs. Egyptian contract terms were ruthless, they purchased half the stock but it meant nothing. Egypt was screwed because their treasury was raided basically. However, they only got a small part of profits. Borrowed money at absurd rates of 26% from Britain Africa was dived at the Berlin Conference in 1884. Tried to bring an end to the slave trade. France UK, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Belgium, and Germany ruled all of Africa. Definition of a Modern State Must have territory
Must have Government- defined as the one institution in a society that has legitimate claim to exercising decisive authority over its population. Legitimacy – this is the key to government effectiveness. It is achieved when its people believe that it is justified, that its laws ought to be obeyed, and that it’s rule conforms to commonly accepted values. Patriotism – the feeling of loyalty Nationalism – an individuals identity with an ethnic culture group based on several shared characteristics such as language history and religion. Nation-State – every state has one dominate cultural group International system – organizations and processes that people use to interact across state borders International governmental organizations (IGOS) – states make up the membership and together they can stabilize the economy and ensure economic growth. World Bank – The international Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Offered economic aide in the form of loans. International Monetary Fund – provides its members with loans to instill confidence in the countries currency. Both of these organizations have weighted voting. The GATT is fore runner of the WTO World Trade organization – lowers trade barriers and such Most-favored-nation status – The mechanism devised to achieve increased trade through lower tariffs. Two nations would charge each other the lowest they could on tariffs. United Nations – started in 1945 to tackle threats of security. General Assembly - provides a forum in which every member state is equal with one vote each Security Council – is the key player to responding to threats. 15 States, 5 have permanat seats. The other ten are elected to two terms. UK, US, Russia, France, and China are permanent and all have veto power. Ideologies – sets of interrelated ideas giving meaning to events, o legitimize political institutions. Cold War – because no war was actually ever fought. Vietnam was a proxy war… indirect fighting. NATO faced off against the Warsaw Pact. Bipolar – the world had two main centers of power. Multi polar – comprising of many powers NAM was an attempt to colonize third world powers… coordinate policies. Nonaligned Movement. It established united nations conference on trade and developments. UNCTAD. Not successful until OPEC Nongovernmental Organizations – NGO’s- private agencies that link people across international borders in a wide variety of ways, such as by occupation, religion, personal interest, and issue activism. The Catholic Church the world council of churches, Red Cross. There are like 300 IGOS and 5,000 NGO’s Bilateral diplomacy – states dealing one on one with each other. Multilateral diplomacy- within the framework of IGO’s
Globalization – current world trends in one handy description and a concept. 4 general definitions and arguments on globalization 1. Exponential Increases in Internation Economic Transactions Basically… tourism.. capitalism.. business transaction… medical stuff. Argument. It’s not anything new. This has happened for centuries now with gold and silver. Germany became dependent on U.S. economic loans in the 1920’s. The great depression hurt Germany more than us. 2. Integration of International/Global Economic Decision Making – more international economic networks has required setting international standards of behavior. Establishing trade rules… currency. IGO’s WTO… World Bank… IMF..we depend on each others economies. Argument.. these agreements and such don’t always help people.. often they do the opposite. People are getting poorer or richer. 3. Strengthen Political International Governmental Organizations – the UN and IGO’s set standards of international behavior. People have to act responsibly and are accountable for behavior. Many people think that the U.S. still dominates though. They use international institutions to legitimize there actions. 4. Increases in International Nongovernmental Contacts and Communications – Nongovernmental human activity produced by modern communication and transportation systems. Like the internet, if you didn’t already know that. Everything happens in real time due to satellites teleconferencing. People are traveling with more speed and efficiency. Argument is that people are taking there social values way to far. Like the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Chapter 3 pages 41-51
Alternative Perspective – differing sets of interpretive ideas. GLOBALISM Because we are all interconnected we might as well try to help everyone. But how? 1. cultures are becoming more universal. If your notwith the flow you become isolated or must change. One view is to have the world governed by superior cultures. Social Darwinism would say that if people don’t join globalism they are being damned to poorness. Assimilation – a common view held by advocates of globalism is that the more backward cultures will disappear when individuals recognize the benefits of the more advanced cultures and voluntarily change there ways. Over time all people will give up the customs of there inferior cultures to become members of the superior ones. This happens through education. Many complain that these policies are a form of ethnocide – the destruction of a culture. An example would be Australia. The idea is that primitive people are capable of being educated and becoming part of the modern world there backwardness is based on limited knowledge rather than any innate limitations. The concept of the MELTING POT is assimilation based.
Acculturation – holds that individuals will modify their cultural upbringing by adapting to a new culture. Not give up old culture entirely but will adjust to fit in circumstances. Family organizations, art, religion, dress, and other cultural elements, which do not impede modernization and need not be changed for this to succeed. Syncretism - refers to the mixing of cultural ideas from different sources to create a new reality. Example is the merge of Christianity with Latin America where they put there local gods in the bible kinda. So globalism favors this idea… acculturation does not. Pope doesn’t like the fact they changed the teachings. State Primacy – this privileges a specific type of political organization. The state is viewed as the most important unit for both national and international interaction. Primary political identity for all groups and individuals should be as citizens of the state of their birth or adoption. This view gives states a tremendous amount of autonomy in deciding the natures of their own realms. Many states where each determines the ethnic policies of its own residents. National Identity – same as state identity. Nation si made up of a group of people who identify themselves as a unified and unique culture. A State is a complex political structure that may include citizens from a variety of nations. People can be members of more than one nation or fit into two or more cultures. Patriotism – in state primacy there is no inherent evil in a muti ethinic state as long as the states identity takes priority. P… is the placing of ones primary loyalty in the state. However it sees ethnic and national identity as a threat. Civil wars… Subjugation – extremem authoritarian approach to unifying cultures. Inferior are controlled by superiors and have no say. Racism.. Nazis… Rwanda.. Paternalism – Acting as a father. Have superior position over others and try to control there actions. For there own good because we know better. Treated like childred. Outlawing the handling of snakes. This concept is illegal.. paternalism. Globalism rejects state primacy on 2 grounds 1. states are artifical constructions based on historical accident rather than natural groupings 2. the world problems are global in scope rather than pertinent only to local interest. Apartheid – in South Africa a numerical majority of the state, the original inhabitants were defined as inferior, and all aspects of their lives were severly circumscribed. Cultural Pluralism – prioritize the autonomous rights of individual cultures, regardless of their power. Everyone has a interest. All groups must be considered equal. Equlity doesn’t exist… not a result of social Darwinism but result of people history which is set in a world of institutionalized inequality. They argue that the existence of a privileging of some culture over other should not give the system ethical authority. Tolerance – CP mandates this for cultural difference without ethnocentric judgment. Jews do this.. Chistians don’t. What happens when right of one inihibit right of another or inflict harm on another. Slash and burn and peace crises.
Cp advocates diversity within states and between states. Must tolerate people and without other cultures shit would be dull. Another view is that members of a similar nation who are isolated will come together to form there own state like Israel. Critiques from the Globalism and State Primacy Perspectives They regard CP as being opposite there own. Problems are universal and should be solved by unified world. This breaks the world in thousands of parts with millions of ideas conflicts and perspectives with no ability to solve. State primacy rejects tolerance. Synthesis – maintain ideas present from globalism, State primacy, and Cultural Pluralism. Chapter 4!!! Development – is the economic process which enables an increasing number of people to produce enough wealth to support anacceptable quality of life. Achieveing a machine based lifestyle… or fulfilling basic need. Deveoping world – where all the focus of development is. Gross National Income – represents the total value of all goods and services a country’s economy has produced in a given year including international transactions. GNI can be divided by country’s number of people to produce the per capita GNI World development report is a source for macroeconomic data like GNI and Per capita GNI Economic Growth Strategy- The rich have used to increase standard of living through industrialization. Basic-need strategy is more short term but easilier done. Economic growth approach is not working. Dual economy – no middle class.. elite and poverty. Small middle class. They lack social programs in hard times. Economists call this lifestyle Subsistence – meaning people produce enough to live on and very little more. Underdevelopment cycle – Dual economy… low productivity… insufficient capital and few human resources.