Dysfunctions of the musculo skeletal system

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Dysfunctions of the musculo skeletal system Powered By Docstoc
   What dysfunctions of the Musculo-Skeletal system
    are there?

     Thinkabout what the normal Musculo-Skeletal system
      does, then think how it can go wrong.

     You don't have to know the names of the dysfunctions,
      you can just write down some problems that can occur
Types of dysfunction
   Arthritis
   Osteoporosis
   Multiple Sclerosis
   Parkinson’s Disease

   MS and Parkinson’s are not diseases of musculo-
    skeletal system but their symptoms affect functioning
    of muscles
   Condition
     Inflammation of the joints due to wearing away of cartilage
     2 types of arthritis:
       Osteoarthritis –
             Commonly occurs over age of 55
             Leads to permanent damage, stiffness and deformity
       Rheumatoid arthritis     –
             Can attack individuals of all ages
             Leads to misshapen and rigid joints
             Synovial membrane becomes inflamed and destroy cartilage
             Scar tissue replaces damaged cartilage which causes the joints to
              become misshapen
             More common in females
   Causes
     Osteoarthritis
       Gradual wearing away        of cartilage due to age
       Injury
       Anything else   that causes extra strain on the joints e.g.
             Overweight/obese
             Occupational hazard – sports people, dancers etc
             Skeletal deformities
   Causes
     Rheumatoid arthritis
       Precise cause not known but thought to be due to a virus
        which causes the body to attack its own tissues by producing
        antibodies against the synovial membrane (auto immune
       Synovial membrane becomes inflamed
       Complications can cause damage to:
            Heart
            Lungs
            Nerves
            Eyes
   Symptoms
     Osteoarthritis:
       Painful joints   making it hard to move
       Stiff
       Deformed joints

     Rheumatoid arthritis
       Swollen joints
       Raised temperature and      other aching joints
       Misshapen joints
   Treatment
     Pain   killer drugs (analgesics)
       Aspirin
       Ibuprofen -   Non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS)
     Corticosteroids injectedinto joints
     Joint replacement e.g. Hip replacement
       Replaced byplastic or metal joints that are cemented in place
       Other common joints: knees, shoulder, elbow, fingers

     Physiotherapy:
       Strengthen particular muscle groups
       Can do    the exercises in water - hydrotherapy
   Condition
     Brittlebones – bones become weakened due to loss of
      protein from the bone
     More common in females due to drop in oestrogen
      levels after the menopause
   Causes
     Decrease in oestrogen (oestrogen promotes bone formation)
     Removal of ovaries

     Poor diet

     Lack of exercise

     Corticosteroid drugs

     Heavy smoking

     Heavy drinking

     Poor calcium uptake

     Hormonal disorders

     Genetic influence – daughters more at risk if mother has condition
   Symptoms
      Bones break/fracture easily e.g. coughing or sneezing
      can cause ribs to fractures causing pain
     The elderly cannot move about as easily so they quickly
      become dependent on others to help them

   Diagnosis
     X-rays

     Measurement of   bone density (by photon absorption)
     Blood tests
   Treatment
     Hormone replacement      therapy (HRT)
     Biphosphonates – to arrest progress of osteoporosis

     Calcitonin – to reduce effects

     Calcium tablets – can be taken with HRT

     Vitamin D

     Pain killers (analgesics)

     Exercise recommended for people who are at risk of
      developing osteoporosis
Multiple Sclerosis
   Condition
            disease of nervous system caused by
     Chronic
      degeneration of myelin sheath around nerve cells:
                                       Myelin sheath
                                       covers nerve fibres

     Myelin insulatesthe nerve cells allowing impulses
      (messages) to be carried quickly

     MS  is characterised by periods of remissions and
Multiple Sclerosis
   Cause
     Exact   cause not known, thought to be due to:
       a virus that lies dormant until a second exposure or until high
        stress occurs OR
       A defective immune system that mistakenly identifies the
        myelin as ‘foreign’ so attacks it after a viral infection.
     Genetic influence   within a family

   Symptoms
     Dragging   of one leg affecting walking
     Double vision

     Loss of sensation and muscle power
Multiple Sclerosis
   Diagnosis
     MRI examinations
     CT scanning

     Eye tests – look at speed of responses in the optic
     Lumbar puncture – fluid is taken from the spinal cord to
      look for high number of white blood cells
Multiple Sclerosis
   Treatment
     No   cure, treatment to relieve symptoms
       Muscle relaxants to ease muscle spasms
       Corticosteroid drugs to reduce inflammation
       B-interferon
       Surgery to halt tremors
Parkinson’s Disease
   Condition
     Disease ofthe nervous system - a neurological
      degenerative disease characterised by tremors
     Often occurs after age of 60

   Cause
     Exactcause not known
     Known that a chemical imbalance occurs:
       Low levels of   Dopamine (a neurotransmitter)
Parkinson’s Disease
   Symptoms
     Tremors

     Slurred speech

     Small  muscle movements difficult so cant eat, write etc
     Stiff and slow movements (rigidity)

     Depression common

   Diagnosis
     Medical history, physical examination and observation
      of symptoms
Parkinson’s Disease
   Treatment
     Levadopa   drug – is converted to dopamine in the brain
     Anticholinergic drugs to reduce nerve to muscle
      transmission and so reduce tremors and rigidity.
     Physiotherapy and hydrotherapy to ease muscles