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1 Sweetwater County Fire District #1 STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES Mission Statement “Sweetwater County Fire District #1 is organized to safely and economically provide for life and property protection from the threat of fires and natural and manmade disasters. This will be accomplished through planning, prevention, education, incident mitigation and appropriate application of technology” See Scott Kitchner Assistant Fire Chief/Training Coordinator, for any questions, revisions, additions, or deletions. Revised: March 15TH, 2010 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................................................................................................. 2 PREAMBLE ..................................................................................................................................................................... 4 SECTION 1 PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT .................................................................................................................. 5 Line Issue Gear 100.10 3/15/10 .................................................................................................................... 5 Personal Protective Equipment 100.20 3/15/10 .................................................................................. 6 PPE Periodic Equipment Inspections 100.30 3/15/10 ........................................................................... 9 SCBA Required Use 100.40 3/15/10.......................................................................................................... 12 SCBA Testing and Maintenance 100.50 3/15/10 .................................................................................... 14 P.A.S.S. Device Use and Maintenance 100.60 3/15/10 .......................................................................... 15 Personal Protective Clothing Care 100.70 13/15/10 ............................................................................. 16 Procedure for the Death of a Member or Retiree 100.80 3/15/10........................................................... 18 SECTION 2 FIREFIGHTER SAFETY ....................................................................................................................... 26 Infectious Disease Protocol 200.10 3/15/10 ........................................................................................... 26 Personal Rehabilitation 200.20 3/15/10 ................................................................................................... 30 Traffic Cone, Flare, or Sign Deployment at Traffic Related Incidents 200.31 3/15/10………….........32 Safe Driving Practices 200.30 3/15/10...................................................................................................... 36 MVA Scene Safety 200.40 3/15/10 .............................................................................................................. 40 Station Safety 200.50 3/15/10 ..................................................................................................................... 43 Accountability System 200.60 3/15/10 ...................................................................................................... 45 Emergency Evacuation, Withdrawal and Abandon 200.70 3/15/10 ................................................... 47 Rapid Intervention Team (RIT) 200.80 3/15/10 ....................................................................................... 49 Air Management 200.90 3/15/10..............................................................................52 Burn Building Live Fire 200.95 3/15/10..............................................................................54 SECTION 3 APPARATUS AND EQUIPMENT ........................................................................................................ 60 Apparatus and Equipment Maintenance 300.10 3/15/10 ....................................................................... 60 Apparatus Hose Bed Cover 300.20 3/15/10 ............................................................................................. 62 Response Unit Shore Lines 300.30 3/15/10 .............................................................................................. 63 Medical Equipment Recovery 300.40 3/15/10 ................................................................................. 64 Hose Testing 300.50 3/15/10....................................................................................................................... 65 Research and Development 300.60 3/15/10 ........................................................................................... 66 SECTION 4 RESPONSES AND ASSIGNMENTS .................................................................................................... 70 Standard Assignments 400.10 3/15/10 .................................................................................................... 70 Turnout Time Standard 400.20 3/15/10 .................................................................................................. 76 Mutual Aid and Auto Aid 400.30 3/15/10 ................................................................................................. 77 Staffing Guidelines 400.40 3/15/10 ............................................................................................................ 79 Automatic Fire Alarm Response 400.50 3/15/10 ................................................................................... 80 SECTION 5 WATER SUPPLY OPERATIONS ......................................................................................................... 81 Tender Operations 500.10 3/15/10 ............................................................................................................ 81 Water Flow Signals 500.20 3/15/10 ........................................................................................................... 85 Engine Relays 500.30 3/15/10 .................................................................................................................... 86 Sprinkled Buildings 500.40 3/15/10....................................................................................................88 Hydrant Testing 500.50 3/15/10…….……………………………………..………………………………….89 SECTION 6 INCIDENT COMMAND SYSTEM (ICS) .............................................................................................. 92 Incident Command Overview 600.10 3/15/10 ......................................................................................... 92 National Fire Academy ICS 600.20 3/15/10 ............................................................................................. 98 ICS Command Staff Functions 600.30 3/15/10 .................................................................................... 100 ICS Safety Officer Functions 600.40 3/15/10..................................................................................... 102 ICS Public Information Officer (PIO) Functions 600.50 3/15/10 ...................................................... 104 ICS General Staff Functions 600.60 3/15/10 ......................................................................................... 105 ICS Rehab Group Functions 600.70 3/15/10......................................................................................... 107 SECTION 7 FIREGROUND OPERATIONS ........................................................................................................... 110 Fire Control Strategy 700.10 3/15/10 ..................................................................................................... 110 Primary and Secondary Searches 700.15 3/15/10 .............................................................................. 113 3 Apparatus Placement 700.20 3/15/10 ..................................................................................................... 115 Ventilation Strategy 700.25 3/15/10 ........................................................................................................ 116 Hi Rise Operations 700.30 3/15/10 .......................................................................................................... 118 Wildland Firefighting 700.35 3/15/10 ...................................................................................................... 120 Small Brush Fires 700.40 3/15/10 ............................................................................................................ 124 Chain Saw Operations 700.45 3/15/10 ................................................................................................... 127 Interface Zone Firefighting 700.50 3/15/10 ........................................................................................... 130 Post-Fire Operations 700.55 3/15/10 .......................................................................................................... 132 Post Incident Critiques 700.60 3/15/10 .................................................................................................. 134 Positive Pressure Attack 700.70 3/15/10………………………………………………………………...…135 Interior Search 700.80 3/15/10……….……………………………………………………………………….141 SECTION 8 RESCUE OPERATIONS ...................................................................................................................... 146 Helicopter Transport 800.10 3/15/10 ...................................................................................................... 146 Technical Rescue Incidents 800.20 3/15/10 ......................................................................................... 148 Trench Rescue Incidents 800.30 3/15/10 .............................................................................................. 149 Confined Space Rescue Incidents 800.40 3/15/10 .............................................................................. 154 Rope Rescue 800.50 3/15/10 .................................................................................................................... 159 Structure Collapse Rescue Incidents 800.60 3/15/10 ........................................................................ 163 Rescue Rope Use and Maintenance 800.70 3/15/10 ............................................................................ 168 Thermal Imaging Camera 800.80 3/15/10......................................................................................169 SECTION 9 MOTOR VEHICLE INCIDENT OPERATIONS ............................................................................................... 171 Light Vehicle Fires 900.10 3/15/10 .......................................................................................................... 171 Patient Extrication 900.20 3/15/10.. .................................................................................................173 Marking of Vehicles Involved in Accidents 900.30 3/15/10 .................................................................. 174 SECTION 10 HAZARDOUS MATERIALS OPERATIONS (HAZMAT)................................................................. 175 Hazardous Material Overview 1000.10 3/15/10 .................................................................................... 175 Hazardous Materials Decontamination 1000.20 3/15/10 ................................................................... 178 Clandestine Lab Responses 1000.30 3/15/10 ...................................................................................... 183 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Incidents 1000.40 3/15/10.................................................................................. 184 Natural Gas Incidents 1000.50 3/15/10 .................................................................................................. 187 Flammable Liquids Incidents 1000.60 3/15/10 ...................................................................................... 189 SECTION 11 PERSONNEL GUIDELINES…………………………………...…………………………………….192 Uniforms/personal appearance 1100.10 3/15/10………………………………………………………….192 Volunteer Captain Performance Appraisal 1100.20 3/15/10……………….………………………..…..207 Volunteer Lieutenant Performance Appraisal 1100.30 3/15/10……………………….………………..208 SECTION 12 EMERGENCY MEDICAL 1200.00 ...………………………………………………………………..209 4 PREAMBLE It is the duty of every firefighter and every line officer to read, understand, and to stay up to date regarding the content and intent of the Sweetwater County Fire District #1 Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). Notice of any changes, deletions or editions shall be emailed to all line personnel so that they are able to stay current with the SOPs. We have developed SOPs for two primary reasons, first to safeguard that a job that can be very hazardous is performed as safely as possible; and also to insure that this job is accomplished with maximum effectiveness, reducing personal injury and property damage as much as possible with the resources we have. The history of SOPs is firmly grounded in the concept that since all members of any organization can not possibly have experienced or know all that there is to know about the job, there must be a default or “standard” documented way of doing the job that can be studied, learned, and passed on. Such a “standard” is intended to either always apply or it can be discretionary in a given situation. You will pay particular attention when reading this entirely revised version of the Fire District SOPs to the use of the words “shall” as opposed to “should”, “must” as opposed to “may”, and other language which either mandates certain actions or merely recommends them. If you choose to deviate from a mandated SOP, you had better have an irrefutable, defensible reason for doing so. It should relate to being faced with a highly irregular variation on a given situation. This is because such behavior is, in effect, counter to a direct order. On the other hand, a recommended SOP practice may be adjusted to suit the situation as needed, provided that the one making the changes has the authority (communication and approval within the chain of command), knowledge and/or experience necessary to affect an equal or better outcome. He/she should easily be able to articulate the reason for making the change. It is crucial to note that a member should not be chastised for making a “judgment call” where this approach is used reasonably. The intent of this preamble then, is not that the recommended SOPs be arbitrarily changed or discarded without just cause. It is that we all understand that members who have authority, knowledge and/or experience may recognize a situation where the best course of action might differ from the SOP. In other words, that we encourage responsible, reasonable use of initiative and innovation. We prefer to call it “common sense”, knowing that mission goals of service and safety are the reason the SOPs exist, and not the other way around. By signing below I approve of these Standard Operating Procedures __________________________________ _____________________ James Wamsley Date Fire Chief Sweetwater County Fire District #1 5 SECTION 1 PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT Line Issue Gear 100.10 3/15/2010 PURPOSE: To establish the minimum level of protection provided to members that are exposed to hazardous environments while completing their assigned duties. MAJOR OBJECTIVES: 1. Full protective clothing and equipment 2. Additional protective equipment Full Protective Clothing and Equipment (PPE) All personnel assigned response duties as suppression and rescue members will be issued the following protective clothing and equipment: 1. Helmet with goggles 2. Turnout coat 3. Turnout pants w/ suspenders 4. Turnout boots 5. One pair of leather gloves, one pair of extrication gloves 6. SCBA mask with bag 7. Protective hood 8. Spanner Wrenches 9. Safety Webbing 10. Pass Device 11. Flashlight 12. Door and Sprinkler Wedges All the above items shall meet the appropriate NFPA Standard at the time of issue and will be replaced or repaired when necessary. Additional Protective Equipment In addition to the equipment listed above, line members shall receive and be responsible for: 1. One wild land helmet with attached hood and goggles 2. One pair wild land approved boots 3. One pair wild land gloves 4. Two Nomex wild land shirts 5. Two pair of wildland pants 6. One wildland nomex coat 7. One wildland backpack with related equipment i.e. (fire shelter, radio harness, Reference Books) 6 Personal Protective Equipment 100.20 3/15/2010 PURPOSE: To assure that all line personnel are prepared to commence fire suppression and/or rescue operations immediately on arrival at an emergency scene while maintaining the established level of personnel protection. This procedure shall apply to personnel operating at the scene of any emergency incident or training exercise. MAJOR OBJECTIVES: 1. Definition of Protective Equipment 2. Requirements for use of Protective Equipment 3. Maintenance of Protective Equipment 4. Storage of PPE 5. Enforcement Definition of Protective Equipment For the purpose of this procedure‚"Protective Equipment" shall consist of: helmet with eye protection, hood, turnout coat, turnout pants, turnout boots, and gloves. All equipment is to be properly fastened and closed with hood on, coat collar up and helmet ear flaps turned down. "Full Protective Equipment" includes all of the above with the addition of SCBA. All equipment shall be issued or approved by the Fire District. Alterations to critical components of equipment, such as the removal of liners for coats or pants, are prohibited. If the need for some other alteration is noted, the Chief must first approve it. Requirements for use of Protective Equipment Protective Equipment shall be worn by all personnel according to the following guidelines: A. Under no circumstances shall any aspect of personnel safety equipment be sacrificed in order to increase the speed of emergency operations. Emergency operations shall not commence until all involved personnel have donned all necessary protective equipment. B. Incident Commanders may use their discretion to determine the appropriate level of protective equipment required for personnel operating at incidents where no specific guidelines have been established. In all cases personnel should be required to wear all protective equipment necessary to protect against reasonably foreseeable hazards. C. All firefighting personnel shall wear Full Protective Equipment when responding to any type of alarm indicative of fire, potential fire, explosion, potential explosion, or release of any type of hazardous material. Appropriate Protective Equipment shall be donned prior to boarding apparatus for emergency response. 7 D. Personnel operating at wildland fires should replace structural protective clothing and equipment with approved wildland protective clothing such as Nomex shirts, wildland backpacks, wildland helmets with goggles, wildland gloves and approved wildland boots. Additional equipment such as hot shields, helmet flaps, wildland pants should be worn in addition to the required equipment as the incident dictates. E. If an alarm is received while the apparatus is out of quarters all personnel shall don Protective Equipment immediately upon arrival at the emergency scene and prior to beginning any emergency operations. F. Protective Equipment shall be worn by all personnel operating power tools, hydraulic tools or forcible entry tools. Protective Equipment is also required for all personnel in a potential risk area where any of these tools are being used. G. Personnel operating at the scene of medical or rescue incidents shall wear whatever protective equipment is necessary to assure personnel safety during the incident. Use of nitrile medical gloves is required whenever procedures involving medical patients’ body fluids are present or can be foreseen to exist. See Infectious Disease Protocol, S.O.P. 200.10, for further explanation of body substance isolation. H. Gloves shall be worn at all times when hand tools, power tools, hose, ladders, or any other equipment is used that could cause injuries to the hands. This shall include all work assignments, maintenance operations (with the potential for hand injury), and training exercises. If a fire scene structural gloves are to be worn if an extrication then extrication gloves will be sufficient. I. Suitable helmets with chin straps in place shall be worn by all personnel operating at incidents where there is a possibility that tools; equipment or debris from above may fall. This would include any time personnel are operating above or below grade such as during trench rescue or high angle rope rescue situations. J. Helmets with chin straps in place shall be worn by all personnel operating in potential conflict with vehicle traffic. In addition to the helmet these personnel shall wear a ANSI type II or III reflective safety vest to provide a minimum fluorescent retroflective material. K. Eye protection shall be in place when conditions present the possibility of eye injury from dust or other airborne debris (i.e. extrication, tool maintenance, etc.). To include at a minimum face shield, goggles or ANSI Z-87 certified safety glasses. L. Ear protection shall be in place when conditions present the possibility of injury from a loud environment. Ear protection is available to all firefighters by the way of ear plugs and specialized ear muffs. 8 Maintenance of Protective Equipment Protective Equipment shall be maintained in a response ready condition at all times. It is the responsibility of personnel to inspect and monitor the condition of their personal Protective Equipment according to the guidelines provided by the Fire District. A. Damage to Protective Equipment shall be immediately reported to the Battalion Chief’s. The Battalion Chief’s shall inspect the damaged article and report it to the Assistant Chief for replacement or repair. Equipment damaged such that its protective ability is compromised shall not be used. B. Once each year, Battalion Chiefs shall personally inspect all Protective Equipment for each firefighter assigned to them. The inspection shall be made in accordance with guidelines provided by the Fire Chief to assure that all necessary Protective Equipment is in usable condition. Officers shall use SOP 100.10 for guidelines to determine the required Protective Equipment. The inspection shall be recorded and submitted to the Assistant Fire Chief. Storage of Personal Protective Equipment A. Protective Equipment shall be stored away from direct sunlight whenever possible. B. Bunker gear racks provided at the station shall be utilized. C. Protective Equipment shall be stored in a well-ventilated area. D. Protective Equipment shall not be worn in living or office areas of the station. Enforcement As with any safety procedure, primary responsibility for adherence to this procedure rests with each individual. Company Officers are responsible for enforcement of this procedure within their respective Battalions. Authority to deviate from this procedure rests solely with the Officer in Charge who bears full responsibility for the results of any deviation. 9 PPE Periodic Equipment Inspections 100.30 3/15/2010 Purpose: To establish the guidelines for inspection of Personnel Protective Equipment. Each item of Protective Equipment is described by categories that classify the condition and serviceability. These guidelines shall be used by officers during the annual formal inspection and by all members to inspect their own protective equipment. It is the responsibility of each member to inspect his personnel protective equipment to ensure its serviceability. It is suggested that this inspection be done at the start of each work session. All Protective Equipment found to be in need of replacement should be removed from service without delay and a request for replacement equipment made to the Assistant Chief. HELMET: OK: No apparent defects, retroreflective materials clean and well attached, eye protection clean and easily seen through, associated hardware in serviceable condition. Earflaps relatively clean, in good repair. Helmet ridge free of deep gouges. C: (Needs Cleaning). Applies to retroreflective materials, eye protection, and ear flaps. Surface dirt, grime, oils, and penetrated stains (earflaps) may hinder protective qualities. R: (Needs Repair). Repairable parts include hardware, chin strap, eye protection (replace lens), and retroreflective material (new stripes). Retroreflective materials that are severely melted, and/or stained past cleaning ability should be replaced. Lenses that are scratched, stained, or deformed such that vision through the lenses is hampered shall be replaced. Chin straps that are melted or cut should be replaced. X: (Needs Replaced). Applies to the helmet structure and suspension system. Deep gouges on the helmet ridge are cause for replacement. To test the integrity of any questionable areas, perform a pen test. The pen test is performed by simply pushing a pen into the deepest part of a groove or surface gouge. If the pen penetrates the Polycarbonate shell, the entire helmet shall be replaced. Cuts, melting, or other damage to the interior suspension system are cause for replacement. TURNOUT COAT: OK: No apparent cuts, tears, or degradation that penetrate the shell or vapor barrier. Retroreflective materials intact. All hardware operates as designed. Sleeve cuffs fit snugly around wrist. Coat liners are attached to shell as designed. Materials meet NFPA 1971 criteria. C: (Needs Cleaning). Surface dirt, grime, and stains have affected the qualities of the retroreflective materials. Soot buildup rubs off easily. Velcro closures have lost grip friction due to lint/dirt buildup (clean w/ light strokes from a wire brush). R: (Needs Repair). Tears in the shell away from seams. Retroreflective material is loose or torn. Snaps missing. Velcro closures torn, loose, worn down, or otherwise dysfunctional. Worn material that exposes the vapor barrier. Pockets that are torn or cut. X: (Needs Replaced). Coat does not conform to NFPA 1971. Cuts and tears penetrate the vapor barrier. D-Rings, zippers, or other fasteners missing or broken and not repairable. Tears at the seam that has destroyed the shell fabric. Integrity of shell/liner is lost. 10 TURNOUT PANTS/SUSPENDERS: OK: Same as turnout coat. Suspenders are attached as designed. Suspenders have remaining elasticity. Cuff is not worn/torn such that liner/shell connection is lost. C: (Needs Cleaning). Same as Turnout coat. R: (Needs Repair). Same as Turnout coat. Suspenders have no elasticity (suspender gets replaced). Suspender connection is damaged, torn, or worn. X: (Needs Replacement). Same as Turnout coat. TURNOUT BOOTS: OK: Boots have no apparent tears, cuts, or wears that penetrate the shell. Water repellency appears intact. Felt lining is intact with no reported blistering of user. Sole has traction qualities. C: (Needs Cleaning). Surface dirt, grime, soot, and oil build up that may affect traction. R: (Needs Repair). Pull-up straps are torn from boot but still in place. X: (Needs Replaced). Cuts, holes, wear that penetrates shell such that water repellency is in question. Felt liner has deteriorated such that shell material rubs against wearer. Toe is crushed or deformed. LEATHER TURNOUT GLOVES AND EXTRICATION GLOVES: OK: Gloves appear to be in serviceable condition with no penetrating cuts, tears, or wear. Cuff has elasticity to help keep out debris. Liners are attached to shell. C: (Needs cleaning). Surface dirt, grime, soot, and oil build up that may effect ability to grab and hold items. R: (Needs repair). No repairable items on gloves. X: (Needs Replacement). Cuts, wear, tears that penetrate shell. Wear and loss of elasticity at cuff. Total separation of liner from shell. PROTECTIVE HOOD: OK: No cuts, tears, or wear that penetrate the fabric in areas around face, ears, or neck. Not stained such that protective qualities may be questioned. Face opening will fit snug around SCBA mask. C: (Needs cleaning). Surface dirt, grime, soot, and oil build up that may affect protective qualities. Elongation of face opening that may be restored through washing. R: (Needs Repair). Cuts and tears away from face opening seam. 11 X: (Needs Replacement). Wear that penetrates material. Face opening can not be restored to a snug fit around SCBA mask. Tears of the face opening seam. SCBA MASK/ FACEPIECE: MASK: OK: No visible defects. Lens is clean and scratches do not substantially obstruct vision, no deformity or crazing of lens material. The mask body is free from soot and dirt and not cracked. All other hardware is in good working condition, clamps and screws are tight and the buckles and other metal parts are clean and function easily, speech diaphragm enunciates properly. Head nets and straps are not torn. C: (Needs Cleaning). Applies to entire mask both inside and out and all components. Clean condition requires mask to be free from dirt, grime, oils and products of combustion. R: (Needs Repair). Repairable items include: Speech diaphragm that is deformed or enunciates improperly shall be replaced. Lenses that are excessively scratched, crazed, stained beyond cleaning, or deformed due to heat shall be replaced. Head nets or straps that are torn or have lost their required elasticity. X: (Needs Replaced). Applies to the neoprene mask structure. Cracks, excessive wear that causes mask to lose shape and/or seal and melt spots are cause for replacement. Wildland Equipment: Wild land equipment shall follow the same guidelines as listed above. 12 SCBA Required Use 100.40 3/15/2010 Purpose: To enhance the safety of line personnel by requiring the use of SCBA during specific emergency operations and training exercises. It is the policy of Fire District#1 that all personnel expected to respond and function in areas of atmospheric contamination, shall be equipped with self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) and trained in its proper use and maintenance. The intent of the SCBA policy is to avoid any respiratory contact with products of combustion, superheated gases, toxic products or other hazardous contaminants. Major Objectives: 1. Issue procedures. 2. Inspection procedures. 3. Required SCBA use. Issue Procedures The Battalion Chief will assign a specific sized SCBA mask to each firefighter for interior & exterior structural firefighting after the proper fit testing has been completed. Each firefighter will be responsible for the proper function and use of that SCBA mask. Inspection Procedures Each firefighter shall be accountable for one (1) SCBA mask and facepiece. Each firefighter shall check the condition of that mask and facepiece at the beginning of each shift, and at any other time it may be necessary to render the equipment in a ready state of condition. If an SCBA is found to be functioning improperly, it shall be taken out of service, tagged, reported, and replaced immediately. Required SCBA Use The definition of "use" means that all personnel shall have masks in place and breathing supplied air. SCBA shall be "used" by all personnel operating: In a contaminated atmosphere In an atmosphere which may suddenly become contaminated In an atmosphere which is oxygen deficient In an atmosphere which is suspected of being contaminated or oxygen deficient. This includes all personnel operating: in an active non-wildland fire area directly above an active fire area in a potential explosion or fire area 13 where hazardous products of combustion other than wood, vegetation, etc. are visible in the atmosphere, such as vehicle fires and dumpster fires where invisible contaminants are suspected to be present (i.e. Carbon Monoxide during overhaul) where toxic products are present, suspected to be present, or may be released without warning in any confined space which has not been tested to establish respiratory safety In addition to the above, SCBA shall be "worn" by all personnel operating at non-wildland fire incidents above ground, below ground or in any other area which is not, but which may become contaminated by products of combustion or other hazardous substances. In these circumstances only, the SCBA may be "worn" with the facepiece removed. The wearing of SCBA in these situations provides that it will be immediately available for use if conditions change or if personnel are to enter an area where the use of SCBA is required. Premature removal of SCBA must be avoided at all times. This is particularly significant during overhaul when smoldering materials may produce increased quantities of carbon monoxide and other toxic products. In these cases SCBA shall be worn on all fires during salvage and overhaul operations until completed. The only exception to mandatory SCBA use will be during wildland fire incidents. Significant differences in fire behavior, suppression techniques, exposure hazards, etc. create a different risk vs. gain decision. Although the wearing of SCBA is not mandatory, firefighters are required to minimize exposure to fire products. Appropriate measures include: 1. Size up the potential loss of life and/or property when making tactical decisions that affect exposure level. 2. As is possible, work with the wind at your back. Company Officers are advised to use discretion when determining the risk/gain factors and are allowed to remove firefighters to a less exposed position. In routine fire situations, the decision to remove SCBA shall be made by Company Officers, with the approval of Division/Group Supervisors, based on an evaluation of conditions. Prior to removal, fire areas shall be thoroughly ventilated and, where necessary, continuous ventilation shall be provided. If there is any doubt about respiratory safety, SCBA use shall be maintained until the atmosphere is established to be safe by testing. This is required in complex situations, particularly when toxic materials may be involved. An evaluation of all firefighters in the use of the SCBA shall be conducted annually. Each firefighter shall be able to demonstrate a high level of proficiency and compatibility with the SCBA under conditions that simulate those expected as a job requirement. 14 SCBA Testing and Maintenance 100.50 3/15/2010 PURPOSE: To insure the safe operation and proper maintenance of Self Contained Apparatus (SCBA). BEFORE USE AND AFTER USE CHECK: All firefighters shall perform a check on their SCBA, after each use and on all SCBA’s during vehicle preventative maintenance checks. 1. Visually inspect backplate, mask and lung demand regulator (2nd stage) for wear, damage and open straps. 2. Read pressure gauge and replace bottle if less than 2,216 PSI. 3. Check functions of lung demand regulator, exhalation valve, and mask seal by taking a few deep breaths. Regulator should switch to positive pressure with first breath. 4. Check function of bypass valve. 5. Check function of Vibralert and Heads Up Display. Activation should occur at approx. the same pressure at ¼ tank. A slight variation in pressures is acceptable due to working on different sides of the system. 6. Check function of pass device. Any defective SCBA must be reported immediately to the Company Officer and removed from service. Cleaning: SCBA’s and all associated parts will be thoroughly cleaned and inspected after each use PRESSURE WASHERS ARE NOT TO BE USED TO CLEAN SCBA’s at any time. Cleaning shall be completed using only recommended products Like 409, Simple Green, or supplied Citrus cleaner. Mask Cleaning and Inspection: 1). Use a mild soap solution on both the inside and outside of the mask. 2). Scrub the lens and mask skirt with a hand and allow to sit for 10 minutes 3). Rinse with WARM clean tap water. 4). Rinse with a mild bleach solution. 5). Rinse with WARM clean tap water. 4). Air Dry 5). Inspect the entire mask for defects, deep scratches, tears in skirt, or damage to the headstraps. DO NOT use any cleaning agents other than Multi-wash or clear tap water on masks. This will remove antifog coatings and could potentially damage the lens. The use of paper towels on the lens is not recommended and can cause scratches and remove antifog coatings. 15 P.A.S.S. Device Use and Maintenance 100.60 3/15/2010 Purpose: To establish operational and maintenance guidelines for Personal Alert Safety Systems Devices (PASS). Major Objectives: Procedures for response to a PASS device activation Required testing, maintenance and use of PASS device The PASS device shall NOT be a justification for solo operations. The PASS device is a safety device designed as an additional tool for firefighters in a perilous situation. Manual activation of the PASS device shall be reserved for mayday situations requiring immediate assistance. Procedures for Response to a PASS Activation Continuous activation of a PASS device is cause for immediate and direct concern. It is automatically assumed that a firefighter is in trouble and incident mitigation strategies shall be adjusted with firefighter rescue being the number one concern. Actions for rescue can be directed using the following guidelines. 1. Personnel hearing the PASS device activation shall radio their Group/Division Supervisor and advise of the situation. Group/Division Supervisors shall notify Command of the event. 2. Upon notification of PASS activation, the Incident Commander shall initiate procedures for emergency radio traffic. The emergency message should contain direction/assignment changes for crews if necessary. If applicable the "Mayday, Mayday, Mayday" order should be given as directed in SOP 200.60 3. Once the activated device has been located, appropriate action to safely mitigate the circumstance is warranted. If adequate help is rendered, deactivate the device (turn off). Report and update as necessary to insure that tactical and strategic objectives can be met. PASS Device Testing and Maintenance Requirements As with any safety device, the PASS needs to be tested to ensure operational readiness. The following guidelines shall be followed to meet this end: 1. The PASS device will automatically be activated to the auto mode when cylinder valve on SCBA is opened. Assure that the PASS activates within 30 seconds of no movement of the pack. Reset the PASS and activate manually. When both tests have been completed, turn off the SCBA bottle, bleed the air from regulator and re-set the PASS device. Failure of any part of this test should be cause for tagging the unit out of service. 16 Personal Protective Clothing Care 100.70 3/15/2010 Purpose: To promote a healthier firefighter environment and ensure proper care and cleaning of protective clothing. Firefighters shall maintain clean protective clothing in order to minimize the risk of spreading disease, and to avoid contacting carcinogens or toxins. The combination of hydrocarbons and halogens (chlorine, fluorine, bromine and iodine) is bioaccumlative and can cause cancer long after exposure. Clean protective clothing is not enough; firefighters must follow these procedures in order to preserve the protective qualities of the clothing. Refer to SOP 100.30 to determine when protective clothing shall be inspected and washed. Major Objectives: Washing Instructions Spot Cleaning and Pre-treating Laundering and Cleaning Products Washing Instructions Protective clothing should be washed separately from other garments. Washing with other garments diminishes fire resistive abilities of Nomex and PBI. All zippers and Velcro should be fastened, the garment turned inside out (to avoid damage to the washer). An alternate method would allow the garment to be washed in a lint free bag, right side out. Outer shells should be washed separately from the liners. Suspenders and other accessories should be removed prior to washing. Double check all pockets before loading into washer. The industrial washer located in the decon room has been provided to prevent contaminating home washing machines with harmful products of combustion. When used for washing bunker gear, this washing machine requires a minimum of two sets and a maximum of four sets of bunker gear to be washed at a time (outer shells or liners). Bunker gear liners and shells must be separated; all Velcro, zippers and snaps must be fastened closed. Items must be placed in the blue washing bags one item per bag and closed with the large bag pin. Gloves and hoods can be placed in a separate bag or with any of the other items in the same washing bag. Shells and Liners must be washed separately. Prior to washing, heavily soiled garments should be pre-treated using procedures outlined in the next section of this SOP. Place gear into washer. 17 For heavy soiled shells add ½ cup of Versitol soap into black receptacle marked #1 and then add ¼ cup of Versitol soap into the black receptacle marked #2, enter 01 on keypad then press start on keypad. For lightly soiled shells add ½ cup of Versitol soap into black receptacle marked #1, enter 02 on keypad then press start on keypad. For liners add 1 oz. of Specialty soap into black receptacle marked #5, enter 03 on keypad then press start on keypad. Remove garments from washing machine and dry by hanging on rack in laundry room. Spot Cleaning and Pre-Treating Spot cleaning: Pre-cleaners can be used to clean light spots and stains on protective clothing. Squirt pre-cleaner one or two times onto the soiled areas. Gently rub fabric together until a light foam appears on the surface. Carefully rinse off with cool water. Pre-Treating: Apply liquid detergent directly from the bottle onto the soiled areas. Gently rub fabric together until a light foam appears on the surface. Place garment into washing machine as instructed in Section 1 and add the remaining amount of the recommended detergent. To clean garments that are heavily soiled, use a liquid detergent or pre-cleaner solution, prior to laundering, in the following manner: 1. Air dry garment before applying product. 2. Squirt the liquid detergent or pre-cleaner directly onto the stain and the surrounding areas. (Use 3-4 squirts). Make sure that the soiled area is soaked with the product. 3. Use a soft bristle brush (toothbrush or fingernail type dipped in water) to gently scrub the soiled area for about 1 or 2 minutes. 4. Reapply liquid detergent or pre-cleaner onto the soiled areas again (use 1 or 2 squirts). 5. Place garment into washing machine as instructed in Section 1. Some examples of products that may be utilized for cleaning, spot cleaning and pre-treating are as follows: Liquid Tide Liquid Spray & Wash Liquid Shout Turnout Spotter Cleaner DO NOT USE CHLORINE BLEACH ON FIRE FIGHTER PROTECTIVE CLOTHING Inspect and examine the garments after cleaning. Each Firefighter is responsible for re-assembling and placing their own personal gear back into service. If you are unable to take care of this in a timely fashion, let other staff know or request that it be done for you. 18 Operational Procedure for the Death of a Member or Retiree 100.80 3/15/2010 Section I Responsibilities of Notification A. Death in the line of Duty 1. Upon the death of a member in the line of duty the officer in charge if other than the Chief shall immediately notify the Fire Chief and the Assistant Fire Chief. 2. The Chief or his designee shall notify the Board or Directors. 3. The Chief or his designee shall notify the next of kin. 4. Upon receipt of a notice of a member killed in the line of duty the station flag shall be placed at half-staff and the station sign shall be draped in black bunting until seven (7) days after the funeral. 5. A news conference or a formal news release should be arranged as soon as possible so that factual information is available for dissemination. 6. The Chief shall designate an officer-in-charge (OIC) who shall be responsible for the department’s involvement in the funeral procedures. B. Death other than in the line of duty 1. When the Chief learns of the death of an active or retired member, he or his designee will notify the Fire Department. 2. Upon receipt of such official notification from the chief or his designee of the death of a member or retiree, the station flag shall be lowered to half-staff until the day following the funeral. 3. As soon as it is convenient the Chief or his designee shall notify the Board of Directors of the reported death. 4. The chief or his designee shall designate an Officer –in-Charge (OIC) who shall be responsible for the Fire Department involvement in the funeral procedures. Section II Responsibilities of the Officer in Charge (OIC) A. The OIC shall contact the family of the deceased member and, in coordination with the funeral director, establish the family’s desires as to fire department participation in the funeral. He shall assist the family in any way, he shall offer the fire department’s services for the following situations: 1. A formal funeral, at home, funeral home, church or cemetery; involving use of Fire Department Engines, active pallbearers, honorary pallbearers and funeral detail, color guard and bugler. (This type of honor shall be reserved for those members killed in the line of duty.) 2. A semi-formal funeral at home, funeral home, church or cemetery, involving use of Fire Department Engines, active pallbearers, honorary pallbearers, honors guard and funeral detail. 19 3. A non-formal funeral, at home, funeral home, church or cemetery; there being no fire department involvement, other than members attending in a passive roll either in the viewing and/or funeral services. 4. Private funeral, at home, funeral home, church or cemetery; respecting the family’s wishes to have no outside participation at the funeral. NOTE: with the exception of those honors reserved for members killed in the line of duty, any or all of the fire department’s honors may be part of a member’s funeral ceremony. The desires of the family shall be paramount and shall be given the fullest respect. B. Having established the wishes of the deceased, the OIC shall carry out any or all of the following in order to realize these wishes. The OIC shall continually be in communication with the funeral director as he arranges for the Fire Department’s participation. 1. Normal Funeral Arrangements A. Arrange for an honor guard to stand duty during the viewing, minimum of four (4). B. Arrange for active pallbearers; six (6) plus an officer. Arrange for necessary equipment. C. Arrange for honorary pallbearers (family, company officers, retirees, etc.) D. Arrange for funeral detail (all uniformed members in attendance) E. Arrange for bugler (WWCC, High School Band, VFW, Funeral Home) F. Arrange for color guard. Obtain American Flag for casket (funeral director secures flag for veterans only) G. Provide all members of the Fire Department with the information necessary to carry out their rolls in the funeral. H. Survey the area of the services and make provisions for placement of all attending units and provide information for map preparation. I. Designate an area of assembly for all attending Chief Officers and dignitaries (preferably in a building, funeral home, church, school or fire station.) J. Designate an area of assembly for all other members of the department and visiting fire fighters. NOTE: this area should be a block or two away from the funeral home or church, preferably at a fire station, school or park where ample parking and assembly area are available. This group will then march as a unit to the church or funeral home to act as funeral detail. K. Obtain sufficient rolls of black plastic tape along with small round tipped scissors that can be carried in a pocket and make them available in the assembly areas for all uniformed personnel to place a horizontal black band over the breast badge of all participating officers and men. L. The OIC or his delegated representative will coordinate all commands during the movement of the casket as prescribed in this directive. 2. Special Arrangements for Formal Funeral A. A Fire District Vehicle will be appropriately prepared – with flowers and black bunting for use to transport the casket. 20 B. Arrange for the proper placement of all vehicles that will participate in the funeral procession. NOTE: If a joint service is held and internment will be at two or more locations, separate processions must be established according to guest preference. C. A map of the areas involved will be prepared to expedite the proceedings and assist out of town guests, map should include: 1. Location of fire department(s) 2. Location of Funeral Homes 3. Location of Church 4. Location of Firefighters assembly area 5. Location of Chief Officer and Dignitary assembly area 6. Location of Auxiliary parking areas 7. Location of hotel(s) for out of town guests 8. Location of vehicles for funeral procession 9. Route of funeral procession 10. Location of auxiliary parking at cemetery 11. Location of food service areas 12. Location of cemetery and grave in cemetery 13. Separation map or coding on a single map should designate location of multiple funerals and/or processions as required. 14. Any other information deemed necessary D. On the above map or a separate sheet a copy of a diagram should show the proper arrangement and movement of personnel for various ceremonies and locations as necessary. E. Arrangements for reproduction of sufficient quantities of the above two maps and firm commitment on delivery should be established. F. The OIC or his designated representative will coordinate all commands during the movement of the various locations involved and along the funeral procession route. G. Proper arrangement with the Police Department should be made to handle traffic. 3. Photography Coverage A. Fire department photographer or private photographer should be assigned to cover the funeral. 4. Media Arrangements A. Establish Guidelines for TV and press 1. At the church inside and/or out 2. Funeral home inside and/or out 3. Cemetery – general photo coverage and/or coverage of the immediate grave 21 5. Arrangements for out-of-town guests A. Transportation 1. Airports 2. Hotels, Motels 3. Funeral services 4. Cemetery 5. Food service areas NOTE: where there are insufficient fire department cars consider use of other municipal cars, surplus police vehicles and private vehicles of department members. Provide signs for these vehicles approximately 1 ½ feet long by 6 inches to read “FIRE DEPARTMENT COURTESY CAR”. B. Arrange for housing as necessary for overnight guests. C. Arrange for food service areas 1. For Chief Officers or Dignitaries 2. Firefighters Note: food service may be needed between morning and afternoon funeral services or following a funeral service at one or more locations. Depending on the cause and number of personnel involved in a fire or emergency related fatal accident the number of out-of-town guests could range from a few hundred to several thousand. Section III Responsibilities of Members A. All members will at all times Maintain a clean, pressed and properly fitted uniform for use at funerals and/or any other formal functions. B. All Fire Dept. personnel should make every effort to honor their fellow members by attending the funeral services. C. All members of the Fire Dept. shall acquaint themselves with the prescribed courtesies of the fire departments funeral procedures as outlined in this operation guide. D. Honor Guard: 1. At least four (4) honor guards are required 2. One member of the honor guard shall be designated as the Officer of the guard (OG). He shall be responsible for obtaining the necessary equipment (white gloves, black badge bands, etc.) and for the scheduling of the honor guard members. 3. Two honor guards, one for the head and one for the foot of the casket shall be scheduled at ten (10) minute intervals. 22 4. Honor Guards uniforms shall be dress uniform, white gloves and black badge bands. 5. Honor guard shall stand at attention at their assigned positions for the duration of their ten (10) minute tour of duty. 6. Honor guard may be used during viewing and prior to the service as custom dictates. E. Honorary Pallbearer 1. Men designated as honorary pallbearers, usually retirees or members of the deceased’s company, shall at all times move ahead of the casket as it-is moved. 2. The honorary pallbearers shall sit on the designated side of the church during the service. 3. Dress for honorary pallbearers : A. Retirees will normally wear civilian clothes B. Active members shall be in dress uniform F. Active Pallbearers 1. The active pallbearers detail shall consist of (6) pallbearers plus an officer. 2. The officer of the detail shall contact the funeral director for detailed instructions. 3. The pallbearers will remain covered at all times while acting in that capacity and will wear white gloves. 4. The pallbearers will not salute while acting in that capacity. 5. The flag shall be placed over the casket with the blue field at the head over the deceased’s left shoulder. 6. If the casket arrives at the church from the funeral home the pallbearers detail shall position them to receive the casket in front of the church. (See diagram). 7. During the service the pallbearer detail will sit on the designated side of the church with the funeral detail. 8. At the cemetery, after placing the casket over the gravesite and upon the officer’s command, the detail shall raise the flag to waist high over the casket and hold it there during the committal service. After the committal service is read, taps may be sounded. The flag is then folded, upon the officer’s command, in the prescribed military manner and presented to the next of kin by the officer of the detail. 9. The detail, on orders of the officer shall take a place with the funeral detail. 10. During the graveside service, where the flag is not draped over the casket, the pallbearer detail, after placing the casket over the grave site, on orders of the officer shall step back with the funeral detail and follow the procedures for the funeral detail. 23 G. Funeral Detail 1. All members of the department, not otherwise detailed, will act as the funeral detail, in dress uniform, no gloves required. 2. The funeral detail will arrive as a group from the staging area prior to the arrival of the funeral coach at the church and take a position in front of the church on the right hand side as indicated in the diagram. 3. For formal and semi-formal funerals the funeral detail will take position in front of the church in two (2) facing ranks with senior officers closest to the church. 4. As the active pallbearers move the casket from the coach the funeral detail will be called to attention by the OIC. If the casket is draped with the flag the OIC will order a hand salute as the casket passes. The command shall be “present arms!” 5. After the casket passes the OIC will order “at ease” and the funeral detail will file into the church according to rank and sit in the designated area of the church. Head covering is removed upon entering the church. 6. After the service the funeral detail, on order of OIC, will file out of the church and in the case of a formal funeral take a position on the right of the entry as indicated in the diagram. 7. If semi-formal service, the funeral detail will form ranks on both sides of the entry with senior officers closest to hearse. 8. As the flag draped casket is brought out of the church, the detail is brought to attention and a hand salute is executed on order of the OIC. 9. The funeral detail rides as a group in designated cars to the cemetery or between the funeral home and church/ 10. The funeral detail at the cemetery again forms two ranks according to rank from the location of the hearse to the gravesite, with the officers closest to grave. (see diagram) 11. As the flag draped casket is removed from the hearse by the active pallbearers, the funeral detail executes a hand salute on order of the OIC. (present arms) If the flag does not cover the casket they stand at attention. 12. After casket is (placed over the grave the funeral detail forms ranks in front of the grave, highest rank on right. (see diagram) 13. If taps are sounded, uniformed members should execute hand salute on order of the OIC. 14. During religious graveside services all personnel will bow at words “let us pray” 15. All personnel except the active pallbearers while holding the flag will follow example of the officiating clergy. If he uncovers they will uncover, if he remains covered, they will remain covered. NOTE: These procedures and formations are accepted courtesies but act as a guideline only and may be adjusted depending upon existing conditions at funereal home, church, etc. 24 (Example) Honor Guard Roster Name of Deceased: Date Deceased Passed Away: As of ___________ (date) at _____ hours (time) the department will provide an honor guard for the funeral of _________________ who will/will not be buried in his uniform. Viewing will be held at: Name: Address: Day and Date: Time: Funeral will be held at: Name: Address: Day and Date: Time: Honor Guards will be scheduled at 10 minute intervals between, _____ and ______ hours, _____ (day and date) ________. Honor Guards Name: __________________ (time) From_________ to _____________ Honor Guards Name: __________________ (time) From_________ to _____________ Honor Guards Name: __________________ (time) From_________ to _____________ Honor Guards Name: __________________ (time) From_________ to _____________ Honor Guards Name: __________________ (time) From_________ to _____________ Honor Guard Uniform will be Dress Uniforms. Department will furnish white gloves and black breast badge bands. 25 Guidelines for Funeral Formations (According to Military Etiquette) The funeral formation is formed before the casket is moved and the casket is then carried through the formation followed by the family and friends. Casket Casket Entering Building Leaving Building Friends Grave Family Board Honorary Funeral Funeral Board Honorary Detail Detail Chief Pall Chief Pall Honorary Officers Officers Bearers Officers Bearers Pall Chief Funeral Funeral Funeral Funeral Detail Detail Bearers Board Detail Detail Hearse Hearse Hearse Active Pallbearers Active Pallbearers Active Pallbearers Honorary Pallbearers may be members of the fallen firefighter’s company or station. National or State Fire Officials may be placed with Chief Officers and/or as Honorary Pallbearers. The funeral detail consists of all uniform members of the Department and uniformed visiting firefighters. Funeral Procession Order Friends Family Hearse Active Funeral Chief Honorary Lead Cars Cars Pall Detail Officers Pall Car Bearers Cars Bearers 26 SECTION 2 FIREFIGHTER SAFETY Infectious Disease Protocol 200.10 3/15/2010 Purpose: To provide guidelines for controlling the risk of contacting infectious diseases while engaged in and cleaning up after emergency operations. To minimize the risk of infection in FD#1 facilities and to outline follow up procedures necessary to care for personnel who are exposed to an infectious disease. Major objectives: General Policy Exposure Protection Procedures Care and Cleaning Procedures Contaminated Waste Procedures Post Exposure Follow-up Procedures General Policy It is the policy of Fire District #1to protect personnel who may be at risk of exposure and contact of infectious diseases while engaged in District operations. FD#1 is committed to compliance with applicable laws dealing with infection control. This SOP contains specific actions and assigned responsibilities to accomplish infection control associated with emergency medical responses. The Assistant Fire Chief is the designated Infection Control Officer (ICO) for this program. In his absence, the following shall determine his replacement to act as ICO: Fire Chief, Battalion Chief #1, and Battalion Chief #2. Under no circumstances shall any aspect of personal safety be sacrificed in order to increase the speed of emergency operations. Participation in emergency operations shall not commence until involved personnel have donned all necessary protective equipment. Exposure Protection Procedures Members engaged in medical responses shall be responsible for wearing/using the appropriate protective equipment in the prescribed manner and following the procedures listed in this SOP. To be protected, members must wear the right protective equipment at the right time and consciously adopt self protective behaviors until they become regular habits. Hand washing is the single most important means of preventing the spread of infection. All members shall wash their hands as directed below: after careful removal of gloves; wash with waterless hand cleaner while on scene after incident and with minimal contact with apparatus; immediately upon return to quarters, scrub hands and other skin surfaces briskly for at least 15 seconds with warm water; wash other exposed skin surfaces. 27 Never wash hands in food preparation areas after return from an emergency incident. Gloves - Gloves shall be worn when it can be reasonably anticipated that an employee may have hand contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials, mucous membranes, non-intact skin, when performing patient care procedures, or handling or touching contaminated items or surfaces. Masks and eye protection will be used when it is anticipated that there is the opportunity for gross splatter of blood or OPIM into the eye, nose or mouth. Personnel must utilize the safety glasses or goggles provided by FD#1. Eyeglasses/sunglasses are not suitable as eye protection unless inspected and approved by the Fire Chief. Disposable surgical masks may be placed on a patient when there is a likely potential for airborne transmission of disease exists. Routine care does not require the use of masks. Microshield/Bag Valve Mask. All personnel will be trained in the use of the Microshield and the Bag valve Mask. All at risk personnel will be issued a Microshield for their bunker gear. The individual will be responsible to ensure they have one with them at all times. Protective clothing (uniforms or bunker gear) grossly contaminated with infected blood or body fluids shall be removed ASAP and sealed in a plastic bag marked with the biohazard symbol. Grossly contaminated personnel must shower ASAP. Infection Control Officer shall determine the method and means for laundering or disposal of contaminated clothing. Care and Cleaning Procedures There are three distinct levels of cleaning patient care equipment. Follow the matrix sited below. CLEANING Cleaning is the physical removal of dirt and debris. Personnel should use soap and water, combined with scrubbing action. The scrubbing action is the KEY to rendering all items safe for patient use. Cleaning is generally sufficient for non-critical equipment. However, if non-critical equipment has become grossly contaminated with body fluids, they must also be disinfected. DISINFECTION Disinfection is reducing the number of disease-producing organisms by physical or chemical means. Personnel should clean the item with soap and water, and then apply a disinfecting solution. Solutions such as bleach and water at a 1:10 dilution ratio are acceptable disinfectants. A fresh disinfectant solution must be made for every incident requiring this level of disinfection. DO NOT USE bleach solution in the cleaning of electronic equipment. Refer to MSDS for each disinfectant solution to decide what personnel protective equipment (PPE) may be needed. STERILIZATION/HIGH LEVEL DISINFECTION 28 High-level disinfection is the use of chemical liquids for sterilization. Personnel should clean the items, then place the items in special solutions for a prescribed time. Items then must be rinsed with clean water. CLEANING/DISINFECTING AREA Used equipment (other than disposable equipment) from an emergency incident should be bagged and transported back to your station. The station will allocate a specific area for cleaning contaminated equipment. The appropriate protection shall be worn when disinfecting equipment. To facilitate this, the station will be supplied with bleach to disinfect equipment. The DECON operations need to be away from the station living quarters. The DECON equipment must be conspicuously marked with limited access to prevent accidental exposures. Medical equipment should never be cleaned or disinfected in the station's living quarters, especially food preparation or eating areas and personnel shall not eat in the cleaning area. Contaminated Waste Procedures *Biohazard bags When personnel generate biohazard waste at an incident, it is their responsibility to dispose of that material in a properly marked biohazard bag. When transporting biohazard waste aboard district vehicles, personnel will place such waste in appropriately marked leak proof containers (red bags). Objects contaminated with potentially infectious materials must be placed in an impervious bag. If outside contamination of the bag is likely, a second bag will be added. The items may then be transported to the hospital and disposed of in the biohazard waste container. Post Exposure Follow-up Procedures The following occurrence shall be considered a bloodborne pathogen exposure and shall be reported directly to the Company Officer and Infection Control Officer. 1. Contaminated needles stick injury. 2. Blood in direct contact with the surface of the eye, nose, or mouth. 3. Blood in direct contact with an open area of the skin. 4. Cuts with a sharp object covered with blood. 5. “OPIM” Other Potentially Infectious Materials Post Exposure Follow Up Procedures: 1. The personnel exposed will follow the patient they were exposed by to the same emergency room. 2. The ICO officer will begin filling out the Communicable Disease Exposure Form packet and will notify the Fire Chief or his representative of the exposure. 3. The exposed party will then be evaluated by the emergency room staff physician. 29 4. The physician will consult on the exposure and the best course of treatment for the person exposed. 5. The exposed party will then do follow up consultation at the physician’s office of choice. DOCUMENTATION When a member has an exposure to a communicable disease, the incident must be documented within twenty-four hours of the suspected exposure on a "Communicable Disease Exposure Form". This documentation protects both the member and the department. Proper documentation is essential for insurance and compensation claims, and is useful for quality assurance and compliance monitoring. All members’ medical records, including communicable disease exposures, are strictly confidential. The Communicable Disease Exposure Form will be forwarded to the Infection Control Officer who will investigate the incident further. NOTIFICATION According to federal law, the Infection Control Officer will be notified of a communicable disease diagnosis in a patient treated by a FD#1 medical team member whenever a member of our medical response team is exposed to a patient suspected of being infected with a communicable disease. Upon notification, the Infection Control Officer will notify the involved member(s) and initiate any necessary follow-up. It is the responsibility of the Infection Control Officer to document the incident and coordinate any follow-up activities. 30 Personal Rehabilitation 200.20 3/15/2010 Purpose: To establish guidelines which encourage each member performing emergency operations to be prepared for, monitor, and treat the fatigue from strenuous physical exertion. Firefighters shall report to rehab after the use of three SCBA bottles or sooner if rehab is deemed necessary by them or the Officer in charge of the incident. Each member shall be responsible for monitoring their physical condition, maintaining operational readiness and requesting assignment to Rehab Group as necessary. Additionally, company officers shall periodically observe members of their crew for signs of fatigue and request assignment to Rehab as necessary. In order to maintain operational readiness in cases of sustained incidents and strenuous activity, firefighters and support personnel must be adequately hydrated, rested, and nourished. The District is responsible for providing periods of rest/recovery, a system of monitoring and rehabilitating firefighters, and a means to nourish firefighters during incidents (see SOP 600.60, Rehab Group). Effective recognition and rehabilitation of engaged firefighters BEFORE fatigue occurs is the key to maintaining a safe, ready work force. The system for maintaining operational readiness consists of three elements: Preparation for physical exertion Monitoring personal physical condition Treating fatigue PREPARATION FOR PHYSICAL EXERTION Firefighters shall prepare for emergency operations by maintaining an adequate level of physical strength/stamina, hydration and nourishment. Physical Strength/Stamina Firefighters are required to maintain their physical strength and stamina. Proper conditioning of the muscle and cardiovascular system will provide the required level of ability. The exertion required by each member during the annual physical ability pack test is a good barometer of physical condition and, when combined with a medical exam should be used to confirm or adjust your "work out" schedule. Hydration Water is the key element to hydrate firefighters. Other drinks slow absorption into the system and therefore are less effective in maintaining hydration. Drinks such as Coffee, Pop, and Hot Chocolate are discouraged for "on scene" hydration. During sustained incidents, a replenishing fluid such as Gatorade or sports drinks may assist with electrolyte replacement. If these fluids are used, a 50/50 water-diluted mixture speeds absorption into the body. Firefighters shall keep in a hydrated state so that the system is never caught dehydrated. 31 Nourishment In order to maintain response readiness, firefighters shall eat meals. Being ready for sustained physical exertion is the goal of proper nourishment. Using the results of your medical examination, each member should evaluate their diet and follow the recommendations of your Physician. Common sense and consultation with your Physician will dictate the appropriate level required of these categories. MONITORING PERSONAL PHYSICAL CONDITION Firefighters engaged in operations which require strenuous physical exertion should monitor their fatigue level. Be advised that one symptom of fatigue is a lowering of personal perception. Not being aware of your own condition adds emphasis to the duty of team members to monitor each other for signs of fatigue. Also valuable is knowledge your personal stamina. Working up to your normal safe limit should trigger a closer watch of your personal condition. TREATING FATIGUE Physical Strength: The treatment for fatigue is rest until recovery. Personnel requiring extended rest should report to the Rehab Group. To effectively treat fatigue the Rehab Group should provide the necessary environment which enables firefighters to remove their helmet, hood, gloves and coat. In all cases, the objective evaluation of a firefighter's fatigue level shall be the guiding criteria for assignment to Rehab. Rest should be not less than ten minutes and may exceed an hour as determined by a Rehab attendant. In extreme cases, firefighters may be sent to the treatment area of Rehab or even transported to a medical facility. Hydration: Working crew members are recommended to consume a minimum of one liter of water per hour. Members assigned to the Rehab Group shall be responsible for replacing fluids lost during the preceding physical exertion. Firefighters are required to replace body fluids following a guideline of eight ounces of water for each bottle of air consumed. In cases when SCBA is not being utilized, work equivalent to one air bottle consumed would require eight ounces of water to adequately hydrate. Nourishment: The District shall provide nourishment when extended operations cross over normal meal times or in cases were companies are engaged for three or more hours. Nourishment shall be geared towards energy replacing foods such as apples, oranges, bananas, wheat-bread sandwiches, etc. Fast foods such as McDonald’s, and Wendy’s, etc. should be avoided due to high fat and salt content. Because of the various types, tastes, and specific desires for nourishment, the Rehab attendant shall send for food based on the weather, time, type, and projected length of the incident. 32 Traffic Cone, Flare, or Sign Deployment at Traffic Related Incidents 200.31 3/15/2010 Subject: Guidelines for establishing Advanced Warning and Transition Areas at highway-related incidents where members are working in or near moving traffic. The following guideline may be utilized when establishing advanced warning and transition areas at highway-related incidents. Purpose: It shall be the intent of this standard operating guideline that the safety of operating personnel working in or near moving traffic shall be assured. Balanced with concerns for member safety and the safety of those persons exposed to moving traffic, department personnel are encouraged to comply with applicable local, state, and MUTCD (Manual for Uniform Traffic Control Devices) temporary traffic control zone criteria when operating in or near moving traffic at street, roadway, or highway-related incidents. It is understood that a compliant MUTCD temporary traffic control zone includes an incident scene with clearly identifiable areas such as the advance warning, transition, buffer, work, and termination areas. When the determination has been made that fire department personnel are to use available portable traffic control equipment such as 28-inch or taller traffic cones, highway flares, retro-reflective pink deployable signs, or other signaling devices to establish the advanced warning and/or transition area, it is understood by all that for the personnel involved, this is a high risk and potentially life- threatening activity. The member (s) performing this work is typically outside of the protected work area and may be working in close proximity to moving traffic. Responsibility: The following conditions are assumed to be in place prior to the person or persons assigned to establish the advanced warning or transition area beginning their assignment; A suitable responder vehicle is on location within the temporary traffic control zone and the vehicle is positioned in a blocking position so as to create a protected work area and buffer space. Portable traffic control equipment (cones, flares, deployable sign, etc) are available and readied for use, Fire Department member performing task has been assigned to specifically deploy portable devices to create an advanced warning and/or transition area; Not a freelance effort, and Fire department member is wearing proper PPE including high-visibility garment and helmet. During periods of low light level or reduced visibility weather conditions, member has operating hand light with them and it is turned ON during activity. Operational Steps: The following operational steps can serve as a recommended guideline for performing this assigned function; Portable equipment is gathered while member is inside protected work area. Activity is coordinated with an assigned “watch out” or safety partner, if staffing permits. 33 Member gathers equipment, faces on-coming traffic, and moves along a linear, safe pathway on the shoulder or median area of street, road, highway to furthest upstream location where first device is to be deployed. Member shall deploy first device along shoulder/edge of lane of street, road, or highway while standing in safe area. o This initial deployment point should be approximately 100-120 feet for deployment of five (5) devices. o Deployment point should be up to 200-240 feet upstream for deployment of eight (8) devices. o Initial deployment point should take into considerations environment weather or poor lighting conditions and any visual obstructions for approaching motorists including hills, curves, or other visual obstructions. Furthest traffic control device can be extended further upstream according to these sight-limiting conditions. Member shall move a distance of ten (10) paces back toward the incident scene along this safe pathway area. When determined safe to do so. Member may enter into the nearest travel lane a distance of one (1) pace approximately three (3) feet and deploy the second traffic cone device. Note: When deploying highway flares, ignition of the flare should take place while member is standing in the safe pathway area. Once lit, the member can move the appropriate distance into the nearest travel lane to actually deploy the flare. Member shall immediately return back to the shoulder or median safe area and move an additional ten (10) paces along the safe area back towards the incident zone. When determined safe to do so, member may enter into the travel lane being closed a distance of two (2) paces or approximately six (6) feet and deploy the third traffic control device. The pattern of ten (10) paces back towards the incident scene and a distance of an additional three (3) feet into the travel lane each time a cone or flare is deployed creates an effective diagonal line of cones or flares across a travel lane of the street, road, or highway. Ideally, the final device shall be near the rear of the responder vehicle that is in a blocking position at the incident scene. If a retro-reflective, pink deployable sign is used by the fire department to comply with NFPA 1500 standard, this sign shall be carried in the folded condition upstream along the safe area (shoulder or median) and deployed along the shoulder or median at a location ten (10) additional paces further upstream of the initial cone or flare already deployed. 34 35 36 Safe Driving Practices 200.30 3/15/2010 Purpose: To establish the driving policy and specific responsibilities for the safe operation of all Fire District vehicles. Scope: It is the responsibility of the driver of each Fire District vehicle to drive safely and prudently at all times. Vehicles shall be operated in compliance with Wyoming Revised Statutes. This code provides specific legal exceptions to regular traffic regulations which apply to Fire District vehicles only when responding to an emergency incident. "Code3/Emergent" response does not absolve the driver of any responsibility to drive with due regard for public safety. The driver of the emergency vehicle is responsible for its safe operation at all times. The officer or other member in charge of the vehicle is responsible for the safety of all vehicle operations and managing compliance of this procedure, but any other member of the District has a duty and an obligation to immediately bring any apparent safe driving violations to the attention of the driver, the officer in charge, or the battalion chief. Major Objectives: Emergency Response Policy Specific Rules for "Code3/Emergent" Response "On Scene" Driving "Code2/Routine" Response and Normal Driving Backing Accidents Emergency Response Policy: Fire District vehicles shall be operated in a manner that provides for the safety of all persons and property. Safe arrival shall not be compromised in the interest of speed, and careless or reckless driving at any time is prohibited. All Fire District #1 personnel shall go thru a mandatory Emergency Vehicle Operations Course and annual refresher courses prior to responding with District Apparatus in the emergency mode. Prompt, Safe Response Shall Be Attained By: A. Leaving the station in a standard manner: Quickly mounting apparatus with protective equipment (as required) donned. All personnel on board, seated and seat belts on Station doors fully open and compartment doors closed. B. Driving defensively and professionally at a speed appropriate for conditions. C. Knowing the destination and the best and safest route prior to entering the main road. 37 D. Using warning devices to move around traffic and to request the right-of-way in a safe and predictable manner. Fast Response Shall Not Be Attained By: A. Leaving quarters before crew has mounted safely as described previously, and before bay doors are fully open. B. Driving too fast for conditions. C. Driving recklessly or without due regard for safety. D. Taking unnecessary chances with negative right-of-way intersections. E. Intimidating or scaring other drivers. Specific Rules for "Code3/Emergent" Response: When responding "Code3/Emergent", warning lights must be on or sirens (audible warning devices) must be sounded (or both) to warn drivers of other vehicles, as required by the Wyoming Revised Statutes. Emergency vehicle drivers must never assume that other drivers will understand and comply correctly with emergency response requests. Emergency vehicle drivers must make every possible effort to make their presence and intended actions known to other drivers and must drive professionally and defensively to be prepared for the unexpected inappropriate actions of others. Fire District vehicles responding emergent and traveling over the posted speed limit incur an additional liability to the safety of others, as speed limits are designed for passenger vehicles and not heavy, difficult to handle fire apparatus. For this reason, Drivers of Fire District vehicles are authorized to exceed the maximum lawful speed limits only when they demonstrate due regard for the safety of all persons, life and property. Under less favorable conditions, the posted speed limit is the absolute maximum permissible. Less favorable conditions include but are not limited to: heavy traffic, limited visibility, road under construction, poor road surface (washboard, potholes, wet, icy or snow covered, etc.). Responding "Code3/Emergent" is most safely done with a minimum of two personnel in the cab of District fire vehicles, but if a member must respond “solo”, he must take measures to assure a safe response, such as preplanning his route and avoiding other distractions; otherwise he should respond “Code2/Routine". Intersections present the greatest potential danger to emergency vehicles. When approaching and crossing an intersection with the right-of-way, drivers shall not exceed the posted speed limit. When emergency vehicles must use oncoming traffic lanes to approach controlled intersections, (traffic light or stop sign) they must account for all traffic lanes before proceeding through the intersection at a speed allowing for subsequent stops. This includes occasions when the emergency vehicle has green traffic lights. 38 When approaching a negative right-of-way intersection (red light, stop sign) that is visibly occupied or when there is traffic approaching the intersection, the emergency vehicle shall come to a complete stop and may proceed only when the driver can account for traffic in all lanes yielding the right-of- way. When the negative right of way intersection is visibly unoccupied and there is no traffic approaching the intersection, the emergency vehicle may slow to a safe speed (allowing for subsequent stops) as it proceeds through the intersection. "Code3/Emergent" response is authorized only in conjunction with emergency incidents. Unnecessary emergency response puts firefighters and citizens at risk and shall be avoided. In order to avoid any unnecessary emergency response the following rules shall apply. (Reference SOP 1100.10). NOTE! The officer in charge of each unit is authorized at any time to modify his response mode, using his discretion and based upon additional or more accurate information, or other determining factors. When the first unit reports on the scene with "nothing showing" or an equivalent report, the officer shall advise additional units to respond "routine" whenever appropriate. During a "Code3/Emergent" response, fire vehicles should avoid passing other emergency vehicles. If passing is necessary, permission must be obtained through radio communications. "On Scene" Driving: The unique hazards of driving on or adjacent to the fire/rescue ground requires the driver to use extreme caution and to be alert and prepared to react to the unexpected. Drivers must consider the dangers their moving vehicle poses to fireground personnel and spectators who may be preoccupied with the emergency, and who may inadvertently step in front of or behind a moving vehicle. When stopped at the scene of an incident, vehicles should be placed to protect personnel who may be working in the street and warning lights shall be used to make approaching traffic aware of the incident. Vehicles shall be chalked at all times while on an emergency scene. At night, vehicle mounted floodlights and any other lighting available shall be used to illuminate the scene. Headlights on the unit of apparatus positioned against traffic shall be turned off to avoid "blinding" oncoming drivers. Utilize spotlights on traffic cones to direct traffic around the scene. If it is not necessary to park vehicles in or near traffic lanes, the vehicle should be pulled off the road to parking lots, curbs, etc., whenever possible. "Code2/Routine" Response and Normal Driving: All Fire District members are required to use seat belts at all times when operating a District vehicle equipped with seat belts. Anyone riding as a passenger in a District vehicle is also required to use 39 seat belts. The Company Officer or other member in charge will confirm that all personnel and riders are on-board, properly attired, with seat belts on, before the vehicle is permitted to move. All personnel shall ride only in regular seats provided with seat belts. Riding on tailboards or other exposed positions is not permitted on any vehicle. The one and only exception will be for the 6X6 Ranger unit for patient care in the rear compartment All personnel are encouraged to reduce the chances for damage and/or injury by establishing safe driving/operating habits. These habits include but are not limited to: 1. Any member who wishes to remove any equipment from apparatus shall advise the driver/operator. 2. Designated drivers will be the only personnel authorized to move the apparatus. 3. The OIC will be advised anytime apparatus is to be moved to a location compromising response. 4. Perform "360 degree walk around check" of apparatus prior to moving vehicle; items to check include closed compartments, securely mounted equipment, obstructions blocking vehicle movement, etc. 5. Maintain adequate traffic cushion while driving to ensure readiness at all times; 20-30 feet cushion when stopped in traffic, avenue of exit when in traffic, etc. Backing: Drivers shall avoid backing whenever possible. Where backing is unavoidable, a guide shall be used whenever reasonable. If no guide is available, the driver shall dismount and walk completely around apparatus to determine if obstructions are present before backing; then back to the visible side (left side), if possible. Vehicles with unobstructed clear vision through the rear window (staff cars, pick up trucks, etc.) may back utilizing the mirrors and rear window. Accidents: Anytime a District vehicle is involved in an accident the driver or officer shall: Notify Dispatch of response status; out of service, assigned to subsequent accident and your location. Notify Dispatch of accident and any requirements to treat and/or transport patients. Request response of a chief officer, a full investigation will be completed by the appropriate responding law enforcement agency. Per Fire District #1 Drug Policy the driver of the vehicle shall be drug screened as soon as possible. 40 MVA Scene Safety 200.40 3/15/2010 Purpose: To establish the measures necessary for safe operations at Motor Vehicle Accident (MVA) Scenes. Scope: It is the responsibility of each Fire District officer and each member to insure the safety of himself and others at the MVA scene and to protect firefighters and other emergency responders from oncoming traffic. In addition, it is the responsibility of the IC (Incident Commander) to delegate or perform the duties of Safety Officer at every MVA scene. Major Objectives: Priorities Outlined Scene Safety Parking Procedure Role of Incident Commander/Safety Officer Priorities Outlined: While the Fire District understands and respects the urgent needs of law enforcement personnel to keep roads open and traffic moving, and tries to cooperate fully in this effort, at no time will we allow this urgency to compromise the safety of firefighters on scene performing their duties of triage, extrication, treatment, transport and suppression. Any request by law enforcement to move apparatus must be referred to the IC who will make the decision based upon the safety factors involved. Scene Safety: It is important to alert oncoming traffic to the presence of an accident and the presence of crews and apparatus on scene. Emergency lights and signals shall be placed to command attention, convey and give clear directions to approaching motorists and give adequate time for traffic to follow the intended directions. Excessive lighting may cause temporary vision impairment in drivers approaching the scene. Studies show that yellow warning lights can create up to a 6 second recovery time in a driver’s vision; while red lights allow recovery to occur in approximately 2 seconds. Excessive scene lighting may be detrimental to scene safety instead of warning. Allowing drivers to “see past” scene lighting to actually see firefighters in the scene may be the safest option. Personnel PPE is also of paramount importance. Reflective material on PPE is a warning to drivers that a FF is present and may be the only visual indication in poor visibility. Bunker pants provide reflective material only on the lower leg, while helmets provide some reflection capacity. Bunker coats with a reflective safety vest also must be worn on all MVA’s due to the safety factor they provide with their reflective capacity. 41 On high-speed streets and highways the accident lane should be marked at least 500 feet from the accident, using E-flares, traffic cones or wreck ahead sign. On residential and lower speed commercial streets, the accident lane should be marked at least 350 feet from the accident. During inclement weather a Lookout (similar to a wildfire Lookout) shall be designated. The Lookout shall observe oncoming traffic and the accident scene and be prepared to communicate a warning in the event that an errant vehicle(s) enters the operational area of the accident scene. All personnel shall have an escape route (similar to a wildfire) preplanned in case an errant vehicle enters the operational area or the Lookout sounds a warning signal. Parking Procedure: No single rule or set of rules can possibly govern all foreseeable traffic accident situations and venues. In general, apparatus should be positioned well behind the accident, with the flow of the traffic coming toward the rear of the engine. The engine position should allow for plenty of room for ambulances to park between them and the accident, or in front of the accident as conditions warrant. The engine should be parked at an angle, protecting an equal or larger lane area than that which is taken up by the accident. The engine should be angled so that if traffic approaching from the rear collides into the rear of the engine (see figure 1), the engine would be pushed away from the oncoming traffic lane (or parallel lane occupied by traffic moving in the same direction on a divided highway) and into a shoulder or median instead. This may require that the Driver/Operators of apparatus angle the front tires in the direction they would like the apparatus to go if an impact occurs that causes the apparatus to roll. If the accident has occurred below the crest of a hill, the engine should be positioned near the crest of the hill so that oncoming traffic has plenty of warning. Figure 1 Ambulance 42 Role of Incident Commander/Safety Officer Unless specifically assigned to another firefighter or officer, the critical role of Safety Officer remains with the IC and is his major responsibility. The Safety Officer must be constantly vigilant of the changing traffic situation and the impact upon the emergency scene. It is his duty to quickly interact with law enforcement personnel to take whatever means are necessary to preserve the safety of the scene while the victims of the accident are cared for. The IC must always remember that under his discretion, additional units may be requested to further effect scene safety and/or emergency operations. Traffic control and direction are critical elements of scene safety. Unless formally managed by law enforcement officers, the IC is responsible for assigning personnel to this duty as needed. Only upon formal agreement with law enforcement officers that they have responsibility for this function will FF’s no longer have this responsibility. FF’s engaged in traffic control at night will utilize flashlights as needed. All apparatus have flashlights with “wands”, and these should be used when available. At no time should lights be directly aimed at oncoming traffic to prevent blinding oncoming drivers. 43 Station Safety 200.50 3/15/2010 Purpose: To provide a safe fire station environment and lower the risk of personal injury/illness. A large percentage of personal injuries occur while participating in routine activities at or around the station. Most of these injuries could be prevented by observing proper safety practices and adopting a safety conscious attitude. GENERAL STATION SAFETY Many personnel injuries can be avoided through a policy of safety conscious station maintenance. Efforts should be made to keep apparatus floors free from slippery substances, sand/gravel and obstructions; water, oil, hydraulic fluid, sand, etc. shall be cleaned up whenever accumulations appear, especially on the traffic areas around and between apparatus. In addition personnel should walk and not run around or between apparatus. Station floors also must be free of slippery substances. Traffic route areas, hallways, stairs, etc. should be clear of unnecessary obstacles and obstructions. STATION MAINTENANCE Miscellaneous station maintenance which requires the use of power tools shall be performed while following the safety precautions listed below: 1. Select the right tool and use it correctly; including proper use of electrical grounding provisions. 2. Secure objects you are working on in a vise (as applicable). 3. Keep tools clean and in good condition. 4. Keep tools in a safe place. Immediately return tools to a safe place following use. 5. Use appropriate hand, eye and ear protection. 6. Use appropriate fuel safety measures (control ignition sources). 7. Remove or secure loose jewelry and/or clothing to avoid entanglement with equipment. STATION OPERATIONS 1. Avoid working/standing in proximity of swinging doors. 2. Close doors, drawers, cabinets and compartments immediately after use. 3. Start up and idle of fuel powered equipment should be done outdoors or adjacent to open door. Vehicle idle inside bay shall not exceed 5 minutes unless exhaust removal system is utilized. 4. Prior to tours, group(s) shall be advised of procedures/ precautions to take in the event of a station response. STATION INFECTION CONTROL On the job exposure to infectious disease is not limited to incidents "on scene". Limiting the spread of disease in the station shall be promoted by following these rules: 1. Keep sponges and other cleaning materials used around food for kitchen use only. Never use for cleaning EMS equipment, bathrooms, or washing apparatus and not used in the kitchen. 2. The station will have a designated decontamination area. The decontamination area shall have all necessary cleaning supplies; e.g. medical exam gloves, sponges, bleach solution, soaps, disinfectants, etc. The decontamination area should be utilized as the only location for cleaning equipment contaminated with "on scene" germs or hazardous substances. 44 LIFTING Utilize the following lifting techniques when lifting moderate to heavy objects: 1. Use your legs to lift - bend your knees. 2. Keep your back straight (and your head up). 3. Do not twist your body while lifting - reposition your feet to avoid twisting. 4. To lift heavy objects, get your body as close to the object as possible. 5. Use a spotter to assist with doors, stairs or obstacles when carrying heavy or awkward objects. Do not attempt to lift or carry more than you can easily handle - if necessary get help. Heavy objects should ideally be started at approximately waist level -when possible. GROUNDS MAINTENANCE: Safety precautions shall be observed when using power lawn equipment: mowers, trimmers, edgers, etc. 1. The blade guard on power edger’s and trimmers shall be serviceable and in the proper position for the intended use before operating. 2. Safety goggles are available and may be utilized to provide eye protection from rocks, twigs, and other propelled objects when operating mowers, edgers, etc. 3. Gloves may be necessary to provide adequate hand protection. If gloves are needed, they shall be worn. 4. Do not use defective equipment such as ladders with broken rungs, power equipment without the proper safety protection, etc. Repair or replace before use. Altering safety devices is prohibited. If inoperable or not repairable, documentation and notification should be done and the device shall be removed from service. 45 Accountability System 200.60 3/15/2010 PURPOSE: To enhance accountability and to improve tracking of firefighters in the hazard zone. MAJOR OBJECTIVES: 1. A uniform procedure detailing how to use the hardware within the system shall be outlined. 2. Procedures for the Personnel Accountability Report (PAR) shall be outlined. HARDWARE: Name Tags: All personnel will be issued name tags. Personnel are responsible for requesting replacement tags. The name tags shall be inscribed with the line member’s full name. Command Board: Carried in all engines. Used to track all personnel by Command Staff. Nametags will be given to Command upon arrival at the scene. The nametags will then be placed on this board along with the assignment the company or team received. First Alarm: Units will most likely be committed without turning in their passports. The Engineers may often keep track of their crews prior to the nametags being collected by a runner or an Accountability or (Safety) Officer. Upon formal command implementation, all nametags shall be collected from the apparatus for Command and placed on the Command Board with assignment. Second Alarm or Greater may involve the creation of Divisions/Groups. Divisions/Group Supervisors will collect passports and/or name tags of teams and/or individuals assigned to them. Incident Command or Operations will see that their personnel are tracked on the Command Boards. It is desirable when practical that the Company Officers turn in passports or name tags on the way into a hazardous zone and to collect passports/name tags upon exiting. Command shall track crew and supervisory assignments to Operations, Divisions and Groups. Operations shall track individual and crew assignments to Divisions/Groups. Divisions/Groups shall receive crews and track assignments to Task Forces/Strike Teams or individual crews. PERSONNEL ACCOUNTABILITY REPORT Several accountability benchmarks are included in tactical operations. Their "PAR" involved a roll call of personnel assigned. For a Group Supervisor, a PAR is a confirmation that members assigned to his/her group are accounted for. For the Division Supervisor, a PAR is an accounting for all members assigned to his/her Division. 46 PAR Required (Initiated by Command): Immediately following an "Urgent or Mayday" situation (see S.O.P. 200.60). Any report of a missing or trapped firefighter. Any change from an offensive to a defensive attack. Any sudden hazardous event at the incident - flashover, backdraft, collapse, etc. At 15 minute elapsed time. At a report of fire under control. LOST OR MISSING FIREFIGHTER An absent member of any team will automatically be assumed lost or trapped in the hazard zone until otherwise determined safe. Initiate “MAYDAY” communications. Company Officers must immediately report any absent member to their Division Supervisor or when not in place, the Incident Commander. For any reports of missing firefighters, Command must request the next greater assignment or alarm. Command must next initiate an immediate roll call PAR of all the companies assigned to the Incident. Simultaneously, Command must adjust on-scene strategies to a priority search and rescue effort. 47 Emergency Evacuation, Withdrawal and Abandon 200.70 3/15/2010 PURPOSE: To define clear and concise terms, in general use by fire agencies that describe different levels of command and firefighter responsibilities when a building or an area becomes unsafe to occupy either for citizens or firefighters or both. To outline procedures for emergency withdrawal and abandonment. SCOPE: This procedure shall apply to all emergency and training operations when the need arises to evacuate, withdraw from or abandon a structure or area. DEFINITIONS: Evacuate: Applies ONLY to the procedure where citizens are required to leave a structure or area because of an emergency. An example is “no evacuation noted.” Withdraw: Applies ONLY to the procedure where firefighters are required to leave a structure or area because of a change of conditions creating unnecessary risk. Withdraw means firefighters shall get out quickly, taking their equipment, hoselines, etc. with them. Abandon: Applies ONLY to the procedure where firefighters are required to leave a structure or area because of an immediate life threatening risk. Abandon means drop everything and get out NOW. PROCEDURE: When an emergency withdrawal of a structure or area is initiated, the Incident Commander shall initiate the emergency withdrawal process in the order below: COMMAND using the assigned tactical channel (and RIT assigned channel if necessary) shall immediately and clearly transmit: “URGENT, URGENT, URGENT… all units withdraw from the building, all units withdraw from the building.” When an emergency abandonment of a structure or area is initiated, the Incident Commander shall initiate the emergency evacuation process in the order below: COMMAND using the assigned tactical channel (and RIT assigned channel if necessary) shall immediately and clearly transmit: “MAYDAY, MAYDAY, MAYDAY… all units abandon the building, all units abandon the building.” COMMAND using the assigned tactical channel, shall then clearly transmit: “Initiate the emergency abandon signal.” 48 EMERGENCY ABANDON SIGNAL AIR HORNS The engineer or operator of the apparatus on scene shall sound the air horn with three (3) consecutive blasts of approximately three (3) seconds in duration followed by a two (2) second pause while simultaneously turning on all sirens. One member should key a radio microphone near the apparatus for no longer than 15 seconds to broadcast the emergency evacuation signal to members in the building. The signal shall be continued for a period of 30 seconds, at which time there will be radio time available to conduct a PAR. PERSONAL ACCOUNTABILITY REPORT (PAR) A PAR shall be completed as soon as personnel have reached a safe zone. 49 Rapid Intervention Team (RIT) 200.80 3/15/2010 PURPOSE: The RIT is to be used to provide for the rescue of firefighters operating at emergency incidents if the need arises. SCOPE: This procedure shall apply to all emergency operations where personnel are operating in a danger zone where they have the potential to be lost, trapped, missing or in need of emergency assistance. PROCEDURE: The establishment of a Rapid Intervention Team (RIT) is as follows: A. The Incident Commander at the scene shall call for a Rapid Intervention Team if he determines such a team is necessary. He shall assemble a team when crews are operating inside of a building fighting a working structure fire, where the fire has progressed to the “free burning phase” (IFSTA definition) or beyond. B. Crews should not commit to an interior attack on a working structure fire (beyond the incipient stage) until a RIT is in place. *** The only exceptions are when the Incident Commander believes, based upon information at his disposal at the time, that the life of potential victim(s) is at stake, or that as a consequence of delaying a quick attack to save property of value, it would be probable that the ensuing larger body of fire and resultant degradation of the structure would present a greater risk to firefighters than would a rapid attack/rescue with available resources. If either of these exceptions is used, then the crew shall commence attack only if a third member is on scene and in communication with them. The plan of attack shall be communicated to this member, who may be assigned as command. The next in unit should be advised to be prepared to assume RIT duties. The above policy reflects the intent of NFPA 1500 on Fire Department Occupational Health and Safety, Section 6-2.1.1… “ The concept of risk management shall be utilized on the basis of the following principles: (a) Activities that present a significant risk to the safety of members shall be limited to situations where there is a potential to save endangered lives. (b) Activities that are routinely employed to protect property shall be recognized as inherent risks to the safety of members, and actions shall be taken to reduce or avoid these risks. (c) No risk to the safety of members shall be acceptable when there is no possibility to save lives or property.” 50 C. One or more Rapid Intervention Team (s) may be assigned, based on the needs of the incident. A crew should be assembled for each different entry point where interior crews have entered the building. D. The Rapid Intervention Team shall be assigned to Command. E. Members assigned to a Rapid Intervention Team shall be available for the rescue of firefighters. One member may be involved in other tasks provided he is free to abandon that task if called upon to perform rescue activities. If RITs are deployed for tactical reasons, they shall be replaced immediately. F. The Rapid Intervention Team should consist of four firefighters, but the minimum is two firefighters. G. Should the Incident Commander make the decision to exercise the exception to the crew being in place prior to hazardous interior operations, a written report to the Chief or Assistant Chief will be required. It must articulate the justification for making the exception. COMMUNICATIONS The IC may secure a separate radio channel specifically for RIT, to be used by the RIT leader and the RIT members if and when the RIT is sent on a rescue mission. If that channel is used, it is critical that an officer in the command post is assigned to that channel and that the officer be in constant face to face contact with the IC so critical information may be relayed to the RIT without burdening them with all the radio traffic happening on the tactical channel. A portable radio shall be provided for each RIT member who should monitor the assigned channel for MAYDAY and URGENT messages and other critical information. MAYDAY transmissions are to be used ONLY when immediate communication is needed to prevent injury and protect life and should be used in the following situations: 1. Imminent structural collapse is anticipated. 2. Structural collapse has occurred. 3. A firefighter is unconscious or has suffered a life-threatening injury or an incapacitating injury. 4. A Division or Group Supervisor, Company Officer or Firefighter becomes aware that a member of his/her unit is missing. 5. A member becomes trapped, lost or disoriented. 6. Low Air Alarm Activates 7. Out of contact with member or members of your team URGENT transmissions are used to indicate that member has suffered a significant, but non-life threatening injury, or to inform members of a significant change in conditions, for example: 1. Going from offensive to defensive mode. 2. Discovery of a structural problem that could lead to collapse. 3. Fire has entered an exposure, creating a new threat to that exposure. 4. Water supply loss that may endanger members. MAYDAY transmissions have the highest priority, just above URGENT messages. When MAYDAY or URGENT messages are transmitted all other radio transmissions on that tactical frequency are to cease except those between the firefighter initiating the emergency transmission and the Incident Commander. Once the emergency message is 51 given and understood, normal radio traffic may be resumed unless ordered otherwise by the IC. TOOLS and EQUIPMENT Firefighters assigned to the Rapid Intervention Team need to be dressed in full protective equipment including full turnouts, SCBA, and PASS device. Minimum equipment includes: RIT pack or SCBA equipment specifically meant to supply or provide an emergency air supply to trapped firefighters. The pack should have means to insure inter-department compatibility. Flashlights An extra air bottle for each crew member. Forcible entry tools. Rope bag. Thermal imaging camera with spare battery. The Rapid Intervention Team should have available additional tools needed to rescue an injured or trapped firefighter including, but not limited to: power saws, extrication equipment, stokes basket, etc. LOCATION OF THE CREW Upon arrival or assembly, the Rapid Intervention Team shall report to the Incident Commander, remaining in visual, radio or voice contact with the Incident Commander at all times. A. The Rapid Intervention Team may, at the discretion of the Incident commander, be assigned to a group or division. B. Once the RIT gathers its equipment, the members should conduct a walk-around size-up of the structure as time permits to locate any potential problems. The RIT should then stage in an area near the hazard zone with the best access for firefighter rescue. Periodic walk-a-rounds to check for changing conditions are encouraged. The Rapid Intervention Team should size-up the building, noting the location and number of entrances and exits, fire escapes, access stairs, and any other information that may be useful in a search-and- removal or recovery operation. C. The Rapid Intervention Team has a primary mission and should perform no other duties that would significantly alter their ability to quickly respond. RELEASING THE CREW The Rapid Intervention Team shall be released when the Incident Commander deems the incident under control and emergency personnel are not in danger. At this time, the crew may be reassigned or released. 52 Air Management 200.90 3/15/2010 PURPOSE: The purpose of this standard operating procedure is to describe the Air Management procedures to be followed when wearing self-contained breathing apparatus. Scope: This SOP applies to all Sweetwater County Fire District #1 personnel when utilizing self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), to include but not limited to; structural firefighters, hazmat team members, and firefighter trainees. Definitions: Immediately Dangerous to life and Health (IDLH) – Any condition that would pose an immediate or delayed threat to life, cause irreversible adverse health effects or interfere with an individual’s ability to escape unaided from a hazardous environment. Low Air Condition – When the low air alarm sounds on any crew members self-contained breathing apparatus being utilized in an IDLH environment. Procedure: It will be the procedure of the Sweetwater County Fire District #1, that members will maintain an awareness of their air supply while working in IDLH atmospheres. In addition, the last 1000 psi of that air supply shall only be used in the event of an emergency that interferes with normal egress from that hazardous environment. Each member has two responsibilities while wearing an SCBA in an IDLH environment: 1) perform regular air pressure checks to confirm the remaining air supply in their SCBA cylinder. 2) manage the remaining air supply so that they can exit the IDLH environment before activation of the low air alarm begins. Officers operating in a hazardous environment have two additional responsibilities: 1) Ensure the safety of all members of the company or crew by maintaining awareness of the air status of each person that are supervising. 2) Ensure egress with sufficient time to avoid low air alarm activation inside the hazardous environment. Activation of the SCBA low air alarm in an IDLH environment or in an IDLH environment while in the interior of a structure fire shall be treated as an emergency condition. Members experiencing this condition must immediately notify members of their crew and Officer. Officers must notify command that the crew is exiting the IDLH environment under a low air condition. 53 If an Officer feels that the crew cannot immediately exit the environment then the officer must declare a MAYDAY, identify who has the emergency, where they are located, and ability to egress the hazardous environment (or assistance needed). Officers located outside the IDLH environment shall check air status whenever asking for a report on conditions. Officers should ensure that sufficient resources are available to provide for continued tactical operations while complying with this procedure. The only exception to this SOP will be when on the exterior of an IDLH environment such as a vehicle fire, where the firefighter can exit the area immediately upon activation of the low air alarm/ All firefighters an Officers shall make every attempt to prevent this from happening. 54 Burn Building Live Fire 200.95 3/15/2010 SCOPE: This standard outlines the procedures for live fire training in the burn building. GENERAL: Interior live fire training in a training center burn building is an excellent means of training firefighters. While this type of training provides high levels of authenticity, it also carries with it most of the hazards of interior firefighting at an actual emergency. Interior live fire training evolutions shall be planned with great care and supervised closely by instructional personnel. DEFINITIONS: A. Authority having jurisdiction: The organization, office, or individual responsible for approving equipment, an installation, or a procedure. B. Demonstration: The act of showing a skill. C. Evolution: A set of prescribed actions that result in an effective fire ground activity. D. Instructor: An individual deemed qualified by the authority have jurisdiction to deliver fire fighter training; who has the training and experience to supervise students during live fire training evolutions; and has obtained the State of Wyoming Fire Instructor I certification or meet certain equivalent training requirements. E. Instructor-in-charge: An individual qualified as an instructor and designated by the authority having jurisdiction to be in charge of the live fire training evolution. The instructor-in-charge shall possess a Wyoming Fire Officer I, Wyoming Incident Safety Officer, and Fire Instructor I, or meet certain equivalent training requirements. F. Live Fire: Any unconfined open flame or device that can propagate fire to the building or other combustible materials. G. Participant : Any student, instructor, safety officer, visitor, or other person who is involved in the live fire training evolution within the operations area. H. Safety Officer: An individual qualified by the authority having jurisdiction to maintain a safe working environment at all live fire training evolutions. The lead safety officer shall possess a Wyoming Incident Safety Officer Certification or meet certain equivalent requirements. Safety officers working under the lead safety officer shall have completed the NFA Incident Safety Officer course or an approved equivalent. 55 I. Student: Any person who is present at the live fire training evolution for the purpose of receiving training. J. Training Center Burn Building: A structure specifically designed for conducting live fire training evolutions on a repetitive basis. It does not include a structure that is used primarily for training in the use of breathing apparatus where only smoke conditions are created, without a live fire, and the trainee is not subjected to risk of the effects of fire other than the smoke produced. STUDENT PREREQUISITE A. Prior to being permitted to participate in live fire training evolutions, the student shall have received training to meet the performance objectives for Fire Fighter I of the following sections of NFPA 1001, Standard for Fire Fighter Professional Qualifications: Safety Fire Behavior Portable Extinguishers Personal Protective Equipment Ladders Fire Hose, Appliances and Streams Overhaul Water Supply Ventilation Forcible Entry B. A live fire Training Verification Form shall be filled out for each student prior to live burn training. This form must be signed by the organization’s Fire Chief, Training Officer or their representative. C. Students that have facial hair which interferes with the seal of the self-contained breathing apparatus mask will not be allowed to participate in live fire training. STRUCTURES AND FACILITIES A. The training center burn building shall be inspected visually for damage prior to live fire training evolutions, damage shall be documented. The structural integrity of the building shall be evaluated and documented periodically, but at least annually. Where the burn building damage is severe enough to affect the safety of the students, training shall not be permitted. B. All doors, windows and window shutters and roof scuttles necessary for the live fire training evolution shall be checked and operated, where appropriate, prior to any live fire training evolutions to ensure they operate correctly. 56 C. All safety devices, such as thermometers, oxygen and toxic and combustible gas monitors, evacuation alarms, and emergency shutdown switches, shall be checked prior to any live fire training evolutions to ensure they operate correctly. D. Training center burn buildings shall be left in a safe condition upon completion of live fire training evolutions. Debris hindering the access or egress of fire fighters shall be removed prior to the beginning of the next training exercises. E. In preparation for live fire training, an inspection of the structure shall be made to determine that the floors, walls, stairs, and other structural components are capable of withstanding the weight of contents, participants, and accumulated water. F. Local businesses that may be affected by the production of smoke shall be notified of the date, time and approximate duration of the training evolution. G. Check for current and possible changes to the weather conditions. H. Two separate sources of water shall be used for all live burns. 1. A hydrant supplied pumper shall be used for all minimum 1 ¾” attack lines entering the building. 2. A back-up line from another water source shall be utilized with a minimum of 1 ¾”. All back-up lines shall be charged and ready for use. I. Prior to conducting actual live fire training evolutions, a pre-burn briefing session shall be conducted for all participants. All facets of each to be conducted shall be discussed, and assignments shall be made for all crews participating in the training session. J. Prior to conducting any live fire training, all participants shall have a knowledge of and familiarity with the layout of the building in order to facilitate any necessary evacuation of the building. Prior to conducting any live fire training in the structure, all participants in the evolution shall be required to conduct a walk-through of the structure. K. All spectators shall be restricted to an area outside the operations area perimeter established established by the safety officer. L. Visitors who are allowed to observe operations and who are allowed within the operations area perimeter shall be escorted at all times. FUEL MATERIALS A. Class “A” fuels will be used. Fuel materials shall be used only in amounts necessary to create the desired fire size. Pressure-treated wood, rubber, plastics, and straw or hay treated with pesticides or harmful chemicals shall not be permitted to be used. Wooden pallets are the fuel of choice. 57 B. The use of flammable or combustible liquids shall not be permitted for use in live fire training evolutions in structures. C. The use of furniture is allowed for the purpose of creating a realistic search scenario. Furniture will not be allowed in the room of fire origin. D. The training exercise shall be stopped immediately when the instructor-in-charge determines through ongoing assessment that the combustible nature of the environment represents a potential hazard. The exercise shall continue only when the appropriate actions have been taken to reduce the hazard. SAFETY A. A safety officer shall be appointed for all live fire training evolutions. B. The safety officer shall have Wyoming Safety Officer Certification or equivalent. Additional safety officers may work under a certified Safety Officer if they have completed the NFA Incident Safety Officer or an approved equivalent. C. The safety officer shall have authority, regardless of rank; to intervene and control any aspect of the operations when in his judgment, a potential or actual danger, accident, or unsafe conditions exist. D. The safety officer shall provide for the safety of all persons on the scene including students, instructors, visitors, and spectators. E. The safety officer shall not be assigned other duties that interfere with safety responsibilities. F. The instructor-in-charge of the live fire training evolutions shall determine, prior to each specific evolution, the number of training attack lines and backup lines that are necessary. Each hose line shall be capable of delivering a minimum of 95 gpm. The instructor-in – charge then shall: 1. assign one instructor to each functional crew, which shall not exceed five students. 2. assign one instructor to each backup line. 3. Assign sufficient additional personnel to backup lines to provide mobility. 4. Assign one additional instructor for each additional functional assignment. G. Additional safety personnel, as deemed necessary by the safety officer, shall be located strategically within the structure to react to any unplanned or threatening situation or condition. 58 H. Radio communications shall be established to enable coordination among the incident commander, the interior and exterior sectors, the safety officer, and external requests for assistance. I. A building evacuation plan shall be established and an evacuation signal shall be demonstrated to all participants in an interior live fire training evolution. J. Emergency medical services shall be available on site to handle injuries. 1. The emergency medical services available on scene must have a minimum of emergency medical technician certification and can be a staffed ambulance, an engine company, or support personnel. K. No person(s) shall play the role of a victim inside the building. L. Fire shall not be located in any designated exit paths. M. Each participant shall be equipped with full protective clothing and self contained breathing apparatus (scba). All participants shall be inspected by the safety officer or an instructor prior to entry into a live fire training evolution to ensure that the protective clothing and scba are being worn properly and are in serviceable condition. N. All students, instructors, safety personnel, and other personnel shall wear properly all protective clothing and equipment whenever they are involved in an evolution or fire suppression operation during the live fire training evolution. O. All students, instructors, safety personnel, and other personnel participating in any evolution or operation of fire suppression during the live fire training evolution shall breathe from a scba air supply whenever operating under one or more of the following conditions: 1. In an atmosphere that is oxygen deficient or contaminated by products of combustion, or both. 2. In an atmosphere that is suspected of being oxygen deficient or contaminated by products of combustion, or both. 3. In any atmosphere that can become oxygen deficient or contaminated, or both. 4. Below ground level. P. One person shall be designated as the “ignition Officer” to control the materials being burned. The ignition officer shall not be a student. Q. The ignition officer shall wear full protective clothing, including self-contained breathing apparatus (scba), when performing this function. A charged hose line shall accompany the ignition officer when igniting the fire. 59 R. The decision to ignite the training fire shall be made by the instructor-in-charge in coordination with the safety officer. The fire shall be ignited by the ignition officer in the presence of and under direct supervision of the safety officer. S. At no time should any personnel enter the IDLH environment alone. INSTRUCTORS A. All instructors shall be a minimum of Wyoming Fire Instructor I certified or equivalent. Equivalencies may include: 1. Served or serves as an instructor in a fire department training division, or assisted the training division with departmental training in firefighting disciplines and 2. Attended a state or nationally recognized instructor training conference, seminar or class; and 3. Completed Live Fire Coordinator training or have training and skills equivalent to the requirements of NFPA 1403. B. The instructor-in-charge shall also have Wyoming Fire Officer I and Safety Officer Certification or equivalent, and have completed Live Fire Coordinator training or have training and skills equivalent to the requirements of NFPA 1403. Equivalencies may include: 1. Two (2) years as an acting chief officer of suppression, and served as the incident commander at one structure fire for the duration of the event; and 2. Attended a state or nationally recognized safety officer training conference, seminar or class; and 3. Completed Life Fire Coordinator training or have training and skills equivalent to the requirements of NFPA 1403. C. The participating student-to-instructor ratio should not be greater than 5to1. D. The instructor-in-charge shall be responsible for full compliance with this standard operating procedure (SOP). E. Instructors shall take a head count when entering and exiting the building during an actual attack evolution. Instructors shall monitor and supervise all assigned students closely during the live fire training evolution. F. The instructor-in-charge shall consider the circumstances of each training session and make suitable provisions for the rest and rehabilitation of members operating at the scene. These considerations shall include medical evaluation and treatment, food and fluid replenishment, and relief from climate conditions, in accordance with the circumstances of the training session. 60 SECTION 3 APPARATUS AND EQUIPMENT Apparatus and Equipment Maintenance 300.10 3/15/2010 PURPOSE: To determine consistent general maintenance procedures for all FD#1 apparatus and equipment. This procedure is intended to establish recognized standards and approved methods necessary for the proper maintenance of fire apparatus, staff vehicles, and auxiliary equipment; and defines the inspection frequency and reporting required to ensure that the intent of this procedure is met. This procedure outlines the necessary steps to follow in the event of malfunction, breakdown, or any other situation requiring that the vehicle or piece of equipment be placed out-of-service. MAJOR OBJECTIVES: To establish the District’s maintenance requirements for apparatus, and equipment. To establish procedures for taking apparatus and equipment out-of-service. To establish the details, schedule, and records of Daily and Weekly apparatus and equipment inspection and maintenance. To establish who is responsible for maintenance procedures, recommendations and records. PROCEDURE: This is a dynamic document and these procedures are routinely updated by Battalion Chief #2 to ensure accuracy. Sweetwater County Fire District #1 fire apparatus shall be taken to approved licensed and certified technicians for any regularly scheduled preventative maintenance and or emergency repairs Sweetwater County Fire District #1 equipment (i.e. generators, pumps, chainsaws, rescue tools, etc.) will be the responsibility of Battalion Chief #2 to repair or schedule the repairs to be made to said equipment. Upon finding that a piece of equipment or apparatus is in need of repair or is found to be in an unsafe condition. Battalion Chief #2 shall be notified either verbally or in writing by filling out the work order board located in the apparatus bay, as to the piece of equipment or apparatus and the nature of the problem or problems. The firefighter shall then tag the piece of equipment or apparatus out of service with the “Danger out of service” tags that can be found on the work bench in the apparatus bay. The tag shall be signed and dated by the firefighter. Battalion Chief #2 will notify District Assistant Chief or the Fire Chief of the status of the piece of equipment or apparatus, he will also post a departmental wide memo as to the status of the piece of equipment or apparatus. Once repairs have been completed the tag will be removed by Battalion Chief #2 and all personnel will be notified that it is back in service. All apparatus and equipment will be inspected on a weekly basis and the proper documentation will 61 be filled out and initialed by the firefighters completing the inspections and signed by the officer in charge of inspections. When checking all apparatus the vehicle shall be hooked up to the plymovent exhaust ventilation system while it is running inside the apparatus bays. When checking all department equipment it shall be ran outside to allow the venting of all exhaust fumes out of the apparatus bay areas, the piece of equipment shall be ran for a period long enough to warm up the motor. All gas valves shall be placed in the off position on all pieces of mobile equipment. Battalion Chief #2 shall be in charge of scheduling any and all equipment and apparatus maintenance, in his absence Battalion Chief #1 will fulfill these requirements. Battalion Chief #2 shall be responsible for all maintenance records on all pieces of equipment and apparatus. 62 Apparatus Hose Bed Cover 300.20 3/15/2010 PURPOSE: To insure that emergency response units do not endanger the lives and property of the general public buy dumping fire hose accidentally while traveling on public roads. The hose bed cover also serves to protect District property (fire hose) from dirt and sun damage. SCOPE: The intent of this SOP refers to ALL IN SERVICE District emergency response line apparatus, including engines and other units carrying large quantities of fire hose supply line in a hose bed. POLICY: No apparatus that carries large quantities of supply hose in a hose bed on top of the apparatus shall be placed in service unless there is a properly secured hose bed cover in place. The cover must be adequate to withstand wind at highway speeds without coming off. 63 Response Unit Shore Lines 300.30 3/15/2010 PURPOSE: To insure that emergency response units maintain functional and fully charged electrical systems. SCOPE: The intent of this SOP refers to ALL District emergency response units that are equipped with 120 volt shore line receptacles. POLICY: All units equipped with 120 volt shore line adapter plug-ins shall be kept constantly plugged in and charged when at a station so equipped to provide shore line power. It is permissible to temporarily disconnect the shoreline, if necessary, for unit maintenance, cleaning, etc., as long as the shore line is reconnected immediately upon completion. 64 Medical Equipment Recovery 300.40 3/15/2010 PURPOSE: To provide Standard Procedures which assign Emergency Medical Services (EMS) duties and responsibilities in situations involving medical equipment left at a medical facility. MAJOR OBJECTIVES: TRACKING OF EQUIPMENT When equipment is left at a medical facility due to medical necessity, the District firefighters on the call will notify the Chief Officer on duty of the amount and type of equipment and which ambulance service the equipment went with from the scene. RECOVERY OF EQUIPMENT The equipment should be recovered from the facility within 12 hours of the transport. If the equipment is not recovered by the on duty crew that day, it is the duty of the on duty crew the next day to recover the equipment as soon as possible so that equipment recovery is assured. In case of missing equipment from a facility, the personnel who are unable to locate the equipment are responsible to notify the Chief Officer on duty as soon as possible. A Chief Officer from the District will then contact the hospital staff and inquire about the status of said equipment and it’s location. 65 Hose Testing 300.50 3/15/2010 PURPOSE: To SAFELY test all fire hose annually so that we may be assured that our fire hose will perform without failing at firefighting and other operations. MAJOR OBJECTIVES: 1. Each battalion shall safely test assigned hose within the time frame allotted referencing NFPA standard 1962. 2. Accurate records shall be kept of all hose tested and forwarded to battalion chief #2. 3. Any proximity to the charged lines should kept to a minimum once the lines are filled with water. 4. Hose may be tested at the drillground, or the station with the idea of units staying in service as much as possible. 5. Hose that is damaged and/or fails hose test will be recorded, tagged and set aside in the hose rack at the station for repair or disposal. Battalion Chief #2 shall be notified immediately when this happens. HOSE TESTING PROCEDURE 1. Lay out hose in lengths of no more than 300 feet. 2. Fill hose with water and bleed air from lines. 3. Charge all hose to 250 PSI for 5 minutes. 4. Check hose for leaks or coupling separation while pressurized. 5. When 5 minutes have elapsed, shut off pump and open nozzles slowly to release pressure then drain and disconnect hose. 6. Record the service test results on the hose testing worksheet. Identify coupling leaks (Male or female coupling) with the test date and hose ID number. Mark leaks in the hose between the couplings with black marker. 66 Research and Development 300.60 3/15/2010 PURPOSE: To outline procedures for R&D, this will insure that FD#1 can accomplish the dual goals of being open to exploring new or different equipment and/or procedures as well as maintaining consistency in the manner that apparatus is outfitted and in the operational techniques employed. It is the goal of the R&D committee to get the best available equipment, at the best price. MAJOR OBJECTIVES: 1. Explain the process for initiating the (possible) acceptance testing of new or different equipment or procedures. 2. Explain the testing process itself 3. Explain actual implementation process RESEARCH and DEVELOPMENT INITIATION PROCEDURE Any member may hear of significantly new or different equipment or procedures (R&D Item) which may improve our operational effectiveness. When a member desires FD#1 to explore the possibilities of acquiring such equipment or adopting the procedure, the following must be done: 1. Submit the request in writing to the Chief and the Assistant Chief. Use R&D Item Cost vs. Benefit Analysis sheet. 2. The equipment and/or procedure proposal will be reviewed. This may include members with special skills/knowledge i.e. communications. 3. The item will be accepted or rejected for R&D based on the following criteria: Cost vs. benefit Job applicability Training Impact on customer service Safety 4. The equipment approved for R&D will be submitted to a committee to determine the steps necessary and length of the testing process. TESTING and IMPLEMENTATION PROCEDURE The testing process will duplicate as much as possible, the conditions in which the equipment will be used. The realization that it is not possible or practical to carry every piece of equipment for every eventuality will be strongly considered in every case. 67 Members participating in the R&D process have to be able to put there own feelings aside and evaluate objectively based on performance. Rarely will we find a piece of equipment that everyone prefers. The GOAL is to get the best available. At the best price. The end user (firefighter) will provide the input as to the efficacy and value of a particular piece of equipment. Non-members of the R&D committee are encouraged to participate wherever possible in the testing process. Their input should go to the committee members involved in that testing process. The voting members of the R&D committee will review the research and field testing data and make a recommendation to the Chief and Asst. Chief, it will then be forwarded to the Training and Operations Chiefs. The field testing and decision making process must be well documented. The R&D committee must be prepared to justify their recommendations. The R&D committee will write a set of training recommendations for the training bureau. We must not forget to train the end-user on new equipment. Once the Asst. Chief has documented adequate implementation procedures, he will publish a new or amended SOP which incorporates the R&D item. 68 R&D ITEM COST vs. BENEFIT ANALYSIS SHEET (To be completed by submitter of item) Describe the Item or Procedure What is the unit cost, if any Who is the supplier, if any What would be the total actual cost if implemented District wide What is the value added to Operations by doing this? Describe in detail how we gain in efficiency, operational effectiveness, safety concerns, or cost effectiveness. Submitted by Coordinator Approved Denied Date Operations Approved Denied Date BC group Approved Denied Date R&D ITEM TESTING and DEVELOPMENT SHEET (To be completed by Training Bureau) Describe the Item or Procedure 69 A. Dates tested. Results B. Dates tested. Results C. Dates tested Results Asst. Chief Date Approved Comments: Denied Denied for further study 70 SECTION 4 RESPONSES AND ASSIGNMENTS Standard Assignments 400.10 3/15/2010 Purpose: Each incident has certain requirements that necessitate the assignment of units with specific capabilities. To guide Firefighters in determining which units respond, standard assignments are designated for all common classes of incidents. The incident location and time of day may impact what units may or may not be first out, this list is not all inclusive and can be adapted to match the incident needs as it unfolds. Units will be dispatched as per the table below: RUN TYPE UNITS DISPATCHED The first unit listed is the first out unit, all other listed units are second, third, etc… out units. If a vehicle fire is on I-80 or 191N, 191S, Hwy 430 E203 is first out engine. Ambulances are assigned to fire incidents by dispatch. UNCLASSIFIED Unknown type of call One Engine 202 Rescue 505 STRUCTURE FIRE Commercial Structure Fire Three engines 203, 202, 101, other units as needed Residential Structure Fire Three engines 202, 203, 101, other units as needed Unattached, outbuilding Fire Three engines 202, 203, 101, other units as needed TRANSPORTATION FIRES Passenger Car , Pick Up Fire Engine 202, 203 Commercial Carrier Fire Two engines 203, 202 Train Fire Two engines 203, 202 Boat Fire Engine 202, 203 depending on where fire is located (fire in remote location) engine 203 first out. GRASS, BRUSH, WILDLAND FIRE Field, Open Area Fire Two brush trucks 405, 404 a tender 203 Wildland Interface Fire Two brush trucks 405, 404 an engine 202 One tender 203 OTHER FIRES Dumpster/Trash One engine 202, 203 Explosion with Fire Two engines 202, 203 Illegal or "Controlled" Burn One engine 202 and a brush truck 405 Unknown Fire 202, 203, 405, 404 depending upon if remote location 71 SMOKE and/or ODOR REPORTS Smoke Investigation Outdoors One engine 202 Smoke Investigation Inside / No Fire Two Engines 202, 203 Odor Investigation Outdoors One engine 202 Lightning strike home Two engines 202, 203 FIRE ALARMS Fire Alarm Residential Two Engines 202, 203 Commercial Fire Alarm Two engines 202, 203 Commercial Fire Alarm Target Three engines 202, 203, 101 Hazard OTHER AUTOMATIC ALARMS CO Alarm Symptomatic 101 , 202 CO Alarm Asymptomatic 101, 202 Medical Alarm (lifeline call) R 505,101 Sprinkler Alarm Reset. One engine 202 EMERGENCY MEDICAL RESPONSES EMS Assist R 505, 101 Motor Vehicle Accident with fire R 505, 202, 203 depending on location if I-80 or Highway or remote location then 203 first engine out. Motor Vehicle Accident R 505, 101 (MVA) Unknown Injuries Confirmed, Injury Accident R 505, 101 Multiple Injury, Extrication MVA R 505 , 101 Auto Ped or Auto Bicycle MVA R 505, 101 Train Accident R 505, 203, 202 101 Multi Casualty Incident R 505, 101, 203, 202, Chief Officer (MVA) with Hazmat Spill R505, 203, 101 AIRCRAFT EMERGENCIES Aircraft Alert 1 One engine 203 Aircraft Alert 2 One engine 203, R 505 Aircraft Alert 3 One engine 203, R 505 Airport emergencies will depend on manpower as to what we will be able to send. OTHER RESCUE EMERGENCIES Trench Collapse R 505, 101, 202, Air Trailer Building collapse R 505, 101, 203, 202 ,Air Trailer Hi/Lo Angle Rescue R 505, 101, squad #1, Squad #2 Remote Hi/Low angle rescue R505, Squad #2 with 6X6 Ranger Unit, squad #1 Confined Space R 505, 101, Air Trailer 72 Entrapment R 505, 101, Air Trailer HAZARDOUS CONDITIONS The following Responses are dependant on size and type of Hazards involved Hazardous Material 202, 203, R 505 Natural/LP Gas Leak Inside 202, 203 Natural/LP Gas Leak Outside 202, 203 If remote location 203 first out Gas Line Rupture 202, 203 If remote location 203 first out Explosion no fire 202, 203, 101 Down Power Lines 202, 203 Arcing Transformer 202, 203 Fuel Containment < 25 gallons 202, 203 Fuel Containment > 25 gallons 202, 203, 101 Bio-Chem hazard 202, 203 AGENCY ASSISTS Meth Lab Standby 202, 203 Body/Evidence Recovery R 505, 101 SWAT Activation 202, 203 Explosive Device 202, 203 To aid in the understanding of how incident types are classified for Firefighters, definitions are included in the following table: STRUCTURE FIRE A burning structure, or visible smoke inside a structure, or a fire which is threatening or out of control fire while inside of a structure. Includes chimney fires, appliance fires, and vehicle fires in garages. Commercial Structure Fire A structure fire in any commercial, industrial, multi-family, institutional, retail or similar large occupied building, except unattached structures. Residential Structure Fire A structure fire in any single family or duplex style residential building. Unattached, outbuilding A structure fire in any barn, shed, garage or similar building which is not 73 Fire physically connected to a residential or commercial structure. TRANSPORTATION FIRES A fire inside of or involving a vehicle, where it has been undetermined or unreported as to what type of vehicle is burning. If structure is threatened use structure fire response. Passenger Car , Pick Up A fire inside of or involving a vehicle, where it has been determined that Fire the vehicle is a passenger car, pickup, or a vehicle of similar size. Commercial Carrier Fire A fire inside of or involving a delivery truck, semi, or any type of highway vehicle significantly larger than a passenger car or pickup truck. Train Fire A fire inside of or involving a train. Boat Fire A fire inside of or involving any type of boat or watercraft. GRASS, BRUSH, A fire which is burning in one or more types of vegetation (grass, trees, WILDLAND FIRE weeds, and crops), but which is unknown to be threatening a structure. Field, Open Area Fire A fire which is burning in one or more types of vegetation (grass, trees, weeds, crops) which is NOT near to or threatening structure(s). Wildland Interface Fire A fire which is burning in one or more types of vegetation (grass, trees, weeds, crops) which IS near to or threatening structure(s). OTHER FIRES A miscellaneous fire not classified above. If a structure is threatened or involved go to structure fire response Dumpster/Trash A fire involving trash or rubbish where it has been undetermined or unreported as to whether or not a structure is threatened. Explosion with Fire Any fire from any GENERAL category above where it was reported that an EXPLOSION preceded the fire. Illegal or "Controlled" A fire involving trash or rubbish where it is KNOWN that a structure is NOT Burn threatened and that the response is probably code enforcement. Unknown Fire Smoke and/or flame is observed but no further information is given SMOKE and/or ODOR REPORTS Smoke Investigation Smoke visible in the general area, no fire confirmed. Outdoors Smoke evacuation within a structure where there is no additional threat of Smoke Invest. Inside fire and smoke or smell evacuation is requested. w/ no fire - Burnt food Odor Investigation Any vague report that there is an odor of gas, smoke or other potential Outdoors hazard with no other info given. Lightning strike A report of a strike only with no apparent fire. FIRE ALARMS Any report of a fire by an electronic signal, unconfirmed as an actual fire, where there is insufficient info to classify further. Fire Alarm Residential Any report of a fire in a residential building by an electronic signal, unconfirmed as an actual fire. Commercial Fire Alarm Any report of activation of smoke, heat detector(s) in a commercial building, unconfirmed to be an actual fire. Commercial Fire Alarm Any report of activation of smoke, heat detector(s) in a commercial Target Hazard building, targeted because of large size, high risk, etc., unconfirmed to be an actual fire. OTHER AUTOMATIC ALARMS CO Alarm Symptomatic Any report that a Carbon Monoxide alarm has activated and that people in the area are showing signs and symptoms of CO poisoning. CO Alarm Asymptomatic Any report that a Carbon Monoxide alarm has activated and that people in 74 the area are not showing signs and symptoms of CO poisoning. Medical Alarm Any report that an alarm has activated, signifying the need for personal medical assistance. Sprinkler Alarm Reset. Any request for assistance in resetting a fire alarm panel when no fire is confirmed. EMERGENCY MEDICAL RESPONSES Medical Assist A report of a medical problem or injury, to assist EMS Motor Vehicle Accident ( Any report of a motor vehicle accident with no other info given, no MVA) confirmed injuries. Injury Accident Any report of a motor vehicle accident where a responsible reporting party states there are injuries. Multiple Injury, Extrication Any report of a motor vehicle accident with three or more vehicles and/or MVA patients and serious enough mechanism of injury (vehicle damage) to suggest extensive injuries and or extrication. Auto Ped or Auto Bicycle Any report of a motor vehicle accident involving a pedestrian or cyclist. MVA Train Accident Any report of a train accident with no other info given, no confirmed injuries. Mass Casualty Incident Any report of a situation where there are more than five victims who are seriously in need of immediate medical attention. MVA with hazmat spill Any report of a MVA with hazmat spilled AIRCRAFT EMERGENCIES Aircraft Alert 1 (Info only) Any notification from an airport that there is possible but unconfirmed aircraft in trouble Aircraft Alert 2 Any request to respond to staging for confirmed aircraft in trouble. Aircraft Alert 3 Any request to respond to confirmed aircraft crash site. OTHER RESCUE Any report of a human victim(s), presumed to be alive, who is in need of EMERGENCIES rescue from a situation where specialized equipment and personnel will be needed. Trench Collapse Any report of trapped victim(s), who is buried or partially buried by dirt, sand etc. in a trench, excavation, or any area where soil, gravel, or sand has dangerously collapsed. Building collapse Any report of a complete or partially collapsed building with a potential for trapped victims within. Hi/Lo Angle Rescue Any report of victim(s), who is in need of rescue from a place high above/below grade where special equipment and personnel will be needed. Confined Space Any report of victim(s), who is in need of rescue from a place where the access opening is very small and the atmosphere within the space may be potentially hazardous. Entrapment Any report of victim, human or animal, who has become lodged or trapped in machinery, furniture, grates, appliances, etc., who needs to be freed and may need immediate medical attention. Search and Rescue Any report of victim, who has become lost and needs to be found, and may need immediate medical attention. HAZARDOUS Any report of a release or spill of a substance, where circumstances CONDITIONS indicate that it MAY be a Hazardous Material. 75 Hazardous Material Any report of a release or spill of a substance, where circumstances indicate that it MAY be a Hazardous Material. Natural/LP Gas Leak Any report of a flammable gas leak or gas odor known to be inside a Inside building. Natural/LP Gas Leak Any report of a flammable gas leak or gas odor known to be outside a Outside building but of unknown origin. Gas Line Rupture Any report of a punctured, leaking, or severed gas line. Explosion no fire Any report from a reliable source that a significant explosive device has detonated. Down Power Lines Any report there is a down power line, with no further info. Arcing Transformer Any report of an arcing electrical transformer. Fuel Containment < 25 Any report of a spill of gasoline or diesel fuel where the quantity involved is gallons LESS than 25 gallons and fuel containment is needed. Fuel Containment > 25 Any report of a spill of gasoline or diesel fuel where the quantity involved is gallons MORE than 25 gallons and fuel containment is needed. Any report of a known or unidentified Biological hazardous substance or Bio-Chemical possible terrorist activity is threatened and evaluation is needed. Investigation AGENCY ASSISTS Any request for assistance from another Governmental Agency. Meth lab standby A request from Law Enforcement to standby for Meth Lab Assistance Body/Evidence Recovery A request by Law Enforcement to provide assistance in the performance of evidence or body recovery where a dive team will NOT be needed. SWAT Activation A request by Law Enforcement to standby for SWAT team assistance. Explosive Device A request by Law Enforcement to standby for Bomb Threat, or Explosive Device. 76 Turnout Time Standard 400.20 3/15/2010 PURPOSE To provide a standard for turnout time for units when dispatched on emergency incidents. Turnout time is a critical and controllable part of the response to emergencies, and low, consistent standardized, turnout times help to provide the most professional service possible to our citizens. MAJOR OBJECTIVES: Turnout Time Defined Standard Times Safety Concerns Accountability TURNOUT TIME: Turnout time is the interval of time that begins when the first tone or voice notification of an emergency call is received at the responding fire station and ends when the apparatus or Medic begins to move in response to that emergency. STANDARDS: When the type of emergency call requires the donning of bunker gear, the standard turnout time shall be 60 seconds or less. When the type of emergency call does not require the donning of bunker gear, the standard turnout time shall be 40 seconds or less. SAFETY CONCERNS: It is expected that this standard be met without compromising any safety issues. Proper preparation, Sign ups for apparatus positions, area and road knowledge, having gear accessible and always at the ready, not being too far from the response vehicle, and generally an attitude of “quickly but safely” will accomplish this goal. All personnel shall check each other before leaving apparatus for proper donning of equipment. ACCOUNTABILITY: It shall be the duty of every Company Officer to perform drills and to check to insure that his/her battalions consistently meets this standard. It is the duty of Battalion Chief Officers to spot check responses to insure that the standard is being met. 77 Mutual Aid and Auto Aid 400.30 3/15/2010 PURPOSE: To instruct and guide officers and firefighters as to FD#1 policy regarding those times when they are called upon to provide mutual aid to other agencies. MAJOR OBJECTIVES: Automatic Aid Existing Mutual Aid Agreements Mutual Aid Request, No Agreements AUTOMATIC AID: By definition, this type of aid is routinely given without any expressed approval by a Chief Officer. FD#1 units are to respond to a given area without regard to jurisdiction. FD#1 has an auto aid agreement ONLY with the fire agencies listed below: Superior Fire Department Eden/Farson Fire District (when notified thru their Chief for standby purposes) When an auto aid request is dispatched, the requested unit is authorized to respond outside of FD#1. When circumstances within FD#1 dictate that complying with an auto aid dispatch may put FD#1 at unreasonable risk, a Chief Officer may temporarily suspend giving auto aid by notifying Dispatch of the situation so that our auto aid agencies have advance warning. Whenever a FD#1 Chief Officer deems it necessary to accompany the responding unit (e.g. for reasons of crew safety, command staff integration, training, etc.) he/she is authorized to do so. When a unit responds to an auto aid request and will be out of service for an extended amount of time, they must assure that a FD#1 Chief Officer notified of their status. EXISTING MUTUAL (NOT AUTOMATIC) AID AGREEMENTS: This type of aid is routinely given only with the approval of any Chief Officer. FD#1 has an existing mutual aid agreement ONLY with the following agencies: Rock Springs Fire Department (no formal Agreement at this time) Green River Fire Department (no formal agreement at this time) Eden/Farson Fire Protection District Sweetwater County Fire Department Bureau of Land Management All other agencies signatory to the Annual Operating Plan When circumstances within FD#1 dictate that complying with a mutual aid request may put FD#1 at unreasonable risk, a Chief Officer may deny giving mutual aid. Whenever a FD#1 Chief Officer deems it necessary to accompany the responding unit (e.g. for reasons of crew safety, command staff integration, training, etc.) he/she is authorized to respond. 78 The Chief Officer shall be notified when there is a long duration commitment of FD#1. MUTUAL AID REQUEST WITH NO PRIOR AGREEMENT: Only the Chief (Acting Chief) of the District is authorized to approve the sending of any FD#1 resources to an agency that has not signed a mutual aid agreement with FD#1. The circumstances under which he/she would approve such a request should include the following: an urgent need for our resources, an exact description of what resources are needed, the intended mission (well defined in advance), and the expected duration of the need. The resources sent in this situation are at the discretion of the Chief (Acting Chief). 79 Staffing Guidelines 400.40 3/15/2010 Purpose: To establish operational guidelines for staffing decisions. Major Objectives: That the Chief or his designee appropriately weighs the risk versus benefit when making decisions about where to place personnel or whether or not members are allowed to attend trainings or any other functions which may compromise response. Background: It is the desire of the District that as a standard response, the district is able to respond to a structure fire with a minimum of three firefighting personnel per engine and that a Chief Officer be available to respond separately for Incident Command. Further, it is desirable that in addition to providing EMT basic (AED) care, that there be ALS capability at each scene. Unfortunately critical training needs, unexpected absences and other unforeseen circumstances can result in less than desirable staffing levels. It is therefore necessary to define the criteria to be used in the staffing decision making process so that there is objectivity and consistency as a basis for sound judgment. 80 Automatic Fire Alarm Response 400.50 3/15/2010 PURPOSE: To identify the standard response assignments for companies which respond to automatic fire alarms. OBJECTIVES: 1. General Response Procedures 2. First In Engine Duties 3. Second In Engine Duties General Response Procedures Assigned companies responding to all automatic fire alarm incidents will assume the alarm is indicating fire conditions in the building. Turnouts are required and airpacks shall be worn (mask donning optional). First due units shall respond “Code 3/Emergent” to automatic fire alarms. ALL additional units shall respond “Code 2/Non-Emergent” – except in response to reported fire, smoke, or heat/flow alarms – in which case ALL units shall respond Code 3/Emergent. FD#1 is not supposed to respond to trouble alarms, but should there be a situation where our help is needed for this type of call, the response shall be "routine" and will not require turnouts. First In Duties The first arriving engine should respond directly to the fire building; give an "on scene" report (including apparent conditions, structural type, and action taken), assume command if appropriate, or may pass command if entering building, and access the building. Check alarm panel for location and type of alarm. The initial duty for the "first in" company should be to search the building and communicate either report of fire conditions or apparent false alarm. The mode of operation initially may be "Investigation" and may elevate to "Attack" when fire conditions are present. Elevating to "Attack" mode requires the first arriving company to: A. Assume/pass command (if not already assumed). B. Give assignment to second in company. C. Request Dispatch to “Reclassify call as a working residential/commercial structure fire” to other responding units. Second In Duties The second arriving Engine Company should stage at the appropriate hydrant or driveway (in areas w/o hydrants) and act on the orders of the first in company or incident commander. 81 SECTION 5 WATER SUPPLY OPERATIONS Tender Operations 500.10 3/15/2010 Purpose: To provide procedural guidelines for tender relay operations. Major Objectives: 1. Readiness 2. Strategy 3. "First In" Engine and Tender Procedures 4. Draft Engine Procedures 5. Dump Site Procedures 6. Fill Site Procedures 7. Tender Driver Responsibilities STRATEGY A proper size-up by the first arriving company officer is critical when determining water supply needs. Size-up considerations in areas without hydrants include size and location of fire and expected spread, exposures, access for fire apparatus, apparatus placement (both suppression and tender apparatus), manpower needed to support fire ground and tender operations, and knowledge of the closest continuous water supply. Nursing Where the initial size up dictates a quick attack in offensive mode, taking into account the estimated fire flow (e.g. one or two rooms and contents involved), then the water supply tactic of choice may be a “tender to attack engine” direct supply, this is also know as “nursing.” If an immediate, uninterrupted water supply is needed, then a tender nursing operation should be considered. Nursing from a tender has its limitations including: 500 gpm pump capacity from the tenders via two 2 ½” discharges; available water supply in the tenders water tank; available access near the attack engine; and/or the limited amount of water from any additional engines or tenders on scene. Nursing from a tender or another engine with an adequate pump is the quickest and surest way to achieve water supply for a quick offensive attack, or even a quick defensive attack in an area without hydrants. This tactic should be considered when there is reasonable assurance that the first due engine tank water plus the water in the tender tank should accomplish fire control objectives. A size up that reveals a large body of fire with multiple rooms involved may indicate a difficult and lengthy offensive attack or may require defensive operations. Both will require the need to set up for a long term tender relay operation. 82 Tender Relay Operating quick and efficient dump and fill sites requires proper training, coordination, and efficient scene set-up. Efficient scene set-up requires enough roadway that allows tenders sufficient access to and from porta-tanks for easy approach, off-loading, and departure. It is essential to layout the draft/relay engine and porta-tank configuration to allow efficient and safe access to porta-tanks by tenders while supporting drafting operations. Scene set-up also includes designating an area that allows for the uninterrupted movement and turn-around of tenders at both the fill and dump sites. Quick tender turn-around requires adequate manpower to perform the following tasks at both the fill and dump sites: (1) accurately spot the tender; (2) operate the dump and/or fill valves; and (3) hydrant operation. Improper scene set-up and poor coordination resulting in the need to reposition tenders, reposition porta-tanks, and/or reorganize the dump and fill sites wastes valuable time and will compromise effective and safe fireground operations. FIRST-IN ENGINE PROCEDURES The first in engine is responsible for initial size-up and must determine and communicate which of the two types of tender operations will be used for water supply DRAFT ENGINE PROCEDURES The draft engine is usually the second engine on scene. The draft engine is responsible for pumping from the static water supply to the attack engine during a tender relay operation. While enroute, the draft engine should size-up water supply factors including: size and length of supply hose. elevation; and the water tank size of both the attack and draft engine. Arrival time of the tenders will also determine if the draft engine will have to be supplemented by a nursing operation from another engine while waiting for the tenders’ arrival. Upon arrival at the scene, the draft engine will determine where to place the porta-tank(s) and designate a path that allows the tenders to off-load their water then turn around for the return trip to the fill site. The draft engine scene assessment may include adding additional supply line to the existing supply line in order to relocate to a better suited dump site. Once the attack engine receives water from the draft engine, the draft engine should maintain a minimum of 50 psi residual pressure on the attack engines intake gage. DUMP SITE PROCEDURES Command may designate a Water Supply Officer who will supervise dump site operations and coordinate tenders to maintain a continuous water supply. The dump site crew should consist of two members; one "spotter" assigned to direct approaching tenders to the appropriate dump position and one "valve operator" assigned to control the off-load valve. Dump site requirements: Efficient and safe access to porta-tanks by tenders is critical. Porta-tanks should be positioned to provide the best access to assure tenders are not required to “jockey” around to line up for water dumps. Ensure porta-tanks are set up with the drains facing down hill. Ensure that when using two porta-tanks that a “siphon” system is in place to transfer water from one tank to the other. 83 Dump site recommendations: Porta-tanks can be set up in the shape of a double diamond or set up square to each other and the road. There are advantages to both. The double diamond set-up allows more room for the engineer to move around the porta-tanks and it also allows easier access to the engine compartments. When the tanks are set up square, the tenders have more access room for off- loading, and maneuverability. The decision of which porta-tank set to use is at the discretion of the draft engine engineer. To ensure efficient tender dumping operations and quick turn-a-rounds, do not waste time waiting for the last few gallons of water to empty from the tender. Avoid the draining or pooling of water in the dump site area. Excess water creates mud and/or ice and can interfere with your operations or cause personal injury. FILL SITE PROCEDURES The appropriate way to fill empty tenders when they arrive is: Connect the 3” supply line to the hydrant (leave this line attached for the duration of the operation). Connect a 3” supply line to the intake valve. Open the tender intake valve prior to opening hydrant. When the tank is close to full, shut down the hydrant before closing the tender intake valve to avoid water hammer. Care should be taken to shut the hydrant prior to completely filling the tank to limit excessive water at fill site which creates mud and/or ice and can interfere with operations or cause personal injury. The Fill crew should consist of three members when manpower permits; hydrant operator, valve operator and spotter. The hydrant operator will open and close the hydrant at the appropriate time. The valve operator will make the hose connection to the tender and operate the intake valve. The spotter will direct incoming tenders and designate optimum position for tender fill procedures. The spotter will also signal tender drivers to proceed when the hose is disconnected. All personnel shall be responsible for safe operation of the fill site and must operate all valves slowly as a precaution against water hammer. TENDER DRIVER RESPONSIBILITIES Tender drivers are assigned to the safe operation of the apparatus along the shortest route to and from the fill site. Always use caution when driving, as the tenders are heavy and require a longer stopping distance. Avoid the backing of tender apparatus as it can cause damage to the fill site equipment or the tender and possibly cause personal injury. Whenever possible a backer is required. Caution: Tender water tanks are baffled but water can still splash and roll from one side to the other causing unwanted weight transfer that could result in loss of control that could possibly overturn the tender. This is more prevalent when the water tank is partially full. NEVER exceed the posted speed limit, even when running code three. Due to the lack of engine power and tender speed the driver may consider responding code two except when clearing intersections. The tender driver should remain near the cab at all times to expedite the delivery of water at the dump site. If there are enough firefighters the tender driver should remain in the cab. For safety reasons the tender driver should not move the tender until the spotter instructs the driver 84 to do so. For safety reasons, when operating near the fire scene, tender drivers need to slow down and drive with due regard and caution. Firefighters and bystanders could walk from behind or between vehicles and may not see the tenders coming and going. 85 Water Flow Signals 500.20 3/15/2010 PURPOSE: To standardize the signal from the engine operator to the firefighter at the hydrant to start or shut off the flow of water. SCOPE: This procedure will apply to all incidents where an apparatus is hooked into a hydrant when water is needed to supply the engine/squirt. PROCEDURE: To start or shut off water flow from a hydrant, the engineers and firefighters shall use one of the methods below. RADIO When the hydrant is out of sight of the engine, radio contact should be made with the firefighter at the hydrant to request water flow/shut off requests. The firefighter at the hydrant should confirm the request. VISUAL / HAND SIGNAL When the engine is prepared to receive water from the hydrant, the engineer may signal the firefighter by using one arm, raised over the head, moving the hand in a circular motion. The signal to stop the flow of water is made by a hand arm horizontal movement across the neck. Once received, the signal should be mirrored back to the sender to confirm the message. 86 Engine Relays 500.30 3/15/2010 Purpose: To provide assignments and guidelines for situations that require water supply lines longer than one hosebed. Major Objectives: 1. Duties of Engines Companies 2. Standard Radio Communications 3. Pumping Procedures DUTIES OF ENGINE COMPANIES "First In" Engine Company Duties When size up has deemed it necessary to use multiple hosebeds to provide a water supply from a hydrant, the "first in" (one beginning the water supply operation) engine should approach the incident from the appropriate hydrant. The "first in" engine should begin water supply operations by laying hose in a forward lay from the designated hydrant. After laying all the hose from the hosebed, the first in engine should proceed to the incident after pausing to pick up the hydrant firefighter. They will then take the appropriate position for attack or defense. Relay Engine Company Duties The relay engine should proceed directly to the attack/defense position and perform a reverse lay to the spot of the first in engine's ending hose lay. After connecting those supply lines, the relay engine should proceed to the hydrant and complete the supply line by placing the pump at the hydrant in the supply line. "Third In" Engine Company Duties In the event that the relay engine's hoseload is not sufficient to complete the supply line, the third engine should lay the required amount of hose. When access to the incident makes it difficult for the relay engine to maneuver for a reverse lay, it may be prudent for the first in engine to forward lay from a position within 800 feet of the incident. In this situation the relay engine would reverse lay to the hydrant from the spot that the first in engine began its lay. STANDARD RADIO COMMUNICATIONS When the first in engine decides to implement this SOP they shall notify all other responding units by communicating the standard phrase "Extended Hose Lay" and include assignment for next in engine; i.e. "Engine 203 using extended hose lay from hydrant at E. Parker Road. Engine 101, I need you to reverse (or forward) lay from our position." 87 PUMPING PROCEDURES The relay engine will charge the supply line when signaled by the first in engine. *the attack engine shall dictate the desired flow All supply line intakes should be connected to a pump inlet protected from overpressure with an intake relief valve set at 150 psi. If at anytime it becomes necessary to stop pumping operations, the attack engine shall initiate this conclusion by communicating to the relay engine to lower their pressure first. 88 Fires Involving Sprinkled Buildings 500.40 3/15/2010 SCOPE: This procedure applies to all FD#1 employees responsible for emergency response. PURPOSE: To standardize the operations at sprinkled buildings by FD#1 Firefighters. POLICY: The duties of the first due engine remain the same as at a structure fire in a sprinkled building; perform rescue and initial attack. If upon arrival, the water gong is ringing, dispatch should be advised in the arrival report. The duties of the second due engine at a fire involving a sprinkled property is the supplementing of the water supply to the sprinkler. Unless otherwise ordered, the second due engine should respond and standby near the closest fire hydrant. If so ordered, or if there is fire or smoke showing, a 3-inch line shall be laid from the nearest hydrant or water supply to the fire department connection and the pumper connected. The engine supplying the sprinkler system should not supply water to any other firefighting operation. As soon as the pump is set up and the two 3-inch lines are connected to the fire department connection advise command. When ordered by command operate the pump and bring the pressure to 150 psi discharge pressure. Decrease or increase pressure on the orders of command. Shut down the pumper only on orders of command. As soon as possible command or interior command should send someone to the sprinkler control valve and ensure the valve is fully open. Shut the sprinkler control valve only after ensuring that the fire is out and then only on the orders of command. When shutting down the sprinkler system, shut down the supply pumper first, then close the sprinkler control valve and open the 2-inch drain valve. Leave a firefighter at the sprinkler valve with a portable radio in case the valve needs to be opened. Immediate plugging of open sprinkler heads will lessen the water damage to the property. 89 Hydrant Testing 500.50 3/15/2010 General: In order for fire service personnel to determine the quantity of water available for fire protection, it is necessary to conduct fire flow testing on the water distribution systems within Fire District #1 boundaries. These tests include the actual measurement of static (normal operation) pressures, residual pressures, and flow from hydrants. This SOP describes the test procedures, equipment needed, and the formula used to determine available water. Hydrant maintenance and testing will be done in accordance with nationally recognized standards including AWWA M17 and NFPA 24. Precautions: Opening of hydrants may upset the normal operating conditions in the water supply system. Before conducting fire flow testing the appropriate Water District and public should be notified. Before, during and after conducting fire flow testing certain precautions must be observed, in order to avoid injuries to those participating in testing and the public. Efforts should be made to minimize property damage from fire flow streams Pedestrian and automobile traffic must be noted and possibly stopped during testing. Before flow testing hydrant caps should be tightened Do not stand in front of closed hydrant caps during testing Do not lean over the top of hydrants while opening or closing them Hydrants should be opened and closed slowly to prevent water hammer Always check downstream of the hydrant to see where water will flow. Equipment: Hydrant list with numbers and locations Hydrant test and inspection forms, Hazen-Williams formula chart, clipboard, calculator, and pen. Swivel diffuser with shutoff valve or pitot. Gauges for static pressure off hydrant or other static source. Hydrant wrenches Large permanent Marker for hydrants not marked Grease and Wire Brush for hydrant maintenance Portable radios Salvage covers, brooms, and shovels Maintenance Procedure: Remove obstructions and weeds around hydrant Check hydrant for obvious damage If hydrant is locked remove and exercise lock Grease hydrant (if grease fitting present) 90 Clean and lubricate nozzle caps with Black Moly dry lubricant Clearly mark hydrant number on the face of pumper cap Test hydrant drainage and leakage as follows: o Remove hose nozzle cap. Hydrant pressure gauge can be installed to allow easier venting of hydrant o Slightly open hydrant and allow to fill below outlet o Flush hydrant if possible o Replace cap and fully open hydrant, note operation of operating nut o Once hydrant is fully open observe for leaks under full pressure o Slowly close hydrant o Remove hose nozzle cap and check for adequate drainage and replace cap If hydrant is metered, testing drainage is not required. Hydrant will be under pressure so note leaks or damage Paint and clean hydrant as needed Record hydrant maintenance information on hydrant maintenance report Fire Flow Test Procedure: Remove obstructions and weeds around hydrant Check hydrant for obvious damage If Hydrant is locked remove and exercise lock Grease hydrant (if grease fitting present) Clean and lubricate nozzle caps with Black Moly Dry lubricant Clearly mark hydrant number on the face of pumper cap Test hydrant drainage and leakage as follows o Remove nozzle cap o Slightly open hydrant and allow to fill below outlet o Flush hydrant if possible o Replace cap and fully open hydrant. Note operation of the operating nut o Once hydrant is fully open observe for leaks under full pressure o Slowly close hydrant o Remove hose nozzle cap and check for adequate drainage and replace cap If hydrant is metered, testing drainage is not required. Hydrant will be under pressure so note leaks or damage. o Those hydrants that are scheduled to be flow tested but cannot, due to area construction or other reasons, shall at a minimum be subjected to operational pressure. Test hydrant flow as follows: o Read and record static pressure, preferably from a nearby hydrant on the same water main, if not possible take static pressure from the hydrant. 91 o Attach swivel diffuser to hydrant hose nozzle o Aim discharge flow away from landscaping or traffic o Slowly open the hydrant to full flow o Flush debris from the pitot tube o Record flow pressure o Record residual pressure at static gauge o To prevent water hammer in the water mains, slowly close flow hydrant using operating nut. Full open to full close should take at least a minute o Check for proper water drainage inside hydrant, replace caps and secure Compute available fire flow using hydrant test and inspection report o When residual pressure is 20 PSI or less, use pitot reading to determine available water flow Paint and clean hydrant as needed Record hydrant information on hydrant test inspection report Hydrant Color Scheme: Hydrant base color scheme o Public hydrant Yellow o Private hydrant Red Hydrant cap color scheme o Less than 500 GPM Red o 500 to 999 GPM Orange o 1000 to 1499 GPM Green o Greater than 1500 GPM Blue o Nonfunctional White 92 SECTION 6 INCIDENT COMMAND SYSTEM (ICS) Incident Command Overview 600.10 3/15/2010 PURPOSE: To give an overview of the Incident Command System (ICS). MAJOR OBJECTIVES: To define when the ICS system is to be used To outline the essentials duties and responsibilities are under ICS To outline the procedure used in setting up and expanding ICS To outline the ICS structure ASSIGNMENT OF COMMAND The first Fire District unit to arrive at the scene requiring multiple unit (more than 2 engines) responses SHALL* assume Command and remain in Command until relieved by a ranking officer or command officer or until the incident is secure. *Exception: See PASSING COMMAND DUTIES and RESPONSIBILITIES OF COMMAND 1. Assume and confirm Command and take an effective position, communicating your location. 2. Rapidly evaluate the situation (size-up). 3. Insure that scene safety is addressed . 4. Choose the mode of operation and begin planning to support your strategy. 5. Formulate plan of action and communicate it to company officers, and when needed Division and/or Group Supervisors. 6. Initiate, maintain and control the communication process. 7. Provide continuing Command according to these ICS SOPS. These functions above must be addressed immediately from the initial assumption of Command. 1. Coordinate the transfer of Command, as required. 2. Request and assign additional resources as required. 3. Return companies to service and terminate Command. All of these functions are responsibilities of Command, whether or not Command is transferred from one individual to another. PROCEDURES OF COMMAND Radio Designation The radio designation, "Command", shall be used to identify the member that assumes or receives Command. In transmissions to Dispatch, where there may be concurrent, multiple ICS operations, 93 and use a brief description of the incident location added to "Command" (e.g. "Lincoln Ave. Command" or "Arapahoe Command"). Initial Report The person assuming Command shall transmit a brief initial radio report including: 1. Reporting its unit number on scene at incident location by street name or place name. 2. Reporting building or scene in general description (occupation, size, construction type, etc.). 3. Reporting apparent conditions. 4. Reporting initial action(s) taken (brief description including mode of operation). 5. Reporting assumption of Command and naming of Command (see above Radio Designation). Command Options In cases when the initial arriving officer is a command officer, efforts should automatically be directed towards establishing a Command Post and fulfilling the listed Command functions. When Command is initially assumed by a company officer, that officer must decide on an appropriate assignment for the resources under his direct control. That assignment will usually fall into one of the three general modes listed below. These general modes also apply to Medic and other emergency situations and the corresponding terminology, if different, is noted in parenthesis. 1. Investigation Mode: These situations generally require investigation by the first arriving engine companies. The officer has two options: a) Officer may go with the company to check while utilizing a portable radio to Command the incident (may be "direct" to second in). b) Officer may "pass" the Command to another officer. 2. Attack (Rescue) Mode: These situations require immediate action to stabilize and require that the officer quickly decide how to commit the resources of his/her company. Again the officer has two options: a) Utilize handheld radio to permit involvement in attack while maintaining Command. b) Command may be "passed" to another officer. 3. Defensive (Triage) Mode: These situations are incidents of such great size, involvement, complexity, or potential that they require coordination of resources through commitment to strong, direct, overall Command from the onset. In such cases, the officer will initially assume a Command position and maintain that position until relieved by another officer. The company officer assuming command has a choice of modes of operation and degree of personal involvement in the attack, but continues to be fully responsible for the identified functions of Command. In all cases, the initiative and judgment of the officer are of great importance. Passing Command In certain situations it may be advantageous for the first arriving officer to "Pass Command" to the next arriving officer or to a command officer. This is indicated when the initial commitment of the first arriving company requires all members to perform "hands on" duties (e.g. an immediate rescue situation) and the next arriving company or command officer is on the scene or close behind. 94 The initial arriving officer shall give an on scene radio report and advise that Command will be passed. The initial arriving company officer retains responsibility for Command until the next unit arrives and acknowledges the transfer. Transfer of Command The first Fire District unit to arrive on the scene shall assume and retain Command until relieved by another officer within the following guidelines: 1. The first arriving officer will automatically assume Command. Exception: See Passing Command. 2. Command will be transferred to subsequently arriving officers according to the chain of command. 3. Ranking officer's discretion is advised in cases when an individual is effectively commanding a tactical situation, and is completely aware of the location and function of operating companies and the general status of the situation; it may be desirable for that person to continue in an active Command role. Within the chain of Command indicated above, the actual transfer of Command will be regulated by the following procedures: 1. The officer assuming Command will communicate with the person being relieved of Command by radio or preferably face to face on arrival. 2. The person being relieved will brief the officer receiving Command indicating the following: A. General situation status 1. Fire/hazard location, extent, conditions. 2. Effectiveness of control efforts. 3. Safety considerations. B. Deployment and assignments of operating units. C. Estimate of additional resources needed. The arrival of a ranking officer on the scene does not necessarily mean Command has been transferred to that officer. Command is transferred only when the outlined communication functions have been completed. STRUCTURE OF COMMAND It is the responsibility of Command to implement an organizational structure, using standard operating procedures to effectively manage fireground/rescue operations. The implementation of the organizational structure should begin with initial tactical control measures and may grow to include a number of levels depending on the size and complexity of the situation. The ideal organizational structure expands at a pace and in a direction that stays ahead of or even with the tactical deployment of companies. Levels of Organization The basic design of Command structure includes three levels: Strategic level....overall incident command Tactical level.....direction of groups and functions Task level.....….company or individual activities 95 The strategic level involves the overall Command of the incident and includes determining the appropriate mode of operation, designating strategic objectives and assigning specific objectives to tactical level units. The tactical level includes officers directing activities toward those specific objectives assigned by Command. Tactical level officers are in charge of grouped resources operating in designated areas. The achievement of tactical objectives should accomplish the strategic objectives. The task level refers to those activities normally accomplished by individual companies or specific personnel. Task level activities are supervised by company officers (or acting company officers). The achievement of task level activities should accomplish tactical objectives. The most basic structure for an incident involving a small number of companies should be handled by only two levels. The role of Command combines the strategy and tactical levels. Companies report directly to Command and operate at a task level. During the incident, DO NOT change designations of engine and/or other companies to “teams” or any other name. To avoid confusion refer to them by their normal identifier (e.g. Engine 203 remains “Engine 203” NOT “Team 1” or “Attack Team 1”, etc.). COMMAND Strategy/tactical ENGINE ENGINE ENGINE Task Combining Tactical Resources Tactical resources may be organized for specific missions and to minimize span of control problems. Companies may be organized and deployed in three standard methods. 1. Single Resource - engine, truck, Medic or crews w/o apparatus. Single resources are used for normal activities. 2. Task Force - any combination of single resources. Task Force may be two engines and a truck. 3. Strike Team - set number of same resource. Strike Team may be five engine companies. The exact number of resources is determined by potential assignment and staging organization. Groups In more complex situations, Command should group companies to work in Groups. The Group Supervisors operate at the tactical level, directing the work of several companies or performing specialized functions as requested by Command. Command continues to operate at the strategic level, determining and directing the overall strategy to deal with the incident. 96 COMMAND Strategic GROUP GROUP GROUP Tactical COMPANIES COMPANIES COMPANIES Task Group Designation Groups will be designated by function of assignment. Group radio designation will also follow the same functional assignment. i.e. "Roof Group, Inside Group, Rehab Group, etc." The supervision of a group is assumed by the IC until delegated to a Group Supervisor. Never designate a functional group unless a Supervisor is named. Once a Group Supervisor is named all communications from Command or Ops are to the group supervisor, commonly addressed only by his/her group’s function (e.g. “Attack, this is Command”) and not from Command or Ops to the single resources in the group. Divisions In more complex situations, Command may assign companies to work in Divisions. The Division Supervisors operate at the tactical level, directing the work of several companies or assigned to the same general location, i.e. one floor, an exposure side, etc. Group supervisors direct crews performing a specialized incident-wide function which may not be limited to one location, i.e. Ventilation, Overhaul, etc. Groups and Divisions function on the same command level. Groups do not work for Divisions and Divisions do not work for Groups. COMMAND Strategic DIVISION DIVISION GROUP Tactical COMPANIES COMPANIES COMPANIES Task Division/Group Designations The ICS components can be designated following these simple rules. 1. If the company will be assigned to a geographic location under a single command, then assign them to a division. If assigned a specific function or duty which may or may not cross division lines, then they may be assigned to a group. 2. Designate divisions by their location using the Alpha, Bravo, Charlie, Delta (Formerly ABCD) method, i.e. Division Alpha assigned to operate in front (address side) of the building. Rotate clockwise from Alpha to designate the remaining building sides. The same system can be used to designate exposures, or designate divisions by floor number in multistory buildings, i.e. Division 97 1 operates on the first floor. On wildland or other large outdoor incidents, designate by Alpha, Bravo, Charlie, Delta or by common place names or directional orientations; e.g. “Cherry Creek Division”, or “ North Flank Division”. 3. Designate groups by their assigned function when they will not be limited to a geographic area, i.e. Search and Rescue Group may operate on numerous floors of a multistory building. Branches As the incident grows in complexity, Command may implement an intermediate level between Divisions/Groups and Command referred to as a Branch. Branches are of great value when large numbers of resources are committed to a specific functional activity. The Branch Officer is responsible for implementing their portion of the action plan, coordinating the Divisions and Groups under the Branch, evaluating/assigning goals and objectives, requesting necessary resources, and updating Command. The Branch Officer provides direct supervision over Division/Group Supervisors and allows Command to alleviate span of control problems and to focus on the strategic aspects of the overall situation and management of the organization. Branch Designation Branches are designated by functions, i.e. Suppression Branch, EMS Branch, HazMat Branch, etc. Partial organizational chart showing IC structure of a fire and a major EMS incident with related functions organized into two branches. COMMAND SAFETY PIO SUPPRESSION EMS BRANCH BRANCH DIVISION DIVISION VENT TRIAGE TREATMENT TRANSPORT GROUP GROUP GROUP GROUP 98 National Fire Academy ICS 600.20 3/15/2010 PURPOSE: To illustrate the National Incident Management System (NIMS) NATIONAL INCIDENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Sweetwater County Fire District #1 and the majority of the public safety agencies in Wyoming have adopted the National Incident Management System (NIMS). The complete NIMS model is diagrammed here for reference. The complete system includes all of the elements previously detailed in this SOP. Each incident will have different functions which need to be addressed to manage the scene. To be effective, Command must perform or delegate those functions. COMMAND Safety Liaison Information Operations Planning Logistics Finance Staging Service Service Branch Branch Branch Branch Div./Group Div./Group Div/ Div/ Communications Unit Group Group Medical Unit Food Unit Strike Team Strike Team Resource Unit Supply Unit Time Unit Task Force Task Force Situation Unit Facilities Unit Procurement Unit Single Resource Single Resource Documentation Unit Ground Support Comp/Claims Unit Demobilization Unit Cost Unit Technical Specialists Examples of Incident Command Structure: The examples on the next two pages are meant to demonstrate the alignment of the Incident Command organization at typical incidents. The IC charts are meant to provide examples of scene management systems and the actual assignments should be adapted to meet the needs of each particular incident. Typical fire suppression operation demonstrating tactical assignments: 99 COMMAND SAFETY PIO FIRE ATTACK SEARCH AND SALVAGE WATER SUPPLY REHAB GROUP RESCUE GROUP GROUP E-71 E-72 T-71 TN-71 R-35 E-73 R-71 TN-72 TN-73 Note that this same incident may be organized by designating Fire Attack and Search/Rescue Groups as Division 1 and 2 assigned to perform these two objectives on the first and second floor. Salvage and Rehab are single resources reporting directly to Command; all other groups have a Group Supervisor supervising the crews. Typical Hazardous Material operation demonstrating Tactical assignments: COMMAND SAFETY PIO DECON CONTAINMENT EVACUATION WATER SUPPLY REHAB GROUP GROUP GROUP GROUP E-71 E-72 T-71 TN-71 R-71 E-73 E-74 S-35 TN-72 H-33 DCSO TN-73 Typical Mass Casualty operation demonstrating Tactical assignments: COMMAND SAFETY PIO TRIAGE TREATMENT TRANSPORTATION EXTRICATION REHAB GROUP GROUP GROUP GROUP E-71 E-74 R-71 T-71 R-35 E-72 R-72 S-35 100 ICS Command Staff Functions 600.30 3/15/2010 PURPOSE: To define roles, responsibilities, and functions for Incident Command System (ICS) Command Staff. MAJOR OBJECTIVES: Organization of Positions Safety Officer Liaison Officer Public Information Officer Command Staff Positions Staff functions of Safety, Liaison and Public Information are either delegated or performed by Command. The role of Safety Officer should be delegated at all working fires and incidents of similar magnitude. At large scale or complex incidents consideration may have to be given to the functions of Liaison and Public Information. If Command cannot effectively handle any of these functions, they should be delegated. Safety The Safety Officer must monitor and assess the safety hazards and unsafe situations to develop measures for ensuring personnel safety. SOP 600.40 specifies the Safety Officer’s duties and responsibilities in detail. Liaison The Liaison Officer is the point of contact for assisting and coordinating other agencies outside Sweetwater County Fire District #1. Liaison responsibilities include: coordinate to avoid duplication in efforts, provide line of authority and communication, and increase control necessary for safety of all personnel. Public Information The Public Information Officer (PIO) is the contact person for all media at the incident. Responsibilities include: to provide accurate and consistent information to media, to coordinate media requests for access to incident and maintain personal awareness of major “news related” aspects of the incident. 101 Partial organizational chart demonstrating Command Staff Structure: COMMAND SAFETY LIAISON PIO 102 ICS Safety Officer Functions 600.40 3/15/2010 PURPOSE: To establish a standard system for providing risk management and safety guidance at major incidents through the implementation of an Incident Safety Officer (ISO). This procedure in no way diminishes the responsibility of each member of Fire District #1 to work within safe procedures at all times and the responsibility of officers for the safety of their assigned personnel. MAJOR OBJECTIVES: 1. Response and Assignment 2. Duties and Responsibilities 3. Safety Officer Procedures Response and Assignment Command has the responsibility to recognize the situations requiring the implementation of an ISO. Command may order additional resources to confirm the response of safety personnel when the need is indicated. Safety personnel shall be assigned to all incidents that require a significant demand on FD#1 resources (i.e. confirmed structure fires, major rescue or HazMat operations), and on request to other incidents. Upon arrival to a working incident, designated personnel will report to Command. Duties and Responsibilities Responsibilities assigned to the ISO include: 1. Monitor condition of personnel for signs of exhaustion, effects of cold and hot weather and products of combustion or toxic materials. 2. Observe operations for use of proper safety procedures and precautions by all personnel. 3. Assure proper use of protective clothing and equipment by all personnel in operating areas. 4. Observe general fireground for unsafe or hazardous conditions and interact with Command to take adequate precautions. 5. Provide direction for changes in SOPS or training methods that would eliminate or reduce those unsafe or hazardous conditions noted in 4 above. 6. Observe structural safety conditions which could present a safety hazard. 7. Liaison with outside agencies and technical advisors in situations involving unusual hazards. Safety Officer Procedures Personnel assigned as the Safety Officer or as a member of the Safety Group, upon recognizing a safety problem, must take appropriate action to cause its correction. 103 The command structure shall be used to affect appropriate response to a safety problem. Safety Group personnel will communicate with Command and with Division or Group Supervisors to deal with identified safety concerns. When urgency of the situation demands it, Safety Group personnel have full authority to cause immediate action by direct order to any personnel or use of "MAYDAY” or “URGENT” messages over the radio. 104 ICS Public Information Officer (PIO) Functions 600.50 3/15/2010 Purpose: To establish guidelines for the duties and responsibilities of the Public Information Officer (PIO) Major Objectives: Call out criteria Notification of PIO Post incident activities Call-Out Criteria The PIO shall be the highest ranking Chief Officer on duty. A prearranged On-Duty PIO shall be available at all times and should be requested to respond to the scene when needed for the following: 1. Structure Fire - Flames or heavy smoke are showing upon arrival. 2. Brush/Grass Fire - More than one acre is involved, structures are threatened, or there is the potential for rapid growth. 3. Major hazardous materials incident. 4. Major emergency medical incident. 5. There is a potential that neighbors or other community members will experience some impact from the emergency situation. 6. There is a perceived potential of news media involvement. 7. There is a good potential for public recognition for heroic action, or for public recognition for the actions of the reporting party or that of bystanders. 8. Unusual human interest aspects to the call. Incident Notification The main means of notifying the PIO will be to contact Fire District #1 Headquarters In the event a PIO is not able to respond to the scene, the Chief Officer on-scene should assume or delegate the PIO functions to an appropriate member of Fire District #1 Post Incident Response The On-Duty PIO should be notified immediately following an emergent response where there is a positive/negative public relations potential and a PIO was not requested to respond to the scene. 105 ICS General Staff Functions 600.60 3/15/2010 PURPOSE: To define roles, responsibilities, and functions for Incident Command System (ICS) General Staff . MAJOR OBJECTIVES: Organization of Positions Operations Section Chief Planning Section Chief Logistics Section Chief Finance Section Chief General Staff Functions In addition to the General staff positions listed above, Command may need to delegate major functional authority for Operations, Planning, Logistics, and/or Finance. Extended operations, often require Command to address issues not encountered at the typical incident. The management tools necessary to handle these issues are available to Command by delegating functional authority to Section Chiefs in charge of these functional areas. The designation, Section Chief, does not denote the requirement of that rank. Operations Responsible for direction and coordination of all tactical operations. The Operations Section Chief’s responsibilities also include: assist Command with strategic goals and tactical objectives, develop operational plans, request or release resources through Command, consult with Command about overall action plan, advise Command of situation and resource status. Planning Responsible for collection, evaluation, dissemination and use of information about the development of the incident and status of resources. Planning Section Chief’s responsibilities also includes: developing and/or modifying an effective incident action plan based on projected needs, anticipating changing resource needs, preparing alternate strategies and tactical options based on incident potential. Logistics Responsible for providing facilities, services, and materials for the incident. Logistics Section Chief’s responsibilities also include: provide service (communications equipment, medical treatment, and food) to emergency personnel, provide equipment and supplies, provide fixed facilities, and provide ground support (fuel, maintenance and repair). 106 Finance Responsible for tracking all incident costs and evaluating financial consideration of the incident. The Finance Section Chief’s responsibilities also include: time keeping, procurement, compensation and claims, and cost recovery. Partial organizational chart demonstrating Command staff and General Staff Structure: COMMAND SAFETY PIO LIAISON OPERATIONS LOGISTICS PLANNING FINANCE BRANCHES (ORGANIZED AS DIVISIONS, GROUPS OR IN SOME CASES, ONLY INDIVIDUAL PERSONNEL IN CHARGE OF A SINGLE STAFF FUNCTION) 107 ICS Rehab Group Functions 600.70 3/15/2010 Purpose: To establish the system which ensures that personnel, who may be suffering from the effects of sustained physical exertion, receive evaluation and assistance during emergency operations. REHABILITATION (REHAB) GROUP POLICY It is the policy of the Fire District #1 that no member will be required to continue emergency operations beyond safe levels of physical and mental endurance. This policy is in no way intended to diminish initial fire attack aggressiveness. The intent is to establish a reasonable procedure to lessen the potential of injury resulting from extended field operations under adverse conditions. GENERAL OBJECTIVES OF THE REHAB GROUP To provide a specific area where personnel will assemble to receive: A physical assessment Revitalization; i.e. rest, refreshment, protection from extreme weather exposure, etc. Treatment for minor firefighter injuries. Continual monitoring of physical condition. Transportation for injured firefighters requiring treatment at medical facilities. IMPLEMENTATION OF REHAB GROUP It is the responsibility of Command to make an early determination of situations requiring the implementation of a Rehab group in order to protect the health and safety of field personnel. Command should consider the establishment of a Rehab group at the following emergencies: Where a moderate to long working time is envisioned. Where personnel are operating under adverse temperature or weather conditions. Where a moderate to large manpower force is indicated. Any other incident where Command deems it necessary. ELEMENTS OF THE REHAB GROUP The Rehab group should consist of four main elements: 1. a controlled entrance/exit 2. a rest and refreshment (R & R) area 3. a firefighter treatment area 4. an ambulance staging area 1. The controlled entrance/exit area shall contain the record of personnel reporting to/from Rehab and medical evaluation area. 2. The R & R area shall provide rest, food, water, SCBA replacement cylinders and adequate shelter for extreme weather. Resting firefighters should be kept separate from civilians and the press. 3. If necessary, the Rehab group should be divided to provide a "Treatment" area adjacent to the Rest and Refreshment area. The "Treatment" area will be utilized for individuals exhibiting 108 signs of stress or extreme fatigue, or those with obvious or suspected injuries requiring medical attention. 4. Ambulance staging shall provide immediate transport of firefighters requiring treatment at medical facilities. REHAB GROUP SUPERVISOR DUTIES Command will designate an officer or other personnel to direct the Rehab. 1. Select Site: Unless already designated by Command, the assigned Rehab Group Supervisor will survey the area and select a suitable site, and announce the location. The site should be located in an area outside of the operational activity area (the fireground perimeter or hazard zone) where protective clothing and equipment may be safely removed. If possible, the site chosen shall allow good access for ambulances, utility vehicle, school bus, etc. The site should be selected for protection from extreme weather; extremely hot weather requires shaded area and extremely cold weather requires warm shelter. 2. Operation of Rehab Group: a) Determine the number of personnel needed and request the appropriate resources from Command. b) A paramedic or EMT shall be assigned to the Rehab Group Supervisor. The paramedic shall assist the Rehab Group Supervisor with the medical evaluations, monitoring of vitals, and necessary treatment. c) Request/obtain all other necessary resources 3. Tracking of members reporting to the Rehab Group: All members reporting to the Rehab group will be checked in at the designated entrance; where they will be assessed by a member of the Rehab Group, logged in and assigned to either Rest and Refreshment or the Treatment area as dictated by their physical condition. The log will indicate the arrival time of each company/team and the names of individual crew members, their medical evaluation status, the time the crew is ready for reassignment. 4. Reports to Command The Rehab group Supervisor is responsible for placing crews on the list for reassignment as soon as they are able to actively participate in further operations. The Rehab group Supervisor shall update Command throughout the operation with pertinent information including the identity of companies in Rehab and available for reassignment, plus the status of any injured personnel. PERSONNEL REPORTING TO REHAB GROUP It is the responsibility of every company officer to continually monitor the condition of all crew members for signs of stress or fatigue. When these conditions are noted, the officer shall request reassignment of the company to the Rehab Group. When assigned, the company officer and entire crew will report to the Rehab Group Supervisor as a team. 109 It is the responsibility of the company officer to keep the crew together in the Rest and Refreshment area. While assigned to the Rest and Refreshment, each crew member shall hydrate and nourish in preparation for reassignment. Additionally, each crew member shall evaluate SCBA and personnel protective equipment for serviceability. When all crew members are refreshed, rested, medically cleared, and all SCBA's and personnel protective equipment have been deemed serviceable, the company officer shall report to the Rehab Group Supervisor as available for reassignment. The Rehab Group Supervisor should release companies to specific assignments as directed by Command. Companies may be reassigned to operating sectors or released from the scene if no longer needed. 110 SECTION 7 FIREGROUND OPERATIONS Fire Control Strategy 700.10 3/15/2010 PURPOSE: To outline general strategic and tactical considerations for structure fire control so that life and property loss can be minimized. MAJOR OBJECTIVES: 1. Offensive Mode 2. General Safety Considerations 3. Defensive Mode OFFENSIVE MODE Command must decide upon the mode to use after sizing up the incident. Offensive strategy should be based upon factors such as the fire extent, condition of the structure, entry capability, and ventilation possibilities, rescue probabilities and available resources being supportive of an aggressive interior attack. The Mode can change at any time. Command must be prepared to shift to Defensive Mode if the attack is abandoned. Whenever possible, a fast, safe, well placed and adequately supported fire attack will help address the RECEO (Rescue, Exposures, Confinement, Extinguishment, and Overhaul) priorities. If the offensive mode is chosen, then: All utilities shall be turned off as soon as possible The first hose line should be of adequate size to control the fire and should be deployed for aggressive interior attack. The attack plan should be understood by all those involved in carrying it out. It is ideal, but not always possible, to determine the location and extent of the fire in the building so that fire streams are not wasted on smoke, fire is not “pushed’, or ventilation spots chosen are not correct. Thermal Imaging Cameras (TICs) can be of great assistance in this function as well as in locating victims and their use should become standard practice in structure fires. Ventilation, either powered or natural should be considered as part of the attack tactics. A primary search for victims, as needed, should be done quickly and effectively. A second, back-up line should be prepared for action. There should be adequate water supply, either on scene or due before initial supply is gone, to support a quick aggressive attack through to fire control. 111 As a rule, attack the fire from the unburned area to the burning area. Be aware of places in the building such as firewalls, partitions or other barriers to fire that can help to make a stand against the fire. Don’t overlook concealed spaces such as attics- they must be identified early if there is fire in them so that they can be opened and fire streams applied. Do not aim exterior streams into buildings in which firefighters are performing interior operations, particularly streams into roof or other ventilation openings. GENERAL SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS Utilities shall be turned off as soon as possible. Position apparatus so it will not be part of the problem, not too close to the situation and always watching for overhead electrical lines. Interior attack on a working fire shall only be attempted by a team of at least two firefighters with a hose line. A RIT (see SOP 200.80) should be established to provide for the potential rescue of interior firefighters. Firefighter escape routes and access should be noted during search and fire attack operations. The functions of the safety officer-utility shutoff, observation of fire conditions and overall scene/firefighter safety should be either assumed by Command or assigned early on. There should be enough water on hand in booster tanks or from hydrants to complete the planned interior attack. An accountability system should be used to account for all firefighters operating in the hazardous area.(see SOP 200.60) Communications between interior crews and Command/Operations is critical and must be established and maintained. DEFENSIVE MODE Command must decide upon the mode to use after sizing up the incident, or at any time during the incident. Defensive strategy should be used when the fire conditions reveal that the fire probably cannot be quickly controlled with an aggressive interior attack and that it would unreasonably compromise the safety of firefighters to commence or sustain interior attack. This may be due to a lack of adequate resources, size of the fire, condition of the structure or other factors. The goal of the defensive strategy is to prevent the fire from extending to exposures by protecting them with an exterior (usually) attack. If the defensive mode is chosen then: Utilities shall be turned off as soon as possible. Evaluate the scene for potential fire spread and threat to exposures. Allocate limited resources to protect valuable exposures which are most threatened. Be willing to write off lost causes and to focus on the unburned property. Make sure positions taken are safe and effective. Plan for large streams of long duration and the needed water supply to support them. 112 Plan ahead for additional resources and relief crews. Once exposures are protected, the main body of fire can be attacked. Make sure changes in strategy are aired and understood by operational members. Do not aim exterior streams into buildings in which firefighters are performing interior operations, particularly streams into roof or other ventilation openings. 113 Primary and Secondary Searches 700.15 3/15/2010 PURPOSE: To outline operational guidelines for fireground primary and secondary searches so that safe and effective emergency operations are the result. MAJOR OBJECTIVES: 1. Primary Search Defined 2. Secondary Search Defined 3. Primary Search Guidelines 4. Secondary Search Guidelines PRIMARY SEARCH DEFINED A primary search is a quick search for LIVE victims, in the most likely locations, before the fire is brought under control. It is done in the initial stages of the firefighting operation. TIME is the most critical factor, as you are working under dangerous conditions where fire extension poses a risk not only to civilian victims but also to firefighters. SECONDARY SEARCH DEFINED A secondary search is a methodical, thorough search for victims, surviving or not, after the fire is brought under control. It is done in the overhaul stage of the firefighting operation. A most critical factor relating to a secondary search is that we do not leave the scene only to be notified by someone else that a fire victim has been found. PRIMARY SEARCH GUIDELINES Potential victims on the fire floor are the first priority. Potential victims on the floors above the fire floor are the second priority. Potential victims on the floors below the fire floor are the third priority. Consider Ventilation as part of the offensive strategy to aid in locating victims, reducing danger to victims and firefighters and speeding up searches. Always be ready to use Thermal Imaging Camera (TIC) to locate both the victims and the seat of the fire. When searching the fire floor, try to work from an area as close to the fire as you safely can, (best chance of saving viable victims) then back toward where you entered. When searching above the fire floor, try to begin searching as soon as you enter the floor. ALWAYS let command know of your location and search plan (right hand, left hand, etc.,) and progress you have made. Radio a message to command when the primary search is completed for a floor. 114 Don’t waste time being methodical on large rooms with good visibility. Call out to locate victims, then move on quickly. In rooms of zero visibility it is recommended to use the hose line as both protection from fire and as an escape guide line. As an alternative, use a length of rope as a guide line. After a room has been searched you MUST shut the door. SECONDARY SEARCH GUIDELINES Check all hidden areas, piles of collapsed debris, etc. Have different members do the primary and secondary searches, when possible. This is the time to be exceedingly thorough. Radio a message to command when the secondary search is completed for a floor. Search the area around the building for victims. 115 Apparatus Placement 700.20 3/15/2010 PURPOSE: To outline general tactical guidelines for apparatus placement at emergency incidents so that safe and effective emergency operations are the result MAJOR OBJECTIVES: 1. First arriving units 2. Later arriving units FIRST ARRIVING UNITS Address the possible need for large diameter water supply and position accordingly Avoid the temptation to position as close as possible to the fire Be aware of the capabilities of your attack and other hose lines Place at maximum advantage location to get the various first due operations completed Remember that engines and trucks are very expensive exposures and plan accordingly Try not to block access to incident with apparatus as there is potential to add more units to fireground Be conscious of positions that allow apparatus to be quickly moved if necessary Don’t ”catch” hydrants that are so close to the fire building that fire extension or structural collapse may render them unsafe or unusable Try to lay hose lines so that access to the fireground is preserved LATER ARRIVING UNITS Avoid positioning apparatus where they are exposed to structural collapse Spot trucks adjacent to fire building corners, avoiding wall collapse Report to staging and await assignment If unassigned, do not congest the fireground Be prepared for relay or other water supply assignments 116 Ventilation Strategy 700.25 3/15/2010 PURPOSE: To outline general tactical guidelines for ventilation at fire emergency incidents so that safe and effective emergency operations are the result. MAJOR OBJECTIVES: 1. Theory 2. Timing 3. Vertical Ventilation 4. Horizontal Ventilation 5. Positive Pressure Ventilation THEORY Effective fire and smoke ventilation will help to create a much safer atmosphere within the fire building. This is a critical fireground function which must not be overlooked. It can be performed with well trained engine companies, By removing heavy smoke and heat, firefighters can protect themselves and occupants of the building. Ventilation also aids in search and rescue, locating the seat of the fire, and protecting paths of ingress and egress. TIMING Communication between interior crews and those ventilating is critical. If the fire has not already been located the interior crews have the best idea of where to ventilate and must accurately communicate this information. Ventilation should occur just before attack lines advance. Command must coordinate this activity so that the fire is not given extra “free burn” time. VERTICAL VENTILATION This is ideally done right above the fire, IF the fire can be accurately located and IF it can be done without unnecessary risk to firefighters. Vent holes cut in the wrong places will spread the fire rather than contain it. One large vent hole in a roof is more effective than several small ones. At times a building may have “self ventilated” due to burn time. This hole will generally be right above the fire and may be quite adequate. Fire streams should not go into vent holes. 117 HORIZONTAL VENTILATION Although quick and easy to do, unpowered horizontal ventilation is generally not as effective as vertical or powered ventilation. Its use is sometimes more appropriate after the fire has been knocked down, as an overhaul measure. Windows can be broken out and/or doors opened by interior crews or in conjunction with exterior crews, but again there must be good communication so that fire spread is retarded rather than advanced. Natural wind conditions should be used to accompany horizontal ventilation. POSITIVE PRESSURE VENTILATION Can be an extremely effective method of gaining rapid entry and attack, but like any measure with high rewards, there are accompanying higher risks. An attack line must be in place to advance from the same door where the ventilation air is to be injected. The fire must have at least been roughly located and a ventilation opening made in an exterior wall/roof of the fire room prior to injecting air into the building. All other vent openings should be controlled so that the full force of the injected air works to channel the smoke and heat out only the vent opening. The hose line must quickly follow the injected air as the atmosphere clears, so that the oxygen enriched fire can be quickly knocked down. Communication is critical as this operation depends upon Command controlling the vent and interior openings as well as the high volume fan which is pressurizing the building. As with other ventilation tactics, a misplaced vent opening will spread, rather than contain the fire. For more information on Positive Pressure Attack refer to SOP #700.70. 118 Hi Rise Operations 700.30 3/15/2010 PURPOSE: To outline operational guidelines for emergency incidents at High Rise structures other than Hotel and Motels so that safe and effective emergency operations are the result. MAJOR OBJECTIVES: 1. First in Engine 2. Second in Engine 3. Additional Companies 4. Command Strategic Priorities FIRST IN ENGINE Review preplan (if available) enroute Give standard initial report, assess need for additional resources Handle immediate life safety concerns Enter building with SCBA and appropriate Hi Rise gear, go direct to FIRE CONTROL ROOM /lobby area Determine fire floor if possible Establish (Pass) Command Obtain needed keys, maps, phone sets, etc. Relay attack plan to next in unit or Command, if established Consider elevator control for firefighting operations Go to fire floor from the stairs below and assess life safety and fire tactical concerns Consider ventilation needs, PPV and/or HVAC system If building has DRY standpipes then water supply becomes urgent priority SECOND DUE ENGINE Establish Lobby Control Set up ICP (Incident Command Post) preferably in Fire Command Room Control Elevators and Stairwells Make sure that stairwells designated by Fire Attack Team for evacuation and entry are used correctly. ADDITIONAL COMPANIES Report to assigned staging area For buildings with WET systems, third company in to secure water supply to support fire protection systems and fire attack NOTE! If building has DRY standpipes then water supply becomes urgent priority to be handled by first in company May be assigned to check floor above the fire floor Report conditions to Command Identify evacuation needs, smoke conditions, egress paths if needed, fire extension possibilities 119 COMMAND STRATEGIC PRIORITIES Incident action PLAN, preliminary strategy Insure that an adequate WATER SUPPLY is secured EXPERT ASSISTANCE (Building Mechanical Engineer, Preplans, etc.) VENTILATION (HVAC, built in systems, or PPV) Consider STAGING, SAFETY OFFICER, LOGISTICS (additional resources), COMMUNICATIONS PLAN SEARCH and RESCUE, EVACUATION or PROTECT in PLACE Activate EOC ? 120 Wildland Firefighting 700.35 3/15/2010 Purpose: To define decision making guidelines for the suppression of large vegetation fires which involve trees, brush, and other growing materials and may threaten or involve structures. Major Objectives: 1. Strategic Priorities 2. Tactical Considerations 3. Urban Interface 4. Mutual Aid Companies and Coordination 5. Wildland Fire Safety Strategic Priorities The first arriving company should assume Command and must make the initial strategic decisions. Those initial Command decisions are guided by the basic objectives of all fire operations: rescue, exposure, containment, extinguishment and overhaul (RECEO). Command must formulate a plan or strategy which addresses, in order of importance, the RECEO conditions observed upon arrival. Basically the options are: rescue/evacuate, offensive wildland fire suppression or defensive wildland fire operations. Command is tasked with choosing the option which best addresses the conditions of the incident and produces the desired outcome. Each option is formulated to address a specific situation. Rescue/evacuation mode is implemented when the destruction of life is imminent. Only quick action to evacuate or protect in place will save lives threatened by the wildland fire. Offensive fire suppression mode is the aggressive attack towards the head of the wildland fire and is implemented when the conditions and available resources would reasonably indicate a successful outcome. Offensive mode may also be used to overcome rescue/exposures problems by the swift extinguishment of that part of the fire which is threatening lives. Offensive operations may be direct or indirect but should always begin with a secure anchor point (natural or man made fire barrier, or already "black" area). Crews should be assigned to attack the flanks, working towards the head. Command and all assigned crews are cautioned to: observe weather to anticipate sudden changes, establish safety zones, and escape routes. Defensive fire operations mode is implemented when the size, topography or weather produce a fire which lessens the chances for success of a more aggressive strategy; i.e. heavy fuel loads, ladder fuels over 6 feet, flame length over 4-5 feet, or a crown fire. Defensive mode requires the safe deployment of resources in the predicted path of the fire to achieve rescue/exposure protection, indirect fire attack and eventual fire extinguishment. Given the speed and size of major wildfires and the heavy manpower demands, defensive operations which include backfires will usually be useful with the arrival of an experienced wildland fire team, USFS or BLM member. Burnouts connecting control lines to natural fuel breaks may be used if tactically possible. 121 Tactical Considerations Command should utilize tactics which correspond with the primary objectives of the chosen strategy. Tactics are assigned to achieve the defined objectives or priorities by coordinating engine, brush, ground and tender crews. Water Supply Never be hesitant to request additional water supply tenders for structural protection engine support. Even if a fixed water supply system is available, the option of having mobile water supply increases your firefighting capabilities. Evacuation Identify the threatened area and begin with those most exposed. Evacuation should be done with positive communication; i.e. door to door. Assign enough resources to accomplish total evacuation; evacuation notification may be delegated to law enforcement personnel or pursued jointly. Command should include a traffic plan with all evacuation assignments and this information should be included in the evacuation notification to occupants. Exposure protection Identify the most significant exposures; this may be the highest life hazard, largest property loss or positioned closest to the fire. Structure triage the area to determine needed equipment. Exposure protection can be accomplished with deployment of hose lines at a structure or application of water directly on the wildland fire. First choices of apparatus for exposure assignment are: CAFS tender, engines to protect exposures when hose lines on structures are required and brush trucks to protect exposures when suppression of ground cover is required. Control line construction Brush trucks using class A foam to construct control lines is the quickest line building method available to FD#1. Upon arrival of a experienced wildland fire team member more aggressive line construction can take place (i.e. widening the line with fire). Once more experienced manpower arrives on scene (mutual aid wildland fire teams) down to mineral soil line construction can begin if needed. The line should be applied ahead of the predicted path of the fire, utilizing natural fire breaks (roads, driveways, irrigated fields, etc.) to anchor and/or supplement the construction of a continuous fuel break/fire barrier. Firing Operations Burnout Eliminates fuel between the Control line and the fire by burning after control lines are established. This tactic is used to strengthen, straighten, and clean-up control lines to ensure their ability to stop the fire and reduce mop-up efforts. The operation should be organized and supervised by a NWCG certified wildfire Engine Boss. Fire behavior must be closely monitored. Note: At anytime the IC or the Engine Boss can terminate the operation. 122 The following general principals MUST be planned and accounted for: Safety Briefing: All personnel on-scene must be made aware of the intended operation and the desired outcome. LCES: Lookout/s should be designated and positioned, Communications confirmed, Escape Routes established and made known, Safety Zones identified and verified. Burning Team: Should be familiar with firing devices (fussee & drip torch) and firing patterns and have the proper qualifications to begin burn operations. Holding Forces: Must be of sufficient number, in position, and ready (pumps running, water tanks full). Post Burning Critique: Should be conducted to ensure all personnel understood the operation and to identify areas for improvement. Backfire The tactic of backfiring requires a high level of expertise. Major wildland fire incidents which require backfires should only be attempted by a experienced wildland fire team member and / or regional wildland suppression forces; i.e. BLM, USFS, etc. A tactic associated with indirect attack, intentionally setting fire to fuels inside the control line to slow, knock down, or contain a rapidly spreading fire. Backfiring provides a wide defense perimeter and may be further employed to change the force of the convection column. Backfiring makes possible a strategy of locating control lines at places where the fire can be fought on the firefighter's terms. Except for rare circumstance meeting specified criteria, backfiring is executed on a command decision made through line channels of authority. Urban Interface Fires These fires require the suppression of structure fires during wildland fire operations. The usual procedures for structural firefighting apply as well as the items listed below: Assign a "Lookout" responsible for monitoring the wildland fire, the brands and embers creating other spot fires and evacuation route designated for the structural suppression crew. Modify the attack position to accommodate rapid retreat (back engine down driveways into position). Use large stream devices to control embers produced by burning structures. Don't position apparatus at the top of ridges, draws or natural chimneys. Avoid locations under power lines; even those remote from the structure. 200’ structure protection lines are recommended. Deploy short handline for engine protection. May be charged and coiled; ready to use. Mutual Aid Companies and Coordination Fire District #1 will mutual aid with the BLM and Sweetwater County Fire Department if and when it is required on Wildland fires per the annual operating plan. 123 Wildland Fire Safety In addition to the normal personal safety requirements specified by FD#1 in other SOPs, personnel responding to wildland fires are required to carefully consider hazards inherent with the fuel, topography, weather, and tactics normally deployed during wildland suppression operations. Weather Professional weather forecasts (RAWS data, weather service, Rawlins Fire dispatch) need to be supplemented by all personnel recognizing telltale signs of potential "fire weather problems." A spot weather forecast should be requested. This will require a qualified member getting weather data by using a “belt weather kit”or Kestrel Meter. Becoming familiar with various aspects of fire weather will assist firefighters and officers to make safe fireground decisions. Fire weather factors to note during wildland suppression operations are: Winds caused by fast moving cold fronts may shift considerably Wind carrying embers causing spot fires indicate advance warning of changing fire behavior and require all personnel to reevaluate assignments. Virga (rain evaporating before hitting the ground) is a sign of potential lightning. Fuel The arrangement, continuity and loading of fuels dictates these precautions: Use caution when operating in surface fuels which are over 4-5 foot in height. Light surface fuels are most hazardous because of potentially rapid fire spread. Grass fires have been responsible for more firefighter fatalities than heavy fuels. At our elevation the moisture content of fuels will generally diminish during the season and contribute to burning rates. Topography The precautions generated by the configuration of the terrain are: Fires move faster when burning uphill than downhill. The grade of the slope influences speed of fire travel. South facing slopes are usually drier and burn faster. Tactics All attacks start from an anchor point. All crews assigned to a fire line must have established a safety zone and escape route and crew leaders must communicate the location/route to all members. Use of lookouts is required for all crews; wildland crews, structural crews and hand crews. 124 Small Brush Fires 700.40 3/15/2010 Purpose: To establish safe standard procedures for suppression of small brush fires (light fuels: low grass, weeds, and bushes). Major Objectives: 1. RAWS (remote area weather station) 2. Strategic/Tactical Priorities 3. Standard Assignments 4. Overhaul 5. Brush Fire Safety 6. Water Supply 7. Benchmarks for additional resource requests Small brush fires are those fires which involve relatively minor amounts of fuels and no significant barriers to suppression efforts; e.g. light or no wind, even terrain, high fuel moisture content. These fires can be controlled by direct attack with minimum effort following the guidelines specified in this SOP. Whenever significant suppression barriers occur (heavy fuel loading, high wind, steep terrain, and dry weather) responding personnel must upgrade procedures to match the anticipated wildland fire. Strategic/Tactical Priorities The basic brush fire strategy will be to aggressively stop the forward progress of the fire whenever possible. Generally, brush fires can be mobile and fast moving. Our initial priorities should begin with a size up of rescue, exposures, fuel type and amount, weather and terrain. Based on that size up, Command must choose an Offensive or Defensive strategy. Fire suppression and exposure protection should both be addressed when deciding where to attack the fire. Often it is possible to protect exposures while attacking the flank towards the head of the fire. Sometimes it will be necessary to attack the flank adjacent to an exposure while allowing the head to pass on. In all cases, protecting exposures is paramount and should be addressed with initial assignments. Since these fires can be mobile and usually fast moving, brush trucks must remain mobile. Deploying more than 30 feet of the brush truck booster hose line will usually inhibit the ability to reach the head of the fire and delay the reaction to wind changes. Working from an anchor point, crews should suppress the fastest moving portion of the fire (hot flank) and should not delay to perform overhaul or address hot spots "safely" burning inside the perimeter Once the perimeter is secure command should notify Dispatch that the fire is “contained”. By calling the fire contained, this notifies everyone that the fires forward progress is stopped. Control of hotspots and overhaul with booster lines and hand tools can begin. 125 Standard Assignments First arriving unit shall assume or pass Command, report fire conditions, resources needed, size up the fire and retrieve a GPS location of the fire scene. Command will communicate the strategic decisions and tactical assignments as required to complete fire suppression. First arriving brush vehicle should deploy in the field and attack the flank of the fire with booster reels, moving toward the head. The brush truck should drive the fire line, stay in the burned area and apply water to the fire. Crew members, other than the driver and booster reel operator may be assigned to follow the brush truck on foot. They should be equipped with a hand tool, suppressing the spot fires that sometimes are left as the brush truck passes along the fireline. It may also be necessary to post a fire lookout to observe the direction of probable fire spread. First arriving engine/CAFS tender should position apparatus to protect defensible exposed structures; e.g. backed into position for a possible rapid retreat. Exposure lines may need to be deployed to protect the most significant exposure area. First arriving tender will setup in a safe area adjacent to the fireground and prepare to fill brush truck booster tanks. Overhaul The complete suppression of all hot spots should begin as soon as enough manpower is available. Overhaul must be thorough to eliminate the threat of wind blowing embers over the perimeter and starting spot fires. A systematic approach should be used. First, secure the fireline 20’ towards the interior, then 50’, then 100’ towards the interior. Second, grid the area to insure all hotspots are eliminated. Neighborhood citizens will always be acutely aware of fire conditions after we leave the scene and they will report any smoke showing as a new fire or rekindle. Every effort must be made to eliminate a possible rekindle; e.g. don't leave until all hot spots are extinguished (unless District resources are depleted and your unit is needed to respond). Effective extinguishment of deep seated hotspots is best achieved with Class A foam. The foam/wet water will penetrate the fuel if mixed at 1% or less and is applied without expansion. Using the booster line or foam pro pack will keep expansion to a minimum. 126 Next Day Fire Check The day after a brush fire, that District’s station members may return to the scene around mid- morning and they can recheck that all hotspots have been extinguished. Brush Fire Safety The biggest danger is usually at the head or along the flank of a running fire. Be aware of this hazardous area and prepare to quickly move to a safer position; usually the burned area, roadway or bare ground. A lookout/fire observer should be considered when the whole fire is not visible. Always have a planned escape route/zone. Check for ground fuels beneath your apparatus. Grasses, brush and other ground cover could bring the fire to your position. Catalytic converters can ignite dry vegetation. Be careful while driving on the fireground, especially if there is smoke or other obstacles to visibility. Keep headlights and overheads on while operating in smoke obstructed areas. Personnel assigned to a fire line who utilize hand tools must keep their work area (10') clear of other personnel and maintain stable footing. When crossing a slope, carry hand tools in the downhill hand. Wearing of PPE at wildland fires should be modified as specified in SOP 100.20. Extended operations will require these adjustments as directed by Command or the officer in charge of individual crews. Water Supply Areas without hydrants will include a tender on first alarm. Command should special request a tender response when the fire is moving into an area without hydrants. Command should assign the responding tender(s) to a brush truck fill site; which may also be mobile and react to the fire conditions. The ideal location for brush truck fill sites is on the road and Command should avoid assigning fill sites in fields and rough terrain. Benchmarks for Second Alarm Requests More resources should be requested whenever: Exposed structures are imminently threatened or involved. Number of exposed structures exceeds resources already assigned to the incident. Fire is moving towards or reaches heavy surface fuels or crowns. Fire has multiple heads; involving more than 5 acres. 127 Chain Saw Operations 700.45 3/15/2010 Purpose: To establish the guidelines for the safe use of chain saws. Following the prescribed safety rules will avoid the danger caused by careless or improper use. Major Objectives: 1. General safety rules 2. Specific rules for Bullet Chain Saws 3. Kickback safety precautions 4. Maintenance procedures General Safety Rules A. Do not operate a chain saw when you are fatigued. B. Use minimum personnel protective equipment including gloves, ear plugs, chaps and helmet for training. Emergency operational use may require full protective equipment (per specific SOP). C. Chain saw operator is responsible for the safety of others when starting or cutting with the chain saw. Keep unnecessary personnel out of work area. D. Do not start cutting until you have a clear work area, secure footing, and a planned retreat path from work area. E. Before you start the engine, make sure that the saw chain is not contacting anything. F. Keep all parts of your body away from the saw chain when the engine is running. G. Carry the chain saw with the engine stopped, the guide bar and saw chain to the rear, and the muffler away from your body. H. Do not operate a chain saw that is damaged, improperly adjusted, or not completely and securely assembled. Be sure that the saw chain stops moving when the throttle control trigger is released. I. Shut off the engine before setting the chain saw down. J. Use extreme caution when cutting small size brush and saplings or semi-loose roof material because slender material may catch the saw chain and be whipped toward you or pull you off balance. K. Avoid cutting roof members that are under tension (truss members); be alert for movement so that you will not lose your balance. L. Keep the handles dry, clean, and free of oil or fuel mixture. M. Operate the chain saw only in well-ventilated areas. N. Do not operate a chain saw above shoulder height. O. When transporting your chain saw, use the appropriate guide bar scabbard. P. Use caution when handling fuel. Move the chain saw at least 10 feet from the fueling point before starting the engine. Q. Always operate the chain saw at full throttle when cutting. R. When utilizing a swamper to remove downfall or other debris that person shall be wearing full PPE including chaps. 128 Specific Rules for Bullet Chain Saws The bullet saws have a chain guard/depth gauge that can completely cover the chain. This makes the operation of carrying up a running bullet saw a much safer operation and eliminates the hazards and failures involved with starting it on a pitched roof. When doing structural ventilating operations which require the use of a bullet saw, the saw should be started on the ground, adjusted to smooth running, and carried up the ladder while idling. This applies to the bullet saw only no other saws! The chain guard must be fully extended during this operation. Kickback Safety Precautions WARNING!: KICKBACK may occur when the nose or tip of the guide bar touches an object, or when the wood closes in and pinches the saw chain in the cut. *TIP CONTACT in some cases may cause a lightning fast reverse reaction, kicking the guide bar up and backwards towards the operator. *PINCHING THE SAW CHAIN ALONG THE TOP OF THE GUIDE BAR MAY push the guide bar RAPIDLY back towards the operator. *Either of these reactions may cause you to lose control of the saw WHICH COULD RESULT IN SERIOUS PERSONAL INJURY. DO NOT RELY EXCLUSIVELY UPON THE SAFETY DEVICES BUILT INTO THE SAW. A. With a basic understanding of kickback, you can reduce or eliminate the element of surprise. Sudden surprise contributes to accidents. B. Keep a good firm grip on the saw with both hands, the right hand on the rear handle, and the left hand on the front handle, when the engine is running. Use a firm grip with thumbs and fingers encircling the chain saw handles. A firm grip will help you reduce kickback and maintain control of the saw. Don't let go. C. Make sure that the area in which you are cutting is free from obstructions (as possible). Do not let the nose of the guide bar prematurely contact the roof, or any other obstruction which could be hit while you are operating the saw. D. Do not overreach or cut above shoulder height. E. Follow manufacturer's sharpening and maintenance instructions for the saw chain. Maintenance and Check Points After each use: 1. Fuel 2. Bar oil 3. Clean air filter, overall cleanliness of chainsaw 4. Rotate the bar (check for) a) Straightness b) Wear (cracks, chipping and deformation of bar rails) c) Cracks in rivets and side links for the chain d) Excessive wear in side links and cutters e) Stiffness in the chain 129 f) Sharpness of chain g) Do not fit new chain to a worn or damaged bar h) check and correct if needed the location of bucking spikes 5. Chain tension and condition 6. Bar tip lubrication 7. Handles clean and free from oil 8. Entire saw for loose fasteners and damaged components 9. Run up (DO NOT have chain brake on when starting) Minimum 5-10 minutes 10. Chain brake operations 130 Interface Zone Firefighting 700.50 3/15/2010 Purpose: To define operational guidelines for the suppression of wildland interface fires that involve trees, brush, and other growing materials and may threaten or involve structures. Major Objectives: Protecting the Public Firefighter Safety Considerations First Unit on Scene Priorities Strategy and Tactics Staging Considerations The Public Protection of the public is the major concern. Account for them in the following ways: Evacuate them to a safe area (safety zone) if there is time. Protect in place. Do so only if you can control the fire quickly. Firefighter Safety Considerations Ensure that LCES (lookouts, communications, escape routes, safety zones) has been provided. Wear wildfire PPE unless performing interior fire attack. Provide for a rapid retreat of apparatus i.e. back apparatus in. Keep at least ¼ tank of water for reserve. Do not park under power lines, next to propane tanks, in saddles, or chimneys. First Unit on Scene Priorities The first arriving unit should assume Command and must make the initial strategic decisions. Size up must take into account the wildland fire, threatened structures, and the incident potential. A good on-scene report (with updates as needed) should include the normal wildfire evaluation plus the following information: staging area/s, structure/s construction, initial strategy/tactics, ICS, fireground communications channel, second in duties, additional resources needed, potential of the incident. Sometimes it may be best to "plan the incident" rather than attack the first fire you see. Strategy and Tactics Offensive fire suppression mode is an aggressive attack stopping the forward progress of the fire thus containing it before doing damage to structures. Offensive operations may be direct or indirect but should always begin with a secure anchor point (natural or man made fire barrier or already "black" area). Crews should be assigned to attack the flanks, working towards the head. Depending on the apparatus assigned, mobile attack, simple or progressive hose lays, and hand tool work may be needed to accomplish assigned tasks. Command and all assigned crews are cautioned to observe weather to anticipate sudden changes, establish safety zones, and escape routes. Mobile Area Patrol 131 is extremely important and must be initiated early in the incident. The goal is to patrol for spot fires and recheck previously protected structures. Defensive fire operations mode is implemented when a more aggressive strategy has failed to contain the fire or the fire behavior will not allow an offensive attack. Defensive mode requires the safe deployment of resources in the predicted path of the fire to provide structure protection. Structure and defensible space preparation should be implemented if time permits. When multiple structures are present structure triage must be performed to determine resource needs, and the appropriate tactics to provide for a favorable outcome. CAFS tender, structure engine, and brush trucks are all equipped to perform assigned structure protection tasks. See Tactical Considerations below. Combination fire operations would consist of attacking the wildfire while providing for structure protection. This mode literally happens in the area around the structure being protected. If any defensible space is present the fire will lose intensity and a direct fire attack can be performed. The structure may still need to be protected from flying firebrands. Structure Triage The five factors to consider during structure triage: 1. Fire behavior (current & predicted) – adjacent topography, current and forecasted weather conditions, fuel conditions (drought?) 2. The structure – roofing & siding material, decks, windows, location of out buildings. 3. Defensible space – manicured lawn, ornamental vegetation, yard accumulation. 4. Resources – on site (homeowner equipment), firefighting (kind, type, who, where, WHEN). 5. Safety – Can you work with the above four issues safely? Safety is the number one priority. Indicators of a hopeless situation: The roof is more than ¼ involved and it’s difficult to get to. There are more spot fires than you can control. The fire is burning in the interior, windows are broken and it’s windy. Staging Considerations Establish a staging area when you suspect the fire may be accessed from another location or street. Broadcast the exact staging area location over the radio. Assign a Staging Area Manager to track resources if needed. 132 Post-Fire Operations 700.55 3/15/2010 PURPOSE: To provide guidelines for ensuring structures are safe & secure following structure fires and that post-fire activities are coordinated. MAJOR OBJECTIVES: 1. Define and reinforce command authority 2. Provide for coordination of post-fire activities 3. Provide for securing of structures and public safety COMMAND AUTHORITY The incident commander (IC) is responsible for coordinating and ensuring all post-fire operations; including investigation activities, board-up and salvage operations, and securing structures to ensure the safety and security of the general public and home/business owners. POST-FIRE ACTIVITIES Salvage – salvage operations will be comprehensive to ensure debris is removed from structures, building contents and valuables are secured and protected, and all buildings are turned over to owners in the most responsible and respectful manner. Care should be taken to ensure any hazards to occupants are mitigated – assuming the structure is immediately habitable following a fire. Overhaul – overhaul operations will be comprehensive so as to provide due diligence in ensuring no rekindle or further damage occurs to structures following suppression and salvage operations. Overhaul activities will be coordinated with fire investigators to provide for effective fire cause determination. However, at no time will fire investigation activities subrogate overhaul operations necessary to eliminate the potential for rekindles. Fire crews will not leave the scene of any fire incident until adequate overhaul has been completed. Securing of a restoration contractor is the responsibility of the property owner and their insurance carrier. 133 FIRE WATCH If necessary, a fire watch will be provided for adequate time necessary to eliminate the potential for an undetected rekindle. Resources available to the IC to facilitate this objective include: On-duty fire crews Law enforcement officers Sweetwater County Search & Rescue Members by permission of the Sheriff *SAFETY NOTE – The IC must provide for the safety and security of individuals assigned to fire watch activities, including provision for emergency communications. There have been documented instances of looters who identify exposed structures from news reports of fires. BOARD-UP OPERATIONS FD#1 is not in the business of keeping track of contractors and making recommendations for their employment for post fire reconstruction. Accordingly, the IC shall not recommend any contractors for this purpose. Instead, the IC shall ensure the property owner is advised that their own insurance company representative should contact a restoration or reconstruction company and should get them out to the scene in a timely manner. 134 Post Incident Critiques 700.60 3/15/2010 PURPOSE: To insure that significant emergency operations at incidents are analyzed critically so as to insure that quality performance is maintained and recognized, and that factors that have hindered operational effectiveness are also identified and rectified for the future. It is also valuable to document operational performance on these incidents in a retrievable storage format for future reference. MAJOR OBJECTIVES: When to do critiques How to do critiques WHEN TO DO CRITIQUES A critique SHALL be done after any major incident such as a significant Fire, HazMat, EMS or Technical Rescue incident, as judged by the Incident Commander, or when any fire service casualty is incurred. In addition to the above incident types, any other incident shall be critiqued when, in the eyes of the Chief or Officers involved in the incident, there was an unusual nature of the incident involving complexity, training, equipment safety concerns or near miss situations that made the incident worthy to be reviewed. It is the duty of the Incident Commander to schedule, organize, oversee and document the post incident critique. HOW TO DO CRITIQUES Ideally, the Incident Commander will convene the major participants in a meeting as soon as possible following the incident. The goal is to get input on tactical and strategic actions taken regarding their relationship to the action plan and their overall effectiveness. Criticism should be open and honest, yet constructive. 135 Positive Pressure Attack 700.70 3/15/2010 Purpose and Scope: This document is intended to support Sweetwater County Fire District #1 Firefighters in implementing procedures for positive pressure attack (PPA) as a tactical option for initial fire attack in structures. Background Information Positive Pressure Attack can create a direct, safe path for fire travel to the outside and can be controlled to a large extent by the location and size of the exhaust, manipulating interior or exterior openings, or simply turning off the blower. The pressure created inside a structure by the fire and the steam generated by water application is actually much higher than a positive pressure blower can create. PPA benefits to fire operations include: Heat and smoke are rapidly cleared from the fire structure early in the operation The chances for victim survival are increased Improved visibility aids firefighters in search and rescue Clean, cool air replaces the toxic interior atmosphere, so victims and firefighters face less exposure to heat and dangerous products of combustion Decreased damage to property from heat and products of combustion Crews that would normally be assigned to roof ventilation operations are available for search and rescue and fire control Attack lines can be rapidly advanced to the seat of the fire Fire spread is decreased due to cooling and rapid confinement Ventilation is controlled by using simple measures such as opening or closing doors or turning off the blower Basic PPA Procedures: In general, this section applies to single family dwellings, small commercial buildings and other, similarly – sized structures. Larger or more complex structures roughly follow these same procedures but may not follow them exactly. PPA can be broken down into four steps, with 1 and 2 happening at generally the same time. 1. Identify the ventilation opening and position the blower Crew member assigned. A crew member must be assigned to take the blower from the engine to the fire building as they initially leave the apparatus. Blower to entrance. The blower should be positioned at the entrance that crews will be using to enter for fire attack, called the ventilation point or ventilation opening. Distance from door. For maximum effectiveness, a blower should be positioned 4-6 feet away from the ventilation opening, but will still be effective if closer or farther away. When to direct airstream inside. The blower should be started as soon as possible, the airstream should not be directed into the ventilation opening until the attack crew is ready 136 to enter and the firefighter assigned to create the exhaust opening and survey the building gives the ok (see step 3 below) 2. Survey the building exterior and create or improve an exhaust opening Crew member assigned. A crew member must be assigned to immediately survey the exterior of the fire building and make or improve an exhaust opening. Victims at window. PPA is not an option as long as victims are awaiting rescue in windows. Make exhaust opening. An exhaust should be made or improved at a location near the fire or, in the judgment of the firefighter, a location thought to be near the fire. This is called the exhaust point or exhaust opening. This opening should be substantial enough to exhaust the products of combustion. Generally this will be through opening 2-3 windows. Factors for determining exhaust opening location: It is best to locate the exhaust opening as close to the fire as possible. When there is already an obvious exhaust opening where fire and smoke are showing, use it and increase the size if fire and smoke are exciting the building under pressure. When there is no obvious exhaust opening in the involved portion of the building a firefighter should make one according to best judgment and experience. When creating this exhaust, it is not necessary to break out an entire window if results are not positive. A thermal imaging camera can help determine the best location for the exhaust opening in circumstances such as this. If there is no substantial exhaust from the first attempt, move to a window that is in the same area but a different room and attempt to create another exhaust opening. If there is still not substantial exhaust and no other reasonable options, open lower floor exhaust openings to determine if the fire is below. A fire in a basement may require opening several windows to create enough exhaust. If there are no results with the lower floor exhaust, consider the possibility of fire above that floor level and make exhaust openings in the most appropriate area. If an exhaust opening is made in an area that is not actively involved in fire, fire will not readily burn into the uninvolved area due to the rapid decrease in temperature. For a fire in an attic, crews open the space from below and apply indirect fire attack to the attic space as crews move into the building. Exhaust opening size. The size of the exhaust opening is critical to the successful operation of PPA, and should match the energy being created by the fire and the fire loading in the structure. A small room-and-contents fire may require only two windows to be utilized as exhaust openings. Large commercial buildings with extensive involvement will require extensive exhaust openings. Stand Clear. When making an exhaust opening, always stand to the side. 137 Exposures at exhaust opening. Fire and products of combustion will forcible vent from the exhaust opening when pressurization starts. Always keep firefighters and the public away from exhaust openings. The crew member making an exhaust opening must consider the proximity of nearby buildings and other exposures when deciding where to create an exhaust opening, and take measures to protect them when necessary. Windows better than doors. Windows are better exhaust openings than doors as they tend to keep heat and products of combustion higher, providing more survivable conditions for victims who may be at floor level. Exhausting through a door will tend to extend heat and products of combustion to floor level. General considerations. In general, exhaust openings should be ample sized and be created ahead of or substantially to the side of the likely path of advancing fire crews with more exhaust openings being created on the main fire floor than other involved floors. 3. Begin pressurization and fire attack Direct airstream inside. After the building exterior has been checked, the exhaust opening ensured and the attack crew is in position with a charged hose line, the airstream from the blower can be directed inside the ventilation opening. Enter after pressurization has started. Crews must not enter until the blower has pressurized the structure for a short time, usually about 30 seconds, or until conditions improve and the interior environment starts to clear. The blower must always be “at the backs” of the initial attack crew. Ventilation opening as indicator. The upper area of the ventilation opening can be utilized as an indicator of the effectiveness of pressurization and interior fire activity. Heavy smoke or fire exhausting from the top of the opening above the pressure cone could be an indication that the exhaust openings are inadequate and may result in dangerous fire behavior if allowed to continue. Remain Aware. Command and everyone involved in fire operation must remain aware of fire behavior and smoke movement. Overhaul aggressively! Aggressive overhaul must begin as soon as possible! As early as possible in a fire, open up spaces in walls, ceilings and other areas that have been impinged on by the fire or are otherwise suspect. Open early and open often! Fire above or below. Be particularly alert to the possibility of fire in the ceiling above or the floor below. When advancing into an area that has the possibility of fire above or below, open up frequent inspection holes. 4. Make sure the fire is out Again, overhaul aggressively! As early as possible in a fire, open up spaces in walls, ceilings and other areas that have been impinged on by the fire. 138 Fire watch. Post a fire watch if necessary. General guidelines for some specific fire situations: These guidelines will not apply to all situations or conditions, and good judgment must always play a part in any decision. Search and rescue and firefighter safety are always top priorities. Blower Configurations Where additional blowers are required, placing two or more in “series” for narrower ventilation points, “parallel” for wider ventilation points. If space allows, using blowers in a V-pattern increases the exhaust volume by as much as 30 %. Attic Fires Start PPA in the attack entrance to pressurize the area below the fire. An exhaust opening is not necessary if the space below the attic is clear of smoke. Initial attack should be through adequately sized openings made in the ceiling below the attic that are large enough to observe the attic environment. Apply water through the holes as necessary. Move from one room to another on the floor below making inspection/fire attack holes. Chimney fires Pressurize the interior of the structure and restrict exhaust openings to ensure that fire, products of combustion and burning material will be confined to the fireplace. Extinguish fire with small amount of dry chemical or water. Check for extension. Fire in attached garage Pressurize attack entrance of dwelling. Advance a hose line into the garage through the dwelling using the interior doorway between the dwelling and garage. Vehicle/trash fire Set up blower upwind of fire. Crews attack fire with blower at their backs. Multi-story/high-rise Generally are complex and require close coordination with all division and group supervisors. A ventilation group should be established in the command structure. Must coordinate fireground ventilation with any building ventilation systems. Pressurize stairwells at ground level. With proper use of exhaust openings and adequate pressurization, they will conduct air flow to floors where necessary. Multiple blowers may be required to pressurize the building. Additional blowers may be needed on landings at various levels in the stairwell. A blower will be needed at the entry to the fire floor. 139 For exhaust openings, a window or other opening in the fire area is a good choice. A stairwell on the opposite side of the fire area may also be appropriate to exhaust through a door at roof level. Consider exhaust opening locations carefully, as it will become a conduit for the energy and products of the fire. Floors with the most extensive fire involvement will require more exhaust than other floors. Be cautious of the effects wind may have on the fire if windows fail during the fire attack. Exposure protection When a structure or separate area within an involved structure is not involved in fire but at risk. First priority should be for PPA on involved building/area, then to highest risk exposures. Set up blowers the same as for any positive pressure operation but do not create exhaust openings. Monitor interior and exterior conditions. Open up high risk interior walls or ceilings. Hoselines may be required on the exterior, and should be readily available for the interior. Very effective with common attics, such as in strip malls and apartment complexes, or where separating walls may have been breached, such as with electrical or plumbing installation. Monitor CO levels and protect personnel. Large buildings May require multiple blowers, perhaps at more than one location in the structure. For larger buildings the placement of interior blowers is recommended to enhance pressurization. As the environment starts to worsen inside large buildings add additional blowers to the interior supporting the exhaust path that has already been established. May be complex and require close coordination with all division and group supervisors. A ventilation group should be established in the command structure. Mounting a fire attack takes more time and, therefore, there is more time to plan ventilation and complete the exhaust openings. In these situations the exhaust opening may best be assigned to later arriving engines. Monitor CO levels and protect personnel. Basement fires Blower placement may call for creativity. Making an exhaust opening close to the fire may not be possible, but any opening is better than none. Basement windows are often small, so several may need to be opened up for an adequate exhaust. 140 If the ventilation opening must also be the exhaust opening, PPA will likely not be a good option. Safety Precautions: Department members must be properly trained in PPA with strong command and control of the fire being of prime importance. All first arriving apparatus must be equipped with blowers. Command should only order PPA before firefighters enter the structure. Pressurization should never be initiated after fire personnel are inside a structure. The area near an exhaust opening can be hazardous. Do not begin PPA when a victim is awaiting rescue at a potential exhaust opening. Do not use the exhaust opening as an entrance. Keep fire crews and the public away from the exhaust opening. If necessary, take steps to protect exposures in the proximity of the exhaust opening. Make sure the fire is out. Open up all areas that could harbor hidden fire. Thoroughly reexamine the area after the blower has been off for 10 to 15 minutes. Never use a blower where backdraft conditions may be present, or in the presence of combustible dust or flammable vapors. Do not attempt PPA without securing an exhaust opening. If fire or heavy smoke are exhausting above the blower at the ventilation point, do not enter until enough forward exhaust can be obtained. The use of PPA should be discontinued if the firefighters encounter a strong head wind and are unable to overcome the effects of the wind on the fire scene. If Vent , Enter, Search techniques are being utilized PPA shall not be utilized until the VES strategy is complete and all firefighters have been removed from the building. 141 Interior Search 700.80 3/15/2010 Purpose: To provide a guideline for a thorough and planned search for victims. Safety Considerations: 1. Use the buddy system (keeping in mind Voice, Visual, Touch) 2. Have a back-up team available, provide 2 in 2 out. 3. Notify command of your entry point and coordinate with other teams. 4. Utilize full protective clothing including PASS device (check your buddy) 5. Plan for secondary means of egress. 6. When appropriate, ventilate prior to or during search. 7. Place a light or recognizable object at the door when you enter so that you know when you have returned to the correct door. 8. Ladders to upper floors for emergency egress and victim rescue. 9. Hose lines for search team protection. Equipment: Specific search equipment to consider: A. Search rope or rope & rings bag available (200 feet RIT Line with rings every 20 feet and directional knots indicating distance to exit). B. Proper search tools such as forcible entry tools or extended reach tools. C. Thermal Imaging Camera (TIC). Procedure: A. Every structure fire of an offensive nature requires a primary and secondary search. B. Every structure fire of a defensive nature requires at least a secondary search. C. Prioritize the search area: 1. Most severely threatened 2. The largest number group 3. The remainder of the fire area 4. The exposed area D. Search Size-Up should consider a combination of the following: 1. Time of day 142 2. Type of occupancy 3. Search profile Low – no occupants suspected to be present. Vacant or known to be away. Moderate – unsure if occupants are home or inside High – occupants and you have good indications someone is inside Urgent – occupants and you see the victim or have someone indicate a victim was just seen E. Search Strategies – have a plan based of your search size-up (communicate it to all team members). 1. Undirected Search – search the entire survivable area utilizing any combination of the 5 search tactics. Unknown if there are victims or location(s) unknown. Consider where they may likely be and search this area first. 2. Directed Search – occupant information, witnesses, or observing victims at given locations or last known location would be indication to perform a directed search focusing on this area first. Note: transitioning from undirected to directed search or directed to undirected search should be an on-going rescue size-up based on updated information. Always consider the deployment of both search strategies with multiple crews as the rescue size-up may present. F. Search Tactics – Use a search pattern and techniques or combination thereof to assure complete and timely operation. 1. Traditional right/left search: Search is typically a right or left search following walls or building layout. Consideration should be given to the likely location of victims for determining where to search 1st. Consider searching bedrooms and exit corridors at night and living spaces during the daytime and early evening hours. 2. Oriented leader search – Team leader (typically Using TIC) keeps orientation of the teams’ location. This member will direct search members into small areas and rooms and provide needed orientation of the room and contents using the TIC. The team leader remains in an oriented 143 location, like hallways and corridors to monitor the team. Search progress and ever changing fire conditions. 3. Vent, Enter, Search (VES) – Use this tactic only after receiving specific training. VES is potentially the highest level of search tactic risk/danger a crew may encounter. This search strategy is not recommended in buildings that have positive pressure ventilation or positive attack applied due to fire and smoke products spreading to the opening you are creating. You should consider this search tactic ONLY if your rescue profile during size-up was URGENT. You will be searching above or in front of active advancing fire conditions. This tactic should only be performed as the team considers it safe and reasonable to accomplish. Procedure for VES: 1. You will ventilate or open up a small area of a structure such as a bedroom by opening up or breaking a window or door. 2. All glass, window hardware and window coverings/draperies should be cleared to allow easy access of search personnel. 3. Maintain constant orientation with your entry point. 4. Enter through the window/opening and proceed immediately to the door and ensure that the door is closed to protect you and potential victims from the fire conditions. If the victim is located on the way to the door, make note, continue to the door. Victim removal takes time, and you will want the protection provided by the closed door. 5. Search the room quickly and exit through the same opening. 4. Large Area Search – Areas such as storage facilities, production/assembly buildings and large box stores will create larger search challenges and require greater personnel resources. Utilize the rope and rings system for large or complex areas should only be considered a tool to aid in the search. 144 Procedure for large area search: 1. Positions assigned should include: a. (1) Rope team Leader b. (2) Searchers c. (1) control person – this position may be filled by command or Rope team leader as appropriate to structure and available staffing. 2. Control should communicate to command when you start your search and your starting location. 3. Rope team leader should communicate to control progress reports as needed during search. 4. Control will communicate with command “ALL CLEAR” when the building is clear. Benchmarks are requests for additional resources from search team. 5. Rope shall be anchored at entry point with a strobe light or flashlight positioned so it can be seen from the interior entry. 6. Rope team leader shall enter structure deploying rope with rings establishing the direction of travel. 7. Searchers shall enter with lead rope in left hand. They shall clip into first ring with personal search rope. 8. After searching that area they shall unclip and move to the next ring where they re-clip and search that area. 9. Some large and complex areas may require door markings: if used they should consist of \ on the way in; X after primary search of the room; a circled (X) after the secondary search of the room. 10.Any change of direction by rope team leader should be secured. 11.When exiting follow the anchor rope out of the building with your left hand. 12.Communicate with control and relieving search team what has been accomplished including a drawing of searched area if possible. (drawing needs to be completed quickly for timely exchange of teams) 13.Accountability should be confirmed at completion of search. 145 5. “Defensive” Search – this search tactic can be used in situations such as well involved structures or rooms. During a 360 walk around/size-ups, or when you are defensively sweeping an area using TIC. A victim may have made egress to areas that you may be able to physically see or probe them with a search tool. 1. You will defensively search areas that are IDLH atmospheres from a defensive position while performing other individual tasks or functions. If you locate a victim, you must have a team member rejoin you to move into the IDLH area. 2. Use TIC to sweep areas inside opening and doors. Yell for victims: Do not enter if victims are located – get the appropriate resources to rescue victims. If the area is untenable, report the fire victim’s location and condition to command. G. Communicate to command progress reports as needed during search. H. Report “Primary Search All Clear” and “Secondary Search All Clear” to command. Radio call signs – SEARCH 146 SECTION 8 RESCUE OPERATIONS Helicopter Transport 800.10 3/15/2010 PURPOSE: To outline helicopter landing guidelines and establish safe practices while working near helicopters. PREPARATION OF LANDING ZONE: 1. The Incident Commander should assign one person as Landing Coordinator. This person shall select a landing zone with regards to the following: a) area at least 100’ diameter, flat, clear of loose debris b) area away from overhead obstacles c) area shielded from actual incident and public onlookers d) area clear of all personnel and public 2. An engine shall be available at the landing zone in case watering down of the landing zone is necessary. This engine should be positioned such that the vehicle is “shielding” the incident area activity. 3. Pulling a line for helicopter landing is not recommended. However, if a line is needed for the incident (i.e. auto accident) the line should be shielded from the landing zone. 4. The Landing Coordinator shall be responsible to see that ALL personnel and public are CLEAR and PROTECTED during aircraft landing, static ground time, and takeoff. It is important to realize that rotor winged aircraft release debris in an explosive manner if involved in a crash. This debris may injure persons within 200’ who are not shielded. COMMUNICATIONS: 1. The Landing Coordinator shall establish direct communications with the incoming pilot. 2.Landing Coordinator shall advise pilot of: a) wind direction and speed b) designated landing zone c) landing surface d) special hazards 3. Patient information shall not be broadcasted unless flight nurse specifically requests same. 4. The Landing Coordinator shall advise Dispatch and Incident Commander when the aircraft has landed. 147 OPERATIONS NEAR HELICOPTER: 1. Upon landing, no approach shall be made towards the aircraft unless the pilot signals to do so. 2. While on the ground, the pilot shall approve any activity within 100’ of the helicopter. 3. Any approach to the helicopter shall be made from the front unless accompanied by the flight nurse or pilot. 4. All loose equipment shall be secured as it may be “sucked” into rotor wing (helmets, baseball caps, loose fitting clothing, etc.) BE aware of and STAY CLEAR of the REAR ROTOR. 5. The Landing Coordinator shall insure that personnel and public do not “wander” towards helicopter during static ground time. 6. Once the aircraft has cleared the landing zone and departed, the Landing Coordinator shall secure the landing zone and advise the Incident Commander and Dispatch. 148 Technical Rescue Incidents 800.20 3/15/2010 PURPOSE: To provide guidelines to firefighters and officers responding to technical rescue incidents. DEFINITION: A technical rescue incident may be defined as any incident requiring specialized training, equipment and other resources to remove victims from hazardous or unusual environments. These incidents are typically high risk and require a significant amount of time, expertise and equipment. Typical technical rescue responses include but are not limited to; rescue by rope (low/high angle), rescue from confined space, rescue from trench/excavation collapse, rescue from structural collapse. FIRST ARRIVING COMPANY: The first arriving company is expected to address or accomplish the following: 1. Observe situation/conditions found on arrival and give brief on scene report as per communications SOP's. 2. Assume command, assign a fireground channel and assign a staging officer as soon as practical. 3. Perform a risk vs. benefit analysis before engaging in any rescue operation, with special consideration given to rescue vs. recovery mode. 4. Call for additional resources as needed. 5. Secure the area to prevent entry of bystanders, would be rescuers, etc., utilizing law enforcement to help. 6. Perform only those skills that can be safely accomplished with the personnel and equipment on hand, within the risk vs. benefit analysis. GUIDELINE As a GENERAL GUIDELINE, technical rescue should not be performed until a technical rescue team member is on scene to assist/consult with the officer on scene. 149 Trench Rescue Incidents 800.30 3/15/2010 PURPOSE: To Provide guidelines during entry and rescue in a trench. SCOPE: This SOP is designed to provide guidance for initial arriving companies and specialized rescue team during all phases of trench entry and rescue operations. DEFINITION: A trench rescue incident is defined as any incident in open space in a narrow excavation in relation to its length made below the surface of the ground. In general, its depth is greater than the width, but the width is not greater than 15 feet. May involve running soil that has been compromised and collapsed into the open trench. STRATEGY: The Report Acronym will be used for Trench Rescue Operations: R – Response E – Evaluation P – Pre-Entry O – Operations R – Removal T – Termination RESPONSE 1. Gather information on: A. Nature of incident B. Number of victims 2. Consider response of: A. Full structural assignment for manpower B. On duty tech rescue specialist EVALUATION Always approach the trench from the end! First due apparatus should attempt to gather the following information: 1. What is the nature of the problem? (Collapse, entrapment, medical, etc.) Gather as much information from the foreman as possible. 2. How many victims are there and what are their locations and how long have they been buried? 3. Width, length and depth of trench. 4. Survey for scene hazards: a. Oxygen deficient/Hazardous vapors – Methane, CO, Hydrogen sulfide (sewer gas) b. Stress cracks and weak structural points c. Exposed lines – Electrical, water, steam, chemical and fuel. 150 d. Vibrations from traffic or machinery e. Flowing water f. Crowd control 5. What has been done or tried? 6. Consider photo documentation 7. Clues as to victim position. 1. Grade Pole 2. Laser site 3. Helmet 4. Grease pail 5. Thermos/Big Gulp 6. End of pipe 7. Appendages Once these items are evaluated, you should consider the following: 1. Is this a rescue or a recovery? 2. Assure shoring equipment is responding with qualified personnel, call ahead for manpower. 3. Establish visible command and control access to collapse area. Pre – Entry Make sure general area is safe. 1. This requires creating a large safe area around the collapse zone, and includes: a. Traffic control b. Access control c. General hazard recognition d. Have all heavy equipment shut down. (Do not move. Secure if possible) 2. Ensure safety of rescue area. a. Ground pad the trench or collapse site b. Ventilate the trench with positive pressure. c. Support any unbroken utilities d. Provide a helmet and eye protection for the victim if possible (Not a fire service helmet). e. Do not allow any personnel into an unprotected trench. f. Do not touch or lean on any heavy equipment until you have assured it is not in contact with electrical utilities! STOP!! AWAIT THE ARRIVAL OF SPECIALIZED EQUIPMENT AND PERSONNEL!! Operations (Entry) 151 Operational Responsibility 1. All personnel shall report to the incident command post. 2. Establishment of command staff and supervisors associated with the trench or excavation collapse will be required in accordance with the ICS. 3. The following positions may be established: a. Operations: Responsible for coordination of the actual collapse site and the sectors associated with all activity in the “Rescue area”. b. Extrication: Responsible for directing sheeting and shoring, disentanglement and removal operations associated with the trench excavation. Will report directly to the operations officer. c. Safety officer Collapse Zone Operations A. Different collapse scenarios will obviously require different sheeting and shoring techniques as the situation demands. Each scenario should be approached with the same evaluation mechanism and adaptations made to the operation as is required by the configuration of the trench. B. The following are potential forms of collapse to which can be encountered. 1. Single wall sheer 2. Double wall sheer 3. Spoil pile slide 4. Intersecting trench collapse 5. Collapses in “protected” trenches. C. The following are potential forms of victim entrapment scenarios that may be encountered: 1. Victim buried to waist 2. Victim buried to chest 3. Victim not buried, but injured or experienced a medical problem in the trench. 4. Victim trapped or pinned by heavy equipment or pipe. 5. Victim trapped in running sand or material. 6. Victims completely buried. 7. Victims buried in the end of a large diameter pipe. Operational Guidelines A. Rescue Area Considerations: 1. Assure ventilation continues, monitor atmosphere as necessary. 2. Assure de-watering systems are operational if needed. 3. Assure utilities are controlled and identified. 4. Limit Personnel at the lip and control collapse type. 5. Assure Safety Officer in control of access and personnel. 6. Assure media staging area away from collapse zone. B. General Area Considerations: 152 1. Brief all personnel on plan of action and confer with appropriate groups. 2. Place sheeting and shoring based on collapse type. 3. Provide constant updates to incident command. 4. Rotate personnel regularly. 5. Assure personnel involved in disentanglement and digging operations are rotated at least every 30 minutes. C. Community Resources: 1. In the event that public utilities are needed, advise the following exactly what is needed. a. Manpower b. Heavy equipment (What Kinds) c. Pumps (What Kinds) d. Vacuum Truck 2. Assure that all utilities, which are identified, have a representative present. DO NOT ATTEMPT TO CONTROL UTILITIES! 3. Assure a staging area for all incoming community resources requested. D. Special Situation Considerations: 1. Running Sand or material a. In these cases it may be necessary to enclose the victim(s) in the interlocking drums used as an isolation tunnel. Remember that in all cases these drums should be used in the vertical position only, using them horizontally may cause them to fail and crush under the weight of the material. b. Other items which may be used for isolation tunnels in either the vertical or horizontal settings are: 1. Concrete or steel pipe 2. Corrugated pipe 2. Pier Holes or Caissons These are bell shaped excavations, which are used mainly as footers to pour support columns for concrete buildings. They represent an extreme danger due to the difficulty in sheeting and shoring and their bell shaped bottoms. Extreme caution should be exercised when involved in these types of operations. 3. Trench and Tunnel Cutting Operations: In certain cases it may be necessary to dig a parallel trench or excavation in order to create a parallel shaft. If this becomes necessary, consider the following: a. Any trench cut for rescue operations should be properly protected by either conventional or industrial means. b. Assure all utilities are identified prior to cutting the trench. c. Assure adequate shaft material for construction of your parallel shaft. d. Request and retain a city and/or county engineer to assist in the planning and implementation. e. This should be used as a last resort. Removal Patient Considerations: 1. Always remember to treat patient for crush syndrome. 2. Consider and treat for hypothermia. 153 3. Never dig a patient out with heavy equipment. 4. Once near the patient – dig by hand. 5. Consider the use of air transport. 6. Assure medic in charge coordinates and directs packaging operations at all times. 7. Plan movement mechanism well ahead of time for the removal of the patient disentanglement. Termination 1. Rehab all personnel prior to termination and removal operations. 2. Brief all personnel on the operation and its intended outcome. 3. Perform removal operations in the reverse order. 4. Beware of secondary collapse zones, no equipment is worth an injury or death of a firefighter. 5. Any parallel shaft construction should be left in place. Removing can cause collapse. 6. Make area safe. Ensure area is not accessible to public. 7. Account for all personnel. 8. Consider critical incident stress debriefing. 154 Confined Space Rescue Incidents 800.40 3/15/2010 PURPOSE: To provide guidelines during entry and rescue operations in a confined space. SCOPE: This SOP is designed to provide guidance for initial arriving companies and the specialized rescue team during all phases of confined space entry and rescue operations. DEFINITION: A confined space is defined as any space, which is not intended for continuous occupancy, has limited means of egress and has the potential for physical, chemical or atmospheric engulfment. STRATEGY: The Report Acronym will be used for Confined Space Rescue Operations: R – Response E – Evaluation P – Pre-Entry O – Operations R – Removal T – Termination RESPONSE 1. Gather information on: C. Nature of incident D. Number of victims 2. Consider response of: A. Full structural assignment for manpower B. On duty tech rescue specialists C. Mutual Aid resources with supplied air equipment 1. Sweetwater County Fire Department D. Air supply unit E. Hazardous materials team F. ALS transport rig G. Additional resources 1. Police 2. Utilities 3. Industry Representative 4. Public Works agencies 155 EVALUATION 1. Establish face to face contact with foreman or co-workers 2. Environment A. Obtain blue prints, maps or have on site personnel draw a sketch. B. What type of space C. Is there any product storage hazards? D. Determine number of entry points and locations. E. Are there hazards - electrical, mechanical, chemical, thermal, or engulfment possibilities? 3. Victim (s) A. Number and location of victim (s). B. Actions of victim (s) prior to emergency. C. Determine level of protective equipment necessary for rescue. D. Determine mechanism of entrapment or nature of illness. 4. Atmospheric Monitoring A. Accomplished at high, middle and low areas of space. B. All atmospheres shall be tested for 1. Oxygen deficiency - Less than 19.5% 2. Oxygen enrichment - More than 23.0% 3. Toxicity 4. Flammability 5. Known hazard C. Monitoring shall occur prior to and during occupancy at intervals dependent on the possibility of changing conditions, but in no case less than every 30 minutes. D. All atmospheric readings shall be recorded. 5. Reconnaissance by initial arriving crew. A. Entrance to confined space with standard SCBA shall be limited to: 1. Victim no greater than 25ft. from entrance. 1. Spaces where SCBA removal is not required. 2. Victim is easily accessible. 3. Victim must be in a straight line of sight. 6. Determine mode of operation: Rescue or Recovery? PRE-ENTRY 1. Establish Incident Command (see notes) 2. Request additional resources 3. Secure the scene: A. Establish a perimeter, zones and access points. B. Establish command post. C. Ventilate the general area as required. 156 D. Assure fire control measures if need E. Remove all sources of ignition from site. 4. Control the environment A. Ventilation 1. Utilize positive pressure when beneficial. 2. Heat air if necessary. 3. Continually assess the effectiveness of ventilation. 4. Type and configuration of space may dictate ventilation method. B. Assure lock out, tag out and blank out procedures are complete. 1. All fixed mechanical devices and equipment capable of causing injury shall be fixed in a zero mechanical state (ZMS). 2. All electrical equipment (excluding lighting) shall be locked in the open (off) position with a key type padlock or, at a minimum tagged out. 3. The Key to all lock out padlocks will remain with the safety officer or their designee. 4. In cases where lock out is impossible, equipment shall be properly tagged and physically secured. 5. All locked out utilities shall be tagged. 6. Post non-essential personnel at those areas tagged and blanked or blinded. C. Open additional openings to assist ventilation. 5. Determine entry / exit points A. Method of entry / exit 1. Consider multiple points of entry. 2. Area for SABA (Supplied Air Breathing Apparatus) and communications equipment. 3. Vertical drops of more than 8 feet requires fall protection. B. Additional equipment / personnel C. Entry team (minimum two personnel, one of whom should be a certified heavy rescue tech.) 1. Briefing on known information. 2. Appropriate protection level. 3. SABA with emergency air. 4. Communications - need for intrinsic equipment? a. Hard Line b. Conspace c. Portable radio 5. Lighting - need for explosion proof? 6. Atmospheric monitoring 7. Tag line and class 3 harness 8. Victim extrication / retrieval harness / air supply / packaging equipment. D. Back - up team (minimum one back up team per entry team) Two in – Two out. OPERATIONS 1. Assign Entry Control person to record for all entry teams. A. Name B. Time of Entry. C. SCBA or Escape bottle pressure 157 2. Teams shall be limited to 30 minutes in confined space. 3. Once inside space: A. Assure communications are operational. B. Will air supply / communications lines require protection? C. Mark entry and movement patterns. 4. Teams shall be limited to 200' of SABA supplied hose. 5. In the event of a SABA air line failure the team shall: A. Immediately leave the space. B. Notify the exterior of nature and line problem. C. Do not break contact unless necessary to clear an exit. D. If 5 minute escape bottle is depleted: 1. Buddy breath by passing the mainline between team. 2. Do not leave non-operational line behind. 3. Exit the space. E. After maximum 30 - minute limit, entry team will report to Rehab. REMOVAL 1. Assess if this is a rescue or recovery again when victim (s) are accessed. If this is a rescue, determine the following about the victim: A. Level of respiratory protection if any. B. Additional Medical considerations – Attention needed immediately. C. Method of removal required: 1. Spinal protection 2. Harness 3. Wristlets 2. Additional equipment / Manpower needed for removal? 3. When victim is in process of being removed, especially through vertical / horizontal openings: A. If possible, assure that rescuers are stationed to the egress side to avoid being blocked by the victim. B. If the above not possible, assure the following: 1. Move is made quickly and smoothly using minimum time. 2. Exterior and interior teams have agreed on a plan. 3. Air supply / communications lines are clear of victim and movement path to prevent entanglement. 4. System for victim removal A. Mechanical advantage preferred over manual hauling. B. Do not use electrical or PTO winch. C. System must be appropriate to victim size and weight. 158 D. Spark - proof equipment should be used when necessary. (Intrinsic) TERMINATION 1. The following actions should be taken: A. Insure all personnel are accounted for. B. Inventory and check operation of all equipment. C. Have contractor or responsible party seal entry points. D. Assure area is safe. E. Remove lock out equipment if safe. F. Obtain all required information necessary for NFIRS and if equipment is to be replaced a billing entity or individual. 159 Rope Rescue 800.50 3/15/2010 PURPOSE: The purpose of this procedure is to establish frame-work for the high and low angle rescue. The need for Rope Rescue can occur in several types of sites and situations. This procedure does not define a specific evolution to mitigate a given situation but instead outlines basic guidelines to follow for conducting safe and effective operations. SCOPE: As Fire District #1 grows; the need for specialized rescue increases. With more construction and more people in the District the need for specialized equipment and trained personnel become paramount to protect and provide a service for our public. This SOP covers the need for high and low angle rescue and details procedures as guidelines for every employee in the Fire District. At no point should personnel who lack training, experience, or equipment affect a rope rescue for sake of expediency. This applies to all technical rescue incidents. In these situations it is the responsibility of the officer to request resources appropriate to the incident. If appropriate resources are not on scene then overall scene stabilization must be managed to prevent “rescuers” from becoming “victims”. DEFINITION: Rope Rescue is defined as any rescue that requires rope and related equipment to safely gain access and remove patients from hazardous geographic areas with limited access – such as high rise buildings and above and below grade situations – by the use of rope systems. For FD#1 purposes, rope rescue is divided into two (2) categories: High angle rescue – 60 degrees of angle or greater; and low angle rescue – less than 60 degrees (in general around 40 degrees). MAJOR OBJECTIVES: - Identify the procedure used to call back off duty technical rescue personnel - Implementation of ICS specific to Technical Rescue Incidents. - Understand the REPORT acronym and appropriate use. Incident Command - Only experienced, trained personnel should be assigned to run Operations. It is important that the Operations Leader is fully understanding and competent in the technical rescue environment. This applies to the Safety Officer assignment as well. Only personnel trained and competent in the technical rescue environment should be placed in this capacity. The REPORT acronym shall be used to mitigate and coordinate the Technical Rescue. This acronym is appropriate to all technical rescue situations with slight modifications. R – Response E – Evaluation P – Pre-access and Loading O – Operations R – Rescue and Removal T – Termination 160 Response 1. Gather information on: A. Nature of incident B. Number of Victim (s) 2. Consider response of: A. Full structural response for manpower B. On duty technical rescue trained personnel C. Mutual aid with rope capability 1. GRFD 2. RSFD 3. Sweetwater County Search & Rescue 4. Mine Rescue Teams D. ALS transport unit E. EMS Supervisor F. Additional Resources 1. PIO 2. Police 3. Utilities 4. Industrial Representative 5. Public Works agency Evaluation 1. Establish face to face contact with Foreman or Coworkers 2. Consider Environment A. Weather Conditions (Cold, Hot, Icy, Muddy, etc.) B. What type of space (Open or Confined) C. Determine access points and locations D. Are there any hazards (Electrical, Mechanical, etc?) 3. Victim(s) A. Number and location of victim(s) B. Actions of victim(s) prior to the emergency C. Determine level of protection equipment necessary for rescue D. Determine mechanism of entrapment or nature of Illness 4. Atmospheric Monitoring - If a closed or Confined Space consider con-space SOP (800.40) 5. Reconnaissance by initial arriving crew A. Determine if Recovery or Rescue B. Rescue by the initial crew should not be done unless a tech. has determined safety of the operation Pre-Access and Loading 1. Establish command 161 2. Request needed resources 3. Secure the scene A. Establish a perimeter and access B. Establish Command Post 4. Determine entry point and exit routes A. Consider multiple points of entry B. Additional equipment/personnel C. Assign rescue team (1 rescuer minimum) 1. Briefing on known information 2. Appropriate protection level - Portable radio D. Safety line and class 3 harness E. Atmospheric monitoring (if needed) F. Victim extrication/retrieval harness/packaging equipment 5. Back-up rescuer (minimum 1 rescuer – ready) Operations 1. Assign a Plans (Rigging Division) person to account for rescuers 2. Name A. Time of loading B. Proper protective equipment 3. Assign a rigging team A. Assess the potential loading of the operation B. Construct a Lowering System C. Construct a Safety Line for the rescuer D. Prepare to change-over system if necessary E. Have the systems in place be reviewed by a second technician prior to loading the system. 4. Determine when rescuer is ready for task and pre-load the system 5. Pre-plan the actions of the rescuer during task 6. Send the rescuer A. Pick – Off B. Stabilize in place for more help C. Determine survivability 7. Access the Victim (s) Rescue / Removal 1. Change from the current system to our system (do not use victims system) 2. Assess if this is rescue or recovery again when victim is evaluated A. Assure all actions are evaluated for safety while changing systems. B. Method of rescue required. C. Need for more equipment/manpower needed. 3. During Rescue A. Moving is done quickly and smoothly in minimal time. B. Communications are of utmost priority. 162 C. No actions are taken unless fully communicated. D. Ensure that all full protection is in place. 4. System for Rescue A. Mechanical advantage preferred. B. Do not use electric or a PTO winch. C. System should consider victim and rescuer size and weight. D. Safety margin must be considered. Termination 1. The following action must be taken. A. Ensure all personnel are accounted for. B. Inventory and check operation of all equipment. C. Obtain all required information necessary for NFIRS reporting. D. If equipment needs replacement – get billing information. 163 Structure Collapse Rescue Incidents 800.60 3/15/2010 Scope: This procedure applies to all FD#1 employees responsible for emergency response. Purpose: To establish guidelines for structural collapse rescue/recovery operations. These procedures may also be applied post fire by the IC to protect fire investigators. Tactical considerations: Phase I Arrive on scene Take command Size up 1. Arrive on scene First arriving company officer should take command and begin an immediate size-up of the situation The first arriving and subsequently arriving companies should position as so not to be affected by secondary collapse. IC should institute level 1 and 2 staging operations as soon as practicable. Assess the need for additional resources. Technical/heavy rescue resources Assess for hazards. The IC should perform an immediate hazards assessment or delegate that responsibility to a SAFETY OFFICER. Hazards to consider include: secondary collapse, explosion with fire, uncontrollable utilities, falling debris, toxic atmosphere, etc. Secure and/or mitigate the hazards. If this is not possible SAFETY/IC should notify all responders of the hazards. During Phase I of a structural collapse operation the IC must consider the fact that if strong command and control is not gained quickly, it could easily escalate into an out-of-control situation. Typically structural collapse operations will have a lot of unorganized, well-intentioned efforts by civilian personnel. This can complicate an already dangerous situation. The IC must focus attention early on building a good strong command structure that will support a campaign type operation. 164 Phase II Pre-rescue Operations I. Removal of surface victims Initial on scene companies should be directed toward rescuing victims that can be seen on the surface. Rescuers must be aware of all of the hazards present at the scene of a structural collapse. II. Establish a perimeter While the initial rescue of surface victims is going on, the IC should establish a perimeter around the whole collapse site and keep civilians out of the area. III. Establish Transportation Corridor During the initial stages of a campaign operation the IC should attempt to ensure that there will be open roadways into and out of the collapse site. This will almost certainly include liaison with if not unified command with law enforcement. IV. Establish Victim staging area Command should designate an EMS Branch as soon as possible. Regardless of whether or not this is done the functions of triage, treatment and transport must be assigned. An area away from the collapse and near to ingress and egress needs to be established for these functions. V. Remove all civilian & other non-essential personnel After initial surface rescues have been completed the IC should ensure that all personnel are removed from the collapse site. This will allow for the removal and accountability of all civilians and the accountability and re-grouping of rescue personnel. At this time the IC shall request a PAR of all responders. Rescuers should be quickly debriefed as to building/debris layout and possible locations of victims. VI. Establish building triage team After all personnel have been removed from the collapse site the IC should establish building triage teams. This may include structural engineers and/or fire district personnel that are specifically trained in structural collapse rescue. Prior to the deployment of these teams the IC should communicate to them a specific action plan. 165 Phase III Rescue Operations I. Establish action plan for search & rescue operations After all personnel have been removed from the collapse site and been accounted for the IC shall establish a specific action plan. This action plan will be distributed to all responders. Prior to beginning S&R operations the IC shall designate specific search teams. This may include personnel with specialized equipment and/or skills: K-9, fiber optics, acoustic gear, etc. After the building triage teams have conducted their assessment the search teams will begin attempting to locate victims. Search teams should use standard building marking system after the building has been searched. If the building triage teams determine that any structure is unstable entry shall not be made until the structure has been appropriately shored and stabilized. A hot zone controller should be established to account for any personnel operating in the hot zone. II. Establish rescue teams Rescue teams will follow search teams that have identified areas that contain victims If there is a possibility of involvement with hazardous materials there shall be one hazardous materials technician assigned with monitoring/detection equipment. A paramedic or EMT equipped with basic ALS equipment shall be assigned to each rescue team. Rescue teams are not to enter structures or areas that have been labeled as unsafe by the structural triage team. The IC should have a basic communications plan as part of the IAP. III. Locating victims After the search teams have entered the structure and received a positive find the find should be confirmed by some other means if possible (i.e. K-9 or hailing system). If it is determined that there are live victims in the structure rescue teams shall attempt to locate and access those victims. If the rescue team must perform shoring and stabilizing prior to/during entry they shall do so and make the work area as safe as possible. Once rescue teams are deployed into the hot zone the IC shall maintain a rescue team as a R.I.T. IV. Breaching walls, floors and roofs If at all possible rescue teams should attempt to gain access vertically. The horizontal breaching of walls and other structural components should be done only if there is no other means of accessing the void space the victim may be trapped in. Horizontal breeching of load bearing walls may precipitate a secondary collapse. 166 V. Void space entry and rescue The rescue team should treat the void space in a structural collapse as a confined space. They may choose to make entry on SABA, SCBA or PAPR for respiratory protection. This decision will be made by the rescue team officer in charge after consulting with the hazardous materials technician and/or the safety officer. All spaces shall be monitored for combustible and toxic gases. They shall also be monitored for oxygen enrichment/deficiency. VI. Rescue and extrication of victims Once the rescue team has located the victim(s) an immediate assessment of the victim shall be performed. Rescue teams should consider the effect lifting objects will have on that victim (i.e. crush syndrome, fulcrum). The rescue team leader shall determine the best method of extrication. The rescue team leader shall ensure the safety of all personnel. VII. Transfer to Treatment Group Once the victim has been removed to a safe location he/she will be transferred to the treatment or triage group. VII. Removal of Rescue teams After all victims have been removed for the building (or at any other time deemed necessary by the rescue team leader), the rescue team should “pull out” of the building and update the marking system. Any cribbing, shoring or other means of stabilization should be left in place! The removal of those systems could cause a secondary collapse. Phase IV Selected Debris Removal I. Locating Victims If the rescue teams have not been able to locate victims through other means, then they should be located by careful debris removal. If there is a potential for live victims, rescue teams must exercise extreme caution so as not to cause secondary collapse. If a victim location, LSP (last seen point) is known, an attempt should be made to remove debris (tunneling, cutting & shoring) to reach that victim. In light weight frame construction This can be accomplished by cutting and removing structural members by hand. If the building is reinforced concrete construction it may require breeching and/or breaking operations. This may also require the use of a crane to move structural components to reach potential victims. 167 A safety officer shall oversee operations to ensure the safety of all personnel. If structural components are removed from the site they should be marked in some way to permit the future I.D for law enforcement. As debris is removed all operations shall be stopped periodically to search (dogs, acoustic, hailing) for victims. After enough debris has been removed to reasonably ascertain that there are no live victims, then the search and rescue operations can be suspended in that structure. Phase V General Debris Removal/Termination Prior to beginning Phase V, the IC shall call for a PAR. After it has been determined that no victims could be found alive in the building, a general debris removal can begin. If there is a potential for deceased victims to be trapped in the rubble, crews should be alert for signs of those deceased victims. General debris removal should be coordinated with Law Enforcement and/or the Coroners office having jurisdiction. The IC may elect to turn general debris removal over to the responsible party for the structure. This shall be coordinated with Law Enforcement. Prior to termination of the incident, the IC shall account for all personnel assigned to the incident. Each company officer shall ensure crew and equipment accountability before returning to service. The IC should consider CISD for all personnel. Additional considerations: Heat – consider rotation of crews Cold – consider the affects of hypothermia on personnel Ambient conditions – slick surfaces, lighting & rehab Families – keep families of assigned personnel informed & supported Consider PIO and other IMT elements for extended operations 168 Rescue Rope Use and Maintenance 800.70 3/15/2010 PURPOSE: To standardize the use, care and maintenance of the different types of rope used by FD#1. Definitions and uses are outlined below. Lifeline: Lifeline is rope to be used for supporting people in rescue situations only. In accordance with NFPA standard 1983, it will be untouched and dedicated for the purpose of rescue. Once used it will be evaluated for wear and either retired from service or relegated to training rope. Personal Escape Rope: Personal escape rope system including all its components is intended to be accessible by the firefighter so that it will be available in situations in which self rescue or aid in gaining access to a victim using the rope is the only option. The supplied belt may be worn around the waist as a personal self-rescue component. Utility line: This line may be used for such applications as; hauling tools, hose lines etc., as search line for firefighters engaged in search and rescue operations, as an emergency escape line to evacuate from an untenable situation. INSPECTION: Training rope should be inspected and use logged. Rope should be inspected for wear, abrasions, deformity, discoloration, and cuts. If you suspect any rope is damaged or not safe, tag the rope "out of service" immediately and report it to Battalion Chief #2. If the rope gets very dirty and needs to be cleaned report it to Battalion Chief #2. CLEANING: “Daisy-Chain” the rope and place it in the Washing Machine in the upstairs utility room. Wash in warm water on gentle cycle. Use laundry detergent and a ¼ cup of fabric softener. Air dry on hose drying rack out of the sunlight. 169 Thermal Imaging Camera 800.80 3/15/2010 SCOPE: This procedure applies to all FD#1 employees responsible for emergency response. PURPOSE: To standardize the use of the Bullard TMax 3 Thermal Imager Camera utilized by FD#1 Firefighters. POLICY: The thermal Imaging Camera (TIC) is to be used in every structure fire and any other situation where it will enhance the safety of fire department personnel. The camera is a tool to make our jobs safer and complete searches more effectively. However, the use of the TIC does not supersede standard fire-ground procedures. The TIC should be used in such a manner as to enhance those procedures. PROCEDURE: A TIC is carried on E202, 203, 101, R505. Firefighters should become familiar with the location of the TIC’s on all apparatus. It is the officer’s responsibility (or the person riding in that position) to carry the TIC into a structure whenever the initial response involves, but not limited to , structure fire, alarms and smell of smoke. When the engine arrives on the scene of a fire or any other incident where smoke will or could hamper visibility, the person riding in the officer’s position of the apparatus shall utilize the TIC for size-up and then take it to the entry point of the structure. When operating in the “rescue mode”, firefighters shall use available thermal TIC’s to aid in the search for victims. If operating ahead of or separate from a hose line, a tag line may be deployed. The operator of the camera may don a rope pack and secure the end of rope to an adequate anchor just outside the entry point. Subsequent cameras will be used by additional entry crews. The IC may assign a camera to the RIT team. If conditions warrant the use of a TIC, the officer accompanying the nozzle operator shall be the operator of the TIC. If the attack crew has three or more, or the officer may not be entering the hazard zone, the officer shall make an assignment to one of the crew to utilize the TIC. Camera operators must be aware that they have a tendency to move faster than the rest of the team who are operating in zero visibility. Any team operating in a hazard zone will consist of a minimum of two personnel. Standard firefighting practices will be observed with the TIC’s. In moderate to heavy smoke conditions the TIC allows a crew to quickly check a smoke filled area to determine the presence of fire or possible victims. Firefighters should utilize basic rescue techniques while using the TIC (i.e. search under beds, in closets, under obstructions etc) The camera has a tendency to inspire overconfidence because it allows crews to “see” in an environment that in reality has no visibility. Firefighters must remember to use basic fire 170 fighting fundamentals, such as, following and keeping in contact with walls, staying low in heat and smoke and, operating with a hand line or tag line. These and other fundamentals are to be utilized even while using TIC’s. All firefighters must understand the camera could fail and an escape route must be easily located. Thermal Imaging Cameras can also be utilized in the size-up and overhaul phases of fires. It must be remembered the camera cannot penetrate most construction materials including drywall, plaster and lathe, concrete, glass or plastic. Water cannot be penetrated by the TIC. THERMAL IMAGING CAMERA USES: Provides safer navigation in a space where there is zero visibility due to smoke. Allows firefighters to “see” in a zero visibility atmosphere allowing them to augment traditional fire fighting and rescue techniques. The time necessary for completing a primary search can be cut by almost half by utilizing a TIC properly. Enables suppression crews to execute a faster, more effective interior attack. The TIC helps identify the shortest route to the fire. Locate holes in the floor. Obstacles can be located and identified efficiently. Reduces fatigue of interior crews because of more efficient attack and rescue. Assists rapid intervention teams in locating downed firefighters. May be used to determine the fluid levels within a container or “see” liquid differences on water during a hazardous materials incident. May be used as a search tool to locate persons in open fields due to vehicle accidents or who may be hiding from the police. Useful for size-up tool for initial engine companies. 171 SECTION 9 MOTOR VEHICLE INCIDENT OPERATIONS Light Vehicle Fires 900.10 3/15/2010 PURPOSE: To assure the efficient extinguishment of fires involving automobiles and other light duty vehicles while maintaining safety for responding personnel. MAJOR OBJECTIVES: 1. Apparatus Approach and Positioning 2. Safety Considerations and Hazards 3. Fire Attack APPARATUS APPROACH AND POSITIONING Apparatus responding to a vehicle fire should be positioned (as conditions permit): Uphill from the involved vehicle to prevent burning fuel from running toward the apparatus. Upwind from the involved vehicle to minimize smoke exposure to the apparatus and the apparatus operator. At least 100 feet from the involved vehicle to provide a safety zone around the involved vehicle. Between working firefighters and approaching traffic to protect personnel from traffic. SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS AND HAZARDS Safety Perimeter - A safety perimeter should be established around the involved vehicle, as conditions warrant. The area of the safety perimeter should be an area within a 100 foot radius of the vehicle. All personnel operating near the vehicle shall be in full protective clothing and self contained breathing apparatus. Potential Hazards - All personnel shall operate with an awareness of the following potential hazards: Shock absorbing bumpers that may expose and separate from the vehicle. Multiple or auxiliary fuel tanks. Sealed drive shafts that may explode when heated. Multiple batteries (especially on utility company vehicles). Propane, LPG, CNG or Methanol fuel tanks (especially on utility company vehicles). High pressure hoses connected to air conditioning equipment that may separate or burst releasing oil and pressurized Freon gas. Hood springs that may be weakened by exposure to fire (hood should be propped open with an appropriate tool). Air bag propellant cylinders may explode when exposed to heat. Trucks with large unidentified cargoes may be carrying hazardous materials and may require entirely different tactics and more extensive resources. Gasoline-electric hybrid vehicle battery packs. 172 FIRE ATTACK The initial attack on a significant fire should be made with a line capable of flowing at least 150 GPM. The initial line may be backed up with a second line also capable of flowing at least 150 GPM. If possible the vehicle should be approached at a 45 degree angle so that firefighters are not in a direct line with the front or rear bumpers. Prior to approach use a straight stream to cool bumpers and fuel tanks (if exposed) by deflecting water under the vehicle. When approaching a well involved vehicle, a wide spray pattern will provide maximum protection for personnel. The wheels of the involved vehicle should be blocked to prevent movement during fire suppression operations if there is a risk of the vehicle rolling.. Any fire exposing the fuel tank(s) should be controlled first. Exposed fuel tanks should be cooled to minimize internal pressure and the possibility of rupture. After all fire around the fuel tanks has been controlled, move to the passenger and engine compartments. Use extreme caution when opening the passenger and engine compartments. Fire may flash outward when the compartment is ventilated. Always have charged hose lines available before the compartment is opened and all personnel should stand to the side when a compartment is opened. The electrical system should be secured as soon as possible by disconnecting or cutting the battery cables. Always disconnect the negative or ground cable first. 173 Patient Extrication 900.20 3/15/2010 Purpose: To establish duties and responsibilities for personnel responding to vehicle accidents which require patient extrication. Objectives: 1. Patient Care 2. Patient Extrication 3. Extrication Crew PATIENT CARE The first arriving EMS unit should be assigned to patient care after known hazards to firefighters are considered and mitigated. ALS/BLS companies will follow standard procedures intended to provide for the treatment of all patients. Companies assigned to patient treatment should establish a primary care provider. The primary care provider will direct and or perform all patient care procedures according to FD#1 Physician Advisor protocols. Primary care providers will communicate required needs to Command including the need for extrication. PATIENT EXTRICATION When extrication is required, Command will assign the appropriate number of personnel. Personnel from the first and second arriving engines or special requested resources may be utilized. Command should attempt to assemble a three person crew for each patient requiring extrication. Command is responsible to ensure the safety of personnel inside the vehicle and should consider a charged line or charged fire extinguisher whenever personnel are inside the vehicle. EXTRICATION CREW Extrication, once requested by the primary care provider, will be assigned by Command to a three person crew including a designated leader. The Extrication leader will direct the extrication process, decide on the safest and quickest means to remove vehicle parts which are adjacent to/and obstructing patient removal, and coordinate the extrication with the primary care provider. The primary care provider can stop any extrication process at anytime by communicating that direction to the extrication leader. The extrication crew will utilize the tools chosen by the extrication leader to remove sections/parts of the vehicle from around the patient. 174 Marking of Vehicles Involved in Accidents 900.30 3/15/2010 PURPOSE: The purpose of this SOP is to define a means of identifying vehicles that have been involved in accidents and where a public safety agency, either law enforcement or fire rescue, has been and cleared the scene. SCOPE: This SOP will be coordinated between the Wyoming Highway Patrol, Sweetwater County Sheriff’s Office and Sweetwater County Fire District #1 GUIDELINES: During severe weather events, Sweetwater County tends to see an increase in the number of automobile accidents. While a response is necessary to all reported accidents, once the public safety agencies have cleared the scene, these vehicles may be left abandoned off of the roadway because there are not enough tow trucks to remove them in a timely manner. Motorists driving past these cleared scenes tend to call 911 and report this “cold” incident as a new accident. Therefore, in an attempt to reduce the number of repeat calls to these cold accidents and to eliminate the need to stop at every apparent accident, the following guideline should be followed: If a law enforcement agency has made contact with a vehicle(s) involved in an accident where fire response is delayed or not needed and where the vehicle will not be towed prior to their departure, then that agency shall flag the vehicle, in a conspicuous place, with flagging tape as described in the next paragraph. If a fire department has made contact with a vehicle(s) involved in an accident where law enforcement response is delayed, and where the fire department will clear the scene prior to law enforcement or tow company arrival, then that agency shall flag the vehicle, in a conspicuous place, with orange or fluorescent pink flagging tape, such as that used for surveying or wildland fires. Once the vehicle has been flagged the fire department shall relay to the Wyoming Highway Patrol and Sweetwater County Dispatch the location of the vehicle, any vehicle information (make, model, license plate) and driver information. The goal is to flag the vehicle so that if a repeat call is made to the scene, law enforcement or fire can easily identify that the vehicle has already been dealt with by simply driving by the incident. Additionally, Dispatch can ask the 911 callers if the vehicle has flagging tape attached to determine if this is a cold accident. Regardless of the vehicle position, the tag/flagging tape should be placed where it is easily viewed from the roadway. This guideline should only be used for abandoned vehicles, or for vehicles with occupants awaiting a tow company and law enforcement has cleared the scene. 175 SECTION 10 HAZARDOUS MATERIALS OPERATIONS (HazMat) Hazardous Material Overview 1000.10 3/15/2010 Purpose: To provide a strategic plan for responding to hazardous materials incidents. Hazardous Materials incidents encompass a wide variety of potential situations including fires, spills, transportation accidents, chemical reactions, explosions, and similar events. Hazards involved may include toxicity, flammability, radiological hazards, corrosives, explosives, health hazards, chemical reactions and combinations of factors. This plan provides the general framework for operating at a hazardous material incident, but does not address the specific tactics or control measures for particular incidents. Procedures of this strategic plan will be general in scope; more specific guidelines will follow in the procedures outlined for those particular incidents. All Fire District Standard Operating Procedures, unless superseded by a specific part of this procedure, remain in effect for Hazardous Materials incidents. The use of proper personnel protective equipment and SCBA whenever appropriate and the utilization of all Standard Operating Procedures on a continuing basis is the starting point for this plan. Major Objectives: Procedures for DISPATCH. First Arriving Unit/Command Duties DISPATCH Procedures Fire units will attempt to obtain any and all information from dispatch. The information should, if possible, include material name and/or type, amount and size of container(s), problem (leak, spill, fire, etc.) and dangerous properties of the materials. Any additional information should be requested by responding units as soon as possible. If the call comes in from a person with a particular useful knowledge of the hazardous situation, have dispatch tell that person to meet and direct the arriving units. Command may request Dispatch to obtain the latest weather forecast and current wind conditions and to announce the information to responding units. FIRST ARRIVING UNIT/ COMMAND DUTIES Command may request the Regional Response Team to respond to the incident. To do so, a specific request MUST be made to Dispatch. 176 The first arriving unit should establish Command and begin a size-up. The first arriving unit must consciously avoid committing itself to an unreasonably dangerous situation. When approaching, slow down or stop to assess any visible activity-taking place. Evaluate effects of wind, topography, and location of the situation. Staging Command should advise ALL other units to stage until instructed to take specific action. Staging may be set up using the guidelines in the green section of the Emergency Response Guide Book for initial isolation and protective action distances. It is expected that Staging be accomplished early in the incident, usually by the first arriving unit. Size-up Command must make a careful size-up before deciding on a commitment. The objective of the size- up is to identify the nature and severity of the immediate problem and gather sufficient information to formulate a valid action plan. A hazardous materials incident requires a more cautious and deliberate size-up than most fire situations. Avoid premature commitment of companies and personnel to a potentially hazardous location. Proceed with caution in evaluating risks before formulating a plan and keep uncommitted companies at a safe distance. The major problem in most cases is to identify the type of materials involved in a situation, and the hazards presented, before formulating a plan of action. Look for labels, markers, and shipping papers, refer to pre-fire plans, and ask personnel at the scene (plant management, responsible party, truck drivers). Utilize reference materials carried on apparatus and have Dispatch contact other sources for assistance in sizing up the problem. Identify the hazardous area based on potential danger, taking into account materials involved, time of day, wind and weather conditions, location of the incident and degree of risk to unprotected personnel. Action Plan should be driven by the following concerns in the order that they appear: Life Safety Environmental Concerns Property Protection Based on the initial size-up and any information available, Command will have to formulate an action plan to deal with the situation. Firefighters should only perform HazMat duties that correspond to their level of training. Operations level personnel should act defensively, as opposed to technician level personnel who may act offensively. First alarm units shall request the Regional Response Team members if the incident will require operations beyond their training. Most hazardous materials are intended to be maintained in a safe condition for handling and use through confinement in a container or protective system. The emergency is usually related to the material escaping from the protective container or system and creating a hazard on the exterior. The strategic plan must include a method to get the hazardous material back into a safe container, dispose of it (by others), neutralize it, or allow it to dissipate safely. The specific action plan must identify the method of hazard control and identify the resources available and/or required to accomplish this goal. It may be necessary to select one resource over another due to the 177 unavailability of a particular resource or adopt a "holding action" to wait for needed equipment or supplies. When the hazardous material identified is one that you are unfamiliar with, use the DOT Emergency Response Guidebook to find the materials characteristics, hazards and recommended perimeters. With the critical information gathered during size-up, Command shall formulate a plan based on: A. Hazardous materials has been identified; i.e. "Known" material B. Hazardous materials is not identified; i.e. "Unknown" material Action Plan for "Known" Hazardous Materials Refer to the specific hazardous material listed in the DOT Emergency Guidebook under material name or class. The general objectives of these plans shall be: 1. Safety of citizens and firefighters 2. Evacuation of endangered area, if necessary 3. Control of situation (by FD#1 personnel or other resource) 4. Stabilization of hazardous materials, and/or 5. Disposal or removal (by others) of hazardous materials Action Plan for "Unknown" Hazardous Materials All "unknown", but reasonably suspected hazardous materials situations will be treated as potentially deadly on contact. Refer to the DOT Emergency Response Guidebook for unknown hazardous materials. Follow guide 111 until more information becomes available. The action plan will emphasize safety and evacuation. The general objectives of this plan shall be: 1. Safety of citizens and firefighters 2. Evacuation of endangered area, if necessary 3. Control of hazardous area 4. Identifying and requesting appropriate technical assistance 178 Hazardous Materials Decontamination 1000.20 3/15/2010 PURPOSE: To reduce the spread of contaminants, mitigate clean up problems, and protect all personnel involved in hazardous material field operations. These procedures include decontamination of personnel, patients, protective clothing/equipment, clean up equipment, and other items as defined by Command. The scope of decontamination is threefold. First, victims who are known to have actual surface contamination must be decontaminated prior to transport to medical facilities. Second, responding personnel must also be decontaminated in order to safely return to service, and finally- clean, non- contaminated equipment is essential for the safety of the next user. The contaminants to be removed must be known before an appropriate decontamination procedure can be selected. If the contaminant is unknown maximum safety precautions and decontamination procedures will be applied to ensure the safety of all personnel. Personal protective equipment (respiratory protection and protective clothing) used in the hazardous material environment must be thoroughly decontaminated before reuse or removal from the scene. If this equipment cannot be decontaminated, it will be disposed of according to appropriate state and federal regulations. Methods of decontamination used by the Fire District #1 are: scrubbing with soap and water, chemical disinfection, and airing. Alternate methods will be used when appropriate after consultation with a credible outside agency (regional response team) with approval from Command. GENERAL PROCEDURES: Decontamination procedures consist of good general brushing or rinsing of all personnel and equipment involved, using the minimum amount of water necessary to obtain a good rinsing, followed by washing and rinsing with specified solutions. All equipment, personnel, victims, and property leaving the Hot Zone shall be considered contaminated and will be decontaminated accordingly. All solutions, rinses, brushes, sponges, and containers involved with the decontamination must, until shown otherwise, be considered contaminated and properly disposed of or decontaminated. Personal clothing and protective gear, after being decontaminated, should be thoroughly air dried. Equipment, material, and personnel used in the decontamination area may not need the complex decontamination of the Hot Zone procedures. The decontamination of these items should depend on the probability of their being contaminated. All leather goods that are exposed to solid or liquid toxic contaminants will be disposed of with the approval of Decontamination Officer. All plastic sheeting used as ground cover and/or temporary shelter will be properly disposed of. DECONTAMINATION AREA: Decontamination must take place in a specified area. This area must be marked off with high visibility barricade tape to avoid accidental entry. Nothing should leave the hazard zone without first going through the decontamination area. One person shall be designated as the Decontamination Officer and shall be responsible for the proper set up and operation of the decontamination area. There will be absolutely no smoking, eating, or drinking in the 179 decontamination area. There will also be no unauthorized or unprotected personnel in the decontamination area. See page #4 for duties of the Decontamination Officer. APPARATUS DECONTAMINATION: Decontamination of apparatus may be accomplished by one of two methods: Decontamination of apparatus may be done at the scene by thoroughly rinsing tires, wheels, undercarriage, and any other contaminated places with large amounts of water. If further cleaning is needed, it may be accomplished at the Fire Station. In extreme cases or with certain chemicals; equipment, material, and rinse water used in decontamination will have to be disposed of as contaminated waste. The Decontamination Officer will decide which method is appropriate. PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Crews performing decontamination must wear chemically compatible non-permeable protective clothing which is equal to or no more than one grade lower then that of the personnel operating in the Hot Zone, i.e. Class B encapsulated suits, splash suits, Tyvek, etc. The Decontamination Officer will specify the appropriate level of protective clothing/equipment. Decontamination crew members will follow the directions of the Decontamination Officer and wear the prescribed level of protection at all times while in the Decontamination operation area. ETIOLOGICAL AGENTS: The decontamination of Etiological Agents (any disease causing agent) requires notification of the Center for Disease Control in Atlanta, Georgia, Emergency only #(404) 633-5313; Administration #404-639-3311. To decontaminate or destroy any Etiological Agent follow the directions of the Center for Disease Control. PATIENT PROCEDURES: During an incident, the possibility of victims requiring medical care due to illness or injury must be anticipated and these patients/victims who are known to have actual surface contamination must be decontaminated to prevent further transfer of toxins to Medic/medical personnel and facilities. Regardless of the victim’s condition, they, victims who are known to have actual surface contamination, must, as a minimum, be stripped of all clothing and transported wrapped in sheets or blankets to prevent further contamination of medical equipment. If the victim’s condition is such that he will survive a proper decontamination effort, then in addition to the stripping of the patient, he will also be washed, wrapped, and transported per protocol of the chemical involved. On all incidents involving injured or ill persons, both the Medic and hospital personnel shall be notified that a potentially contaminated patient is involved so they may avoid cross contamination and begin specific and proper medical care. DEPLOYMENT PROCEDURES: Diagrams one and two show the minimum and maximum deployment for decontamination; these may be modified depending on the circumstances of the incident. However a charged 1 3/4" safety line will be available in the decontamination area at all times. Attempt to catch and contain as much of the runoff as possible by using the assembled PVC decontamination perimeter, salvage covers, and plastic sheeting. All runoff will be kept and stored on scene until proper disposal 180 accommodations can be made. All personnel will be trained in the proper deployment of the personnel decontamination station. DEFINITIONS: 1. Hot Zone (Red Zone): Maximum hazard area. Restricted to those personnel and equipment needed to control the incident. All personnel must have the appropriate level of protective clothing and SCBA's as deemed necessary by the Incident Commander. Access to the Hot Zone is marked by one entrance, with normal egress through Decontamination. An emergency exit will also be designated by the Safety Officer. 2. Decontamination Area (Yellow Zone): Restricted to personnel and equipment needed to assist Hot Zone personnel. The appropriate level of protective clothing must be worn as determined by the Decontamination Officer. The number of personnel assigned to perform decontamination procedures will be equal to the number of personnel operating within the Hot Zone. 3. Safe Zone (Green Zone): Restricted to emergency personnel only; no civilians or media personnel unless approved by Command. Only personnel actively involved in support of the incident are allowed. Protective clothing is not required. 4. Decontamination Officer: In charge of decontamination; duties to include: a) Locates and marks the decontamination area. b) Establishes and marks entry points. c) Reports to Command and requests necessary resources to perform decontamination duties. d) Supervises set up of the decontamination area and mixing of solutions. e) Coordinates with Team Operations Officer for decontamination. f) Supervises all decontamination to assure that all involved personnel and equipment are properly decontaminated; while remaining in the Safe Zone. GENERAL RULES FOR CLEANSING PERSONNEL: 1. The first phase of decontamination should take place prior to removing any personal protective equipment. This is to prevent personal contact with chemicals on the equipment. 2. Any liquid used for decontamination (usually water) must be contained when appropriate to avoid spreading any contaminants. 3. Once protective equipment is removed from the wearer, it should be isolated and stored to prevent further human contact until decontamination is completed. 4. Always inspect inside surface as some chemicals can be absorbed through the clothing and appear on the inside surface. 5. Under some circumstances, decontamination cannot be accomplished and the protective equipment must be properly disposed of. 6. Equipment which has been cleaned must be inspected for defects prior to storage, periodically during storage, and prior to use. Note! THE INFORMATION BELOW CAN ALSO BE FOUND IN THE HazMat TRAINING MANUALS, BUT IS REPRINTED HERE AS A CONVENIENCE SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS/DUTIES FOR DECONTAMINATION OF PERSONNEL: 1. Be sure air bottle pressure is above 1500 PSI (high pressure) or 800 PSI (low pressure) before entering Decontamination. 181 2. At the first station, have the responder remain in a standing position. Brush or wash him thoroughly from the head to the feet to remove gross contaminants. Pay close attention to the boots, folds, and creases. 3. Move the person to the next cleaning station. Using the proper cleaning solution and the methods in Step 2, clean only the outside layer of clothing at this time. Repeat this process until decontamination is complete. 4. Repeat Steps 2 and 3 for every layer of clothing. 5. For every layer of clothing there will be a separate cleaning and removal station. 6. Following the removal of each layer of clothing, place clothing in a plastic bag and label the bag with the wearer’s name and chemical contaminant, or if unknown, the incident number. 7. For the safety of the contaminated personnel, SCBA must worn through every cleaning station until deemed safe for removal. 8. The person being decontaminated shall not aid in the removal of any contaminated clothing or materials. 9. All items to be disposed of will remain at the incident site until the responsible party (as designated by Command) removes them, in accordance with state and federal laws and procedures. DIAGRAM ONE LEVEL "B" KNOWN CONTAMINANTS: (Order of Decontamination steps) 1. Place all contaminated tools and equipment at the tool drop area. 2. Brush or wash off gross contaminants at the designated area. 3. Wash and rinse outer boot covers and gloves and dispose of them. 4. Decontaminate outer garments with the appropriate solution. 5. Rinse outer garments. 6. Exchange air bottle (optional hot bottle exchange). 7. Remove outer garments and place in a sealed bag or air dry for later use. 8. Wash next layer of clothing and air pack with appropriate solution. 9. Rinse. 10. Remove boots and gloves. 11. Remove air pack and mask. 12. Remove Saranex Clothing and Latex gloves and dispose of them. 13. Report to Medical team for rehabilitation. 14. Add cleaning stations depending on the incident circumstances. LEVEL "A" KNOWN AND UNKNOWN CONTAMINANTS: (Order of Decontamination steps) 1. Place all contaminated tools and equipment at the tool drop area. 2. Brush or wash off gross contaminants at the designated area. 3. Wash and rinse outer boot covers and gloves and dispose of them. 4. Decontaminate outer garments with the first appropriate solution. 5. Decontaminate outer garments with the second appropriate solution. 6. Rinse outer garments. 182 7. Exchange air bottle (optional hot bottle exchange). 8. Remove outer garments and place in a sealed bag or air dry for later use. 9. Wash next layer of clothing and air pack with appropriate solution. 10. Rinse. 11. Remove boots and gloves. 12. Remove air pack and mask. 13. Remove Saranex Clothing and Latex gloves and dispose of them. 14. Report to Medical team for rehabilitation. 15. Add cleaning stations depending on the incident circumstances. 183 Clandestine Lab Responses 1000.30 3/15/2010 PURPOSE: To establish a procedure for Fire District #1 to respond to clandestine laboratory incidents. GENERAL INFO: The majority of clandestine labs currently in operation use red phosphorous (red p) which creates a significant amount of hazardous chemical byproducts. These may be in solid, liquid and gaseous form. Bunker gear will provide limited protection in a clan lab atmosphere. It should be noted that a clan lab is both a crime scene as well as a hazmat call, which can create a conflict. RESPONSE PROCEDURES: If a rescue or other critical priority requires an entry, the call will be considered a hazmat response with participation by techs and the regional response team. The following should be observed: In an active lab, the state at which the “cook” process is in must be determined before the power is secured or the process interrupted. Specific tests for target chemicals are required. Upon the identification of a clan lab, the incident commander should consider making a defensive attack only as fire will likely accelerate the release of toxins. If there is an exposure, a full decontamination should be completed as soon as possible Any building which has been involved in lab processes will be condemned in coordination with local building and health personnel. They will determine when it is tenable. 184 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Incidents 1000.40 3/15/2010 Purpose: To establish a procedure for Fire District #1 response to reports of carbon monoxide (CO) incidents. General Information: As a gas CO is a colorless, tasteless, odorless, flammable, and is considered a health hazard. CO can be found as a liquid under high pressures. Synonyms and Trade Names for CO include Carbon oxide, Flue gas and Monoxide. Vapor density of .97 (just lighter than ambient air) UN/DOT number for CO is 1016, guide #119 CAS # 630-08-0 IP: 14.01 eV LEL: 12.5% UEL: 74% Carbon Monoxide is an asphyxiant in humans with no warning properties. Inhalation of CO causes tissue hypoxia by preventing the blood from carrying sufficient oxygen. CO combines reversibly with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin. All factors that speed respiration and circulation accelerate the rate of carboxyhemoglobin formation; thus exercise, increased temperature, high altitude, and anemia increase the hazard associated with carbon monoxide exposure. Other conditions that increase risk are hyperthyroidism, obesity, bronchitis, asthma, preexisting heart disease, and alcoholism. Carbon monoxide can be transported across the placental barrier, and exposure in utero constitutes a special risk to the fetus. Infants and young children are generally believed to be more susceptible to carbon monoxide than adults. The elderly are also believed to be more susceptible to carbon monoxide poisoning. Acute exposure: The signs and symptoms of acute exposure to carbon monoxide may include headache, flushing, nausea, vertigo, weakness irritability, unconsciousness, and in persons with preexisting heart disease and atherosclerosis, chest pain and leg pain. Chronic exposure: Repeated bouts of carbon monoxide poisoning may cause persistent signs and symptoms, such as anorexia, headache, lassitude, dizziness and ataxia. Major Objectives: I. Response Procedures II. Documentation and Recommendations I. Response Procedures A. The first arriving units should establish scene control as per FD#1 Incident Command and Hazmat Response Guidelines. When entering a presumed hazardous area, turnout 185 gear and SCBA shall be worn (with mask readied should levels indicate supplied air be used). 1. Verification shall be made if the alarm is coming from a smoke detector or a carbon monoxide detector. a. If it is a smoke detector alarm: ▪ Investigate the cause of the alarm. ▪ Take necessary action to mitigate the situation. ▪ Advise Dispatch of the situation. a. If it is a CO detector alarm: ▪ Determine if anyone is exhibiting any symptoms of possible carbon monoxide poisoning. ▪ Provide medical evaluation and transport as necessary ▪ Begin investigative procedure. B. Prepare gas monitor prior to entry, including fresh air calibration if possible, and begin monitoring outside of structure. 1. Check with occupants prior to entry for information related to incident. a. What gas appliances were operating. b. Have any vehicles been running inside the garage or next to any openings. c. Where are the gas appliances located. d. Have they done anything since the alarm sounded and prior to the Fire District’s arrival. 2. Begin an organized, systematic search of structure to determine cause, making sure to check all fuel burning appliances and document readings. 3. If at any time readings reach the Short Term Exposure Limit of 100ppm CO, then supplied air must be used until structure is ventilated and readings drop below 70ppm CO. 4. Any readings above 30ppm CO are unusual and the structure should be ventilated until readings drop below 30ppm CO before occupants can return to structure. 5. If cause is determined which is not always possible due to transient nature or conditions (temperature inversion), then following actions listed: ▪ Turn off the affected appliance, vehicle, engine or motor. ▪ If the fuel supply can be shut off, do so. ▪ Notify occupant of results, including the need to contact a qualified technician or gas company to service or correct condition as it poses a danger to its continued use. ▪ Advise occupant to call 911 should alarm sound again. 6. A non-specific finding or no cause determination may be made after an investigation. ▪ Notify occupant of results. ▪ Provide occupant with a copy of Checklist and Sources of Possible CO Handout. ▪ Advise occupant to call 911 should alarm sound again. 186 II. Documentation and Recommendations A. 30ppm or less of CO: Our instruments did not detect elevated levels of carbon monoxide at this time. However, this does not mean higher levels did not exist prior to our arrival or that higher levels will not accumulate after our departure. B. 30ppm to 70ppm of CO: Our instruments detected elevated levels of carbon monoxide. We recommend that you do not occupy the structure until CO levels are below 30ppm CO or do so at your own risk. C. 70ppm or greater of CO: Our instruments detected very high levels of carbon monoxide. We recommend that you do not occupy the structure until CO levels are below 30ppm CO. An exposure to 70ppm CO for approximately 3 hours in a healthy individual is predicted to give have a 10% level of carboxyhemoglobin in the blood which is the level regarded by physicians as confirmation of CO poisoning. D. Appliances have been turned off (YES / NO): We do not recommend use of the appliance until repairs have been made and/or the source is found and corrected. You need to make sure the sources of carbon monoxide have been repaired by a qualified technician. E. Carbon Monoxide Detector: We recommend that you check your carbon monoxide detector per the manufacturer’s recommendations. Call the manufacturer for additional information. Replace or reset the detector as directed by the manufacturer’s specifications. 187 Natural Gas Incidents 1000.50 3/15/2010 PURPOSE: To identify the strategic goals, risks, and procedures to mitigate a natural gas release, and to outline the appropriate tactics so that the FD#1 and the public risk are held to a reasonable minimum. GENERAL INFORMATION: Natural Gas is lighter than air and will tend to rise and dissipate in the atmosphere in an open environment. It is an odorless, flammable, colorless gas that can cause asphyxiation by air displacement. A chemical additive (mercaptan) causes its apparent distinct odor. It is explosive in concentrations between 4 and 14 percent. It is possible for the rapidly escaping gas from a leaking pipe to charge the pipe with static electricity, adding the potential for an ignition spark. MAJOR OBJECTIVES: Scene Evaluation, determining proper mode, offensive or defensive Gas Leak in Open Area Mitigation Procedures Gas Leak in Building Mitigation Procedures Scene Evaluation and Action Plan Assigned engines responding to reported natural gas or propane leaks or odors shall assume that a hazardous condition exists in the incident area. Only if the Incident Commander judges that the leaking gas poses a substantial threat to life safety, may he/she commit firefighters to an offensive mode by assigning the task of attempting to stop the leak. Determine whether the line was cut by above ground digging equipment or by directional underground boring equipment, and notify dispatch as soon as possible, as that will determine the type of emergency crew that the energy utility will send to effect the shutoff. Gas Leak in Open Area Mitigation Procedures Gas lines that are most common in our area are mains in sizes of 6” 4”, 3”, 2” and 1¼” diameter and feeders that are 3/4” and larger for commercial properties and 1/2” in diameter for residential properties. Steel mains are required for gas line pressures in excess of 60 psi. In no case do we have the capability to clamp off a steel gas main. Citizens should immediately be evacuated from a potentially dangerous area. A minimum number of FD#1 personnel should be in the potentially dangerous area to size up the situation. If, in the opinion of the Incident Commander, there is no significant threat to civilian lives from the 188 escaping gas, based upon known hazard characteristics and existing conditions, then the primary duties should be to secure the area, monitor nearby structures for hazardous conditions and evacuate as needed. Nearby structures should be continuously monitored for dangerous concentrations with combustible gas measuring devices. If the gas leak has already ignited, and unless the resulting fire poses a real threat, it should usually be permitted to continue burning until the gas can be safely shut off by stopping the flow. Gas Leak in Buildings Mitigation Procedures Citizens should immediately be evacuated from a potentially dangerous area. A minimum number of FD#1 personnel should be in the potentially dangerous area to size up the situation. An attempt should be made to locate and to control the source of the leak. Check for explosive concentrations with a combustible gas detection device. If the source of the gas leak is unknown or uncontrollable, the gas should be shut off at the meter. If there is an indication that gas has accumulated in a building, then attempt control of all potential ignition sources. Consider positive pressure ventilation to clear the building's atmosphere. Maintain safety perimeter around danger area until scene is secured from danger. 189 Flammable Liquids Incidents 1000.60 3/15/2010 Purpose: To establish the procedures for safe operations involving flammable liquid containment, ignition prevention and fire suppression. Major Objectives: 1. Spilled Fuel 2. Disposal 3. Safety 4. Fire Suppression Spilled Fuel Flammable liquid spills include substantial spills without fire and any remaining fuel after a fire has been extinguished. In both of these cases, the liquid must be protected to prevent ignition until it can be picked up or removed. Personnel working directly in the spilled fuel must wear a Class B coverall over their protective clothing. All personnel working adjacent to spilled fuel must wear full protective clothing to afford protection in case of possible ignition. SCBA must be used in vapor areas. A. Cover spills immediately with AFFF to seal vapors. The application may need to be repeated regularly, as the seal will break down in 10 to 20 minutes. For polar liquids use Alcohol-Type Concentrate AFFF (AFFF-ATC). Check for escaping vapors with a combustible gas indicator to judge when the seal is breaking down. B. Control ignition sources in the area of the spill. Extinguish pilot lights, flares, open flames, etc. Prohibit smoking. Position vehicles to prevent contact of vapor with running engines or exhaust. Disconnect electrical power from a remote location (outside vapor area) to prevent ignition. C. Do not permit the flammable liquid to runoff into storm drains, sewers or drainage systems. Dam the runoff and cover the spill with AFFF pending disposal. Disposal A. Spills over 25 gallons should be picked up with a tanker truck (if possible). This requires a fuel transfer pump or vacuum truck and personnel familiar with fuel transfer precautions. B. Smaller spills, which cannot be picked up with a tanker, must be absorbed. Absorbent materials, in rolls and pads, may be used to absorb small spills. The generator and/or the owner of the property is responsible and must arrange for the pickup/cleanup of spilled material, used absorbent and emulsified liquid. 190 Safety All personnel working around a flammable liquid spill must wear full protective clothing. This includes SCBA when working in and around areas where flammable vapors are present. Unless absolutely necessary, personnel shall not work in a spill area. When this is necessary to perform a rescue or control a leak, the spill should be covered with AFFF and all possible precautions against ignition must be taken. The area should be monitored with a combustible gas indicator. Personnel will not walk or stand in the spill during this process. The runoff must be monitored to be sure it is thoroughly mixed and diluted and flows to a safe location. The number of exposed personnel must be kept to a minimum and personnel protective equipment must be thoroughly cleaned to remove flammable liquid fumes. Fire Suppression The principal agent for flammable liquid firefighting is AFFF (Aqueous Film Forming Foam). This agent is available from all engine companies. Initial attack on any flammable liquid fire should be made with AFFF. The extinguishing action of AFFF is based on its ability to rapidly cover the flammable liquid surface with a foam/film. This foam/film barrier prevents the escape of flammable vapors, but may have difficulty sealing against hot metal surfaces. The application of AFFF should be gentle to avoid breaking the seal and agitating the liquid below. Some flammable liquid fires are difficult or impossible to extinguish with normal AFFF, including alcohols, ketones and other polar solvents. To extinguish these polar solvents use alcohol type foam concentrate (labeled AFFF/ATC); educated at 6%. Nozzle Technique: After the nozzle begins to "show" foam, direct the stream onto the edge of the flammable liquid pool; pushing the foam blanket across the flames. Avoid directing stream into foam blanket as the disrupted blanket will release flammable vapors and increase fire intensity. The foam stream may be deflected off the pavement or other obstacles until foam blanket covers entire liquid area. Automatic nozzles create enough expansion to form an acceptable foam blanket. The Foam Jet nozzle attachment increases the foam expansion rate and uses less concentrate to produce a better foam blanket. However, the fire stream reach is greatly diminished and therefore should only be used for incidents requiring a sustained foam blanket that can be applied at close range. Application Procedures: The key to flammable liquid fire extinguishment is threefold: 1. Choose the correct foam solution; 3% used on normal hydrocarbons (gasoline, gasohol, etc.), 6% used on polar solvents (ethanol, acetone, MTBE, etc.) 3/6% can be used for both hydrocarbons @ 3% and polar solvents @ 6%. 3X3% Ansul can be used for both fuel types @ 3%. 2. Establish an adequate flow of foam solution. Large flammable liquid fires require careful size up following these guidelines: A. Estimate size of flammable liquid pool in square feet. 191 B. Use the area in square feet X .10 GPM (or .15 for polar solvents) foam solution to calculate the application rate. Area (A) X .10 GPM = Foam Application Rate (FAR). C. Calculate the total amount of foam concentrate needed by using an estimated 10 minute flow time X FAR = Total Foam Solution Needed (TFSN). The TFSN X Concentrate Percent = Total Foam Concentrate Needed (TFCN) 3. Assemble an adequate supply of foam concentrate; DO NOT BEGIN FIRE SUPPRESSION UNTIL TOTAL FOAM CONCENTRATE NEEDED IS ON SCENE. EXCEPTION: Engine companies with inline eductors and 10 gallons of foam concentrate can handle most small (30X30) flammable liquid (hydrocarbon) fires. The 10 minute flow time is based on average flow time for a major fire with some obstructions inhibiting the application of foam solution. An engine, with ten gallons of foam concentrate, suppressing a flammable liquid (hydrocarbon) fire 30X30 is calculated to allow uninhibited foam application for one minute and subsequent reapplication as needed until the second in engine arrives. 192 SECTION 11 PERSONNEL GUIDELINES Uniforms/Personal Appearance Policy 1100.10 3/15/2010 Purpose: To establish procedures for firefighter personal appearance, wearing of uniforms and related uniform accessories. Scope: The uniform and personal appearance of each firefighter identifies that member as a representative of the Sweetwater County Fire District #1 Fire Department. Therefore, all personnel are required to wear and maintain, in a clean, pressed condition, a regulation department uniform while on-duty. The regulation uniform shall be designated and specified by the Fire Chief. Policy: 1. This policy applies to all career and volunteer staff. 2. Uniforms will be classified into three categories Class A, Class B and Class C uniforms. 3. Class A uniforms shall only be worn for special occasions (funerals, weddings, formal dinners, graduations, firefighter retirements, award presentations) or other events deemed appropriate by the fire chief. 4. Class B uniform is classified as the daily work uniform of all Fire District #1 personnel. 5. Class C uniform is classified as a work station uniform. (T-shirts, coveralls, wildland gear, polo shirts) 6. The fire chief or his designee reserves the right to authorize changes to any uniform requirements found herein, as may be indicated by a given event or situation. 7. Uniforms will be purchased and provided to all employees by Sweetwater County Fire District #1. 8. All personnel in violation of this policy will be subject to disciplinary action consistent with district policies. 9. Only those personnel who are directly affiliated with Sweetwater County Fire District #1 shall wear any apparel displaying their affiliation with Sweetwater County Fire District #1. 193 10. When any portion of the uniform is worn, the complete and proper uniform must be worn i.e., approved shirt, pants and boots, or coveralls and t-shirts. 11. At no time may anyone add items or additions to the uniform without prior approval. 12. It is the responsibility of all personnel to be neat and presentable at all times. The favorable public image of the department depends, in part, on the appearance of each individual member. Personal Appearance: The following section addresses Firefighter personal appearance while on-duty with Sweetwater County Fire District #1. Grooming standards are in no way intended to unfairly limit the individual firefighter’s rights of comfort or individuality or to adversely affect the firefighter’s personal sense of self-esteem. The purpose of this grooming regulation is intended to establish a uniform appearance and professional image. The professional image is important to gain public confidence from people we serve. Sharp and kept grooming appearances assist with developing this public confidence. The following regulation applies to all members of Sweetwater County Fire District #1. It is the responsibility of all supervisors to see that all personnel under their direct supervision conform to this regulation. Hair and Person – General A. Cleanliness in all aspects of personnel hygiene and a well groomed status is expected. B. Male firefighter’s natural hair must conform to the following Parameters: 1. Length in front must not extend below the eyebrows at any time. 2. Length in rear must not extend lower than the bottom of the uniform shirt collar when the firefighter stands erect with head posture in normal position. No hair restraints will be worn by any male firefighters. 3. Length on sides must allow visible exposure of the lower part of the ear when viewed from the side. 4. Any hair must not conflict with the normal wearing of protective clothing and equipment per department safety regulation regarding protective clothing and equipment. C. Female firefighter’s natural hair must conform to the following parameters: 1. Any hair must be restrained so that it does not fall below the eyebrows or cover the lower of the ear. 2. Hairpieces, wigs, etc, must be natural looking, well fitting, and well secured. 194 3. Any hair and hair adjuncts must not conflict with the normal wearing of protective clothing and equipment. D. Jewelry and makeup 1. Rings may be worn at the risk of the wearer, providing the ring does not negatively impact the wearing of gloves (significant injury may result due to entrapment of the ring finger). 2. Makeup (if worn) should be lightly applied, conservative, and appropriate as to gender. E. Facial hair 1. Firefighters will be clean-shaven throughout the shift. 2. Beards are not to be worn. 3. Sideburns must not extend no lower than the lower earlobe. Further requirements may apply per department regulation regarding protective clothing and equipment. 4. Mustaches and goatees may be worn neat, trimmed and well maintained. Note: Special considerations for jewelry, hair, etc. or special symbols associated with religious conviction may be approved by the chief upon written application stating your situation. F. Fingernails 1. Shall be kept clean and manicured. 2. Length shall not restrict the performance of duties. ADVICE: A conservative clean-cut approach to personal grooming will assist a firefighter in many ways. Credibility and respect from the public will help get the job done with a minimum of “hassle”. Personal image has a lot to do with leadership in the fire service. A crisp “no-nonsense” image is a large part of the Sweetwater County Fire District #1 Fire Department mission. Uniform Guide 1. General requirements A. All members shall be issued uniforms and shall wear the appropriate uniform while on duty. B. Uniforms shall not be worn off duty except while performing department duties, work or public activities. 195 C. Uniformed members of the department shall report for duty in the prescribed uniform. D. Only uniforms issued and approved by the department shall be worn while on duty or at other times identified as appropriate. E. No part of a uniform shall be worn with non-uniform garments, nor shall non- uniform items be worn with the uniform. F. Uniforms shall be kept clean, neat, and in a proper state of repair. Faded, frayed, and worn-out items shall not be worn but shall be replaced as soon as possible. G. Jacket and shirt pocket flaps shall be buttoned at all times. Pockets shall be free of objects that create bulges or that otherwise detract from a professional appearance. H. Shoes and boots shall be kept clean and polished at all times. Uniform shoes worn by members shall be black leather. Department issued wildland boots may be worn by members. Tennis shoes, loafers, and other types of casual footwear may not be worn. I. Class A uniform head dress shall be worn at all times while outside and removed when inside of vehicles or entering buildings, the only exception is when a member is a part of the color guard or honor guard then it shall remain on at all times. When the head dress is not being worn it shall be carried in the upright position with the brim forward supported by the left forearm with the fingers of the left hand holding the brim of the hat. 2. Uniform Types. Firefighter Class “A” Head Dress Navy bell top hat with gold hat band, plain black brim with gold and red oak leaf trim on hat bill. Gold and red hat badge with steamer engine in center. Dress Shirt White long sleeve shirt with department patches on left and right shoulder sleeves. Gold name tag ½’’ above right breast pocket, gold department badge on left breast, gold crossed axes on both collars. Dark navy tie with gold department tie bar. Pants and jacket Dark navy blue pants with black belt, black socks and black polished shoes. Dark navy blue jacket with department patches on both right and left shoulder sleeves. Gold department coat badge on left breast, gold “FD1” on jacket collar, department approved service/valor awards on right breast. Gold Maltese cross on left cuff for each 5 years of service in the fire service. 196 Firefighter Class “B” Uniform Shirt Navy blue uniform shirt short sleeve or long sleeve, Department patch on right shoulder, American flag on left shoulder, gold department badge on left chest, gold name tag and serving since tag ½’’ above right pocket. Navy blue department t-shirt may be worn under uniform shirt. Navy blue Fire Department job shirt. Uniform Pants Navy blue uniform pants from Aspen Mills EMS II style or Skaggs firefighter uniform pants, black uniform boots or shoes, black belt and black socks. Head Dress Approved Fire Department baseball style hat only shall be worn while on duty with the bill turned in the forward position. Firefighter Class “C” Shirt Navy Blue Department t-shirt, black department wildland shirt or Fire Department approved polo shirt. Pants Navy blue Aspen Mills EMS II style or Skaggs Firefighter uniform pants or Khaki Wildland pants, black belt, black boots or shoes and black socks. Head Dress Approved Fire Department baseball style hat only shall be worn while on duty with the bill turned in the forward position. Coveralls Navy Blue Fire Department coveralls with black boots or shoes. Lieutenant Class “A” Head Dress White bell top hat with gold hat band, plain black brim with gold and red oak leaf trim on hat bill. Gold and red hat badge with steamer engine in center. Dress Shirt White long sleeve shirt with department patches on left and right shoulder sleeves. Gold name tag ½’’ above right breast pocket, gold department badge on left breast, gold bugle on both collars. Dark navy tie with gold department tie bar. Pants and jacket Dark navy blue pants with black belt, black socks and black polished shoes. Dark navy blue jacket with department patches on both right and left shoulder sleeves. Gold department coat badge on left breast, gold “FD1” on jacket collar, department approved service/valor awards on right breast. One Gold slash on both lower cuffs of sleeves with Gold Maltese cross on left cuff above slash for each 5 years of service in the fire service. 197 Lieutenant Class “B” Uniform Shirt Navy blue uniform shirt short sleeve or long sleeve, Department patch on right shoulder, American flag on left shoulder, gold department badge on left chest, gold name tag and serving since tag ½’’ above right pocket. Gold Bugle on shirt collars, Navy blue department t-shirt may be worn under uniform shirt. Navy blue Fire Department job shirt. Uniform Pants Navy blue uniform pants from Aspen Mills EMS II style or Skaggs firefighter uniform pants, black uniform boots or shoes, black belt and black socks. Head Dress Approved Fire Department baseball style hat only shall be worn while on duty with the bill turned in the forward position. Lieutenant Class “C” Shirt Navy Blue Department t-shirt, black department wildland shirt or Fire Department approved polo shirt. Pants Navy blue Aspen Mills EMS II style or Skaggs Firefighter uniform pants or Khaki Wildland pants, black belt, black boots or shoes and black socks. Head Dress Approved Fire Department baseball style hat only shall be worn while on duty with the bill turned in the forward position. Coveralls Navy Blue Fire Department coveralls with black boots or shoes. Captain Class “A” Head Dress white bell top hat with gold hat band, plain black brim with gold and red oak leaf trim on hat bill. Gold and red hat badge with steamer engine in center. Dress Shirt White long sleeve shirt with department patches on left and right shoulder sleeves. Gold name tag ½’’ above right breast pocket, gold department badge on left breast, Two gold bugles on both collars. Dark navy tie with gold department tie bar. Pants and jacket Dark navy blue pants with black belt, black socks and black polished shoes. Dark navy blue jacket with department patches on both right and left shoulder sleeves. Gold department coat badge on left breast, gold “FD1” on jacket collar, department approved service/valor awards on right breast. Two Gold slashes on both lower cuffs of sleeves with Gold Maltese cross on left cuff above slash for each 5 years of service in the fire service. 198 Captain Class “B” Uniform Shirt Navy blue uniform shirt short sleeve or long sleeve, Department patch on right shoulder, American flag on left shoulder, gold department badge on left chest, gold name tag and serving since tag ½’’ above right pocket. Two Gold Bugles on shirt collars, Navy blue department t-shirt may be worn under uniform shirt. Navy blue Fire Department job shirt. Uniform Pants Navy blue uniform pants from Aspen Mills EMS II style or Skaggs firefighter uniform pants, black uniform boots or shoes, black belt and black socks. Head Dress Approved Fire Department baseball style hat only shall be worn while on duty with the bill turned in the forward position. Captain Class “C” Shirt Navy Blue Department t-shirt, black department wildland shirt or Fire Department approved polo shirt. Pants Navy blue Aspen Mills EMS II style or Skaggs Firefighter uniform pants or Khaki Wildland pants, black belt, black boots or shoes and black socks. Head Dress Approved Fire Department baseball style hat only shall be worn while on duty with the bill turned in the forward position. Coveralls Navy Blue Fire Department coveralls with black boots or shoes. Battalion Chief Class “A” Head Dress White bell top hat with gold hat band, plain black brim with gold and red oak leaf trim on hat bill. Gold and red hat badge with steamer engine in center. Dress Shirt White long sleeve shirt with department patches on left and right shoulder sleeves. Gold name tag ½’’ above right breast pocket, gold department badge on left breast, Three gold bugles on both collars. Dark navy tie with gold department tie bar. Pants and jacket Dark navy blue pants with black belt, black socks and black polished shoes. Dark navy blue jacket with department patches on both right and left shoulder sleeves. Gold department coat badge on left breast, gold “FD1” on jacket collar, department approved service/valor awards on right breast. Three Gold slashes on both lower cuffs of sleeves with Gold Maltese cross on left cuff above slash for each 5 years of service in the fire service. 199 Battalion Chief Class “B” Uniform Shirt Navy blue uniform shirt short sleeve or long sleeve, Department patch on right shoulder, American flag on left shoulder, gold department badge on left chest, gold name tag and serving since tag ½’’ above right pocket. Three Gold Bugles on shirt collars, Navy blue department t-shirt may be worn under uniform shirt. Navy blue Fire Department job shirt. Uniform Pants Navy blue uniform pants from Aspen Mills EMS II style or Skaggs firefighter uniform pants, black uniform boots or shoes, black belt and black socks. Head Dress Approved Fire Department baseball style hat only shall be worn while on duty with the bill turned in the forward position. Battalion Chief Class “C” Shirt Navy Blue Department t-shirt, black department wildland shirt or Fire Department approved polo shirt. Pants Navy blue Aspen Mills EMS II style or Skaggs Firefighter uniform pants or Khaki Wildland pants, black belt, black boots or shoes and black socks. Head Dress Approved Fire Department baseball style hat only shall be worn while on duty with the bill turned in the forward position. Coveralls Navy Blue Fire Department coveralls with black boots or shoes. Assistant Chief Class “A” Head Dress White bell top hat with gold hat band, plain black brim with gold and red oak leaf trim on hat bill. Gold and red hat badge with steamer engine in center. Dress Shirt White long sleeve shirt with department patches on left and right shoulder sleeves. Gold name tag ½’’ above right breast pocket, gold department badge on left breast, four gold bugles on both collars. Dark navy tie with gold department tie bar. Pants and jacket Dark navy blue pants with black belt, black socks and black polished shoes. Dark navy blue jacket with department patches on both right and left shoulder sleeves. Gold department coat badge on left breast, gold “FD1” on jacket collar, department approved service/valor awards on right breast. four 200 Gold slashes on both lower cuffs of sleeves with Gold Maltese cross on left cuff above slash for each 5 years of service in the fire service. Assistant Chief Class “B” Uniform Shirt Navy blue uniform shirt short sleeve or long sleeve, Department patch on right shoulder, American flag on left shoulder, gold department badge on left chest, gold name tag and serving since tag ½’’ above right pocket. four Gold Bugles on shirt collars, Navy blue department t-shirt may be worn under uniform shirt. Navy blue Fire Department job shirt. Uniform Pants Navy blue uniform pants from Aspen Mills EMS II style or Skaggs firefighter uniform pants, black uniform boots or shoes, black belt and black socks. Head Dress Approved Fire Department baseball style hat only shall be worn while on duty with the bill turned in the forward position. Assistant Chief Class “C” Shirt Navy Blue Department t-shirt, black department wildland shirt or Fire Department approved polo shirt. Pants Navy blue Aspen Mills EMS II style or Skaggs Firefighter uniform pants or Khaki Wildland pants, black belt, black boots or shoes and black socks. Head Dress Approved Fire Department baseball style hat only shall be worn while on duty with the bill turned in the forward position. Coveralls Navy Blue Fire Department coveralls with black boots or shoes. Fire Chief Class “A” Head Dress White bell top hat with gold hat band, plain black brim with gold and red oak leaf trim on hat bill. Gold and red hat badge with steamer engine in center. Dress Shirt White long sleeve shirt with department patches on left and right shoulder sleeves. Gold name tag ½’’ above right breast pocket, gold department badge on left breast, five gold bugles on both collars. Dark navy tie with gold department tie bar. 201 Pants and jacket Dark navy blue pants with black belt, black socks and black polished shoes. Dark navy blue jacket with department patches on both right and left shoulder sleeves. Gold department coat badge on left breast, gold “FD1” on jacket collar, department approved service/valor awards on right breast. Five Gold slashes on both lower cuffs of sleeves with Gold Maltese cross on left cuff above slash for each 5 years of service in the fire service. Fire Chief Class “B” Uniform Shirt Navy blue uniform shirt short sleeve or long sleeve, Department patch on right shoulder, American flag on left shoulder, gold department badge on left chest, gold name tag and serving since tag ½’’ above right pocket. Five Gold Bugles on shirt collars, Navy blue department t-shirt may be worn under uniform shirt. Navy blue Fire Department job shirt. Uniform Pants Navy blue uniform pants from Aspen Mills EMS II style or Skaggs firefighter uniform pants, black uniform boots or shoes, black belt and black socks. Head Dress Approved Fire Department baseball style hat only shall be worn while on duty with the bill turned in the forward position. Fire Chief Class “C” Shirt Navy Blue Department t-shirt, black department wildland shirt or Fire Department approved polo shirt. Pants Navy blue Aspen Mills EMS II style or Skaggs Firefighter uniform pants or Khaki Wildland pants, black belt, black boots or shoes and black socks. Head Dress Approved Fire Department baseball style hat only shall be worn while on duty with the bill turned in the forward position. Coveralls Navy Blue Fire Department coveralls with black boots or shoes. 202 Appendices 203 Rank Identification Service Ribbons 1. Citations are the only ribbons to be worn on the wear’s right 2. When a firefighter is awarded any medal, the ribbon will be worn in conjunction with the other ribbons by order of precedence regardless of wearing the medal itself. Awards and Decorations Order of Precedence Distinguished Medal of Honor Distinguished Medal of Valor Distinguished Medal of Merit Honor Guard 204 Precedence and Wear Matrix 205 Rational for Awards and Decorations In this document you will find a list of the awards and decorations that are available to all Sweetwater County Fire District #1 Firefighters, please take the time and go through this list and check/list the awards you feel that you have earned since starting on the department. These awards and decorations are only for current and future members at this time. If you feel you are eligible for any of the top three medals (honor, valor, or merit), please give a brief description and approximate date of the incident. If you know of any incidents that you feel someone else should receive an award for, please list and give reason why on a separate page. Distinguished Medal of Honor 1. Medal to be worn around the neck with ribbon worn in rack. The Distinguished Medal of Honor is the highest award given by the Sweetwater County Fire District #1 Fire Department and is the only award which may be given posthumously. It is awarded to any member of the Fire District who has performed an act of personal bravery or self sacrifice that is conspicuously above and beyond the call of duty. The act must involve the risk of death. In contestable evidence must be provided by at least two eye witnesses. A recommendation for the medal must be made within three years of the action. Stringent review is done at all levels of command, up to and including a designated member of the board of directors of the Fire District, who usually presents the medal personally. Distinguished Medal of Valor 1. Medal to be worn pinned below ribbon rack with ribbon worm in rack. The Distinguished Medal of Valor is awarded to any member of the Fire District for a selfless and/or courageous act taken at a risk of their own lives with full awareness of the danger involved and is for those who distinguish themselves in the performance of duty by acts of personnel bravery above and beyond the call of duty but not falling within the criteria for the Distinguished Medal of Honor. Stringent review is done at all levels of command, up to and including a designated member of the board of directors of the Fire District who usually presents the medal personally. 206 Distinguished Medal of Merit 1. Medal to be worn pinned below ribbon rack and ribbon to be worn in rack. The Distinguished Medal of Merit is awarded to any member of the Fire District without reference to degree for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services and achievements. The performance must have been such as to merit recognition of key individuals for service rendered in a clearly exceptional manner. Performance of duties normal to the grade, branch, specialty or assignment and experience of an individual is not an adequate basis for this award. For service not related to actual “in the line of duty” the term “key individual” applies to a narrow range of positions in off duty situations and requires evidence of significant achievement or of an extremely difficult duty performed in an unprecedented and clearly exceptional manner. However, justification of the award may accrue by virtue of exceptionally meritorious service in a succession of important positions. Stringent review is done at all levels of command, up to and including a designated member of the board of directors of the Fire District, who usually presents the medal personally. 207 Volunteer Captain Performance Appraisal 1100.20 3/15/2010 Purpose: This is a process to evaluate and develop the leadership skills and qualities needed to become an effective officer with Fire District #1. The performance appraisals will also be considered for future advancement within the department. Major Objectives: Peer review Self assessment Performance appraisal with future goals and objectives Retention and advancement recommendations Peer Reviews: The peer reviews will consist of a standard form for each Captain that will be issued to their respective Battalion Chief to evaluate the Captain based on his/her experiences with that individual. The forms will be issued approximately two weeks before the final evaluation (performance appraisal) and returned prior to the performance appraisal. Self Assessment: The self assessment form will be issued to each Captain at least one week prior to the performance appraisal to give that individual an opportunity to gauge his/her progress. This form shall be completed before the performance appraisal. Performance Appraisal; Future Goals and Objectives: The performance appraisal will consist of a one on one evaluation between the Captain and his/her assigned Battalion Chief reviewing all documents and future goals and objectives for the Captain. Retention and Advancement Recommendations: The assigned Battalion Chief shall complete the retention and advancement recommendation memo on department letter head and deliver it to the Assistant Chief of Fire District #1 once all evaluations have been complete. The initial evaluation shall be conducted within six months of the Captains appointment and every year thereafter. Background: It is the desire of Sweetwater County Fire District #1 to form an effective well trained officer core by continually evaluating its ranks. This will be done by conducting an annual review of the current lieutenant staff along with setting goals and future training for those individuals. - 208 Volunteer Lieutenant Performance Appraisal 1100.30 3/15/2010 Purpose: This is a process to evaluate and develop the leadership skills and qualities needed to become an effective officer with Fire District #1. The performance appraisals will also be considered for future advancement within the department. Major Objectives: Peer review Self assessment Performance appraisal with future goals and objectives Retention and advancement recommendations Peer Reviews: The peer reviews will consist of a standard form for each lieutenant that will be issued to all Captains to evaluate the lieutenant based on his/her experiences with that individual. The forms will be issued approximately two weeks before the final evaluation (performance appraisal) and returned prior to the performance appraisal. Self Assessment: The self assessment form will be issued to each lieutenant at least one week prior to the performance appraisal to give that individual an opportunity to gauge his/her progress. This form shall be completed before the performance appraisal. Performance Appraisal; Future Goals and Objectives: The performance appraisal will consist of a one on one evaluation between the Lieutenant and his/her assigned Battalion Chief reviewing all documents and future goals and objectives for the Lieutenant. Retention and Advancement Recommendations: The assigned Battalion Chief shall complete the retention and advancement recommendation memo on department letter head and deliver it to the Assistant Chief of Fire District #1 once all evaluations have been complete. The initial evaluation shall be conducted within six months of the Lieutenants appointment and every year thereafter. Background: It is the desire of Sweetwater County Fire District #1 to form an effective well trained officer core by continually evaluating its ranks. This will be done by conducting an annual review of the current lieutenant staff along with setting goals and future training for those individuals. 209 SECTION 12 Emergency Medical Protocols BEC/EMT 1200.00 Basic Life Support Treatment Protocols Table of Contents I. Topic A. Basic Life Support Treatment Protocols Policy………………………………………….……….177 II. Cardiac Arrest A. Medical Cardiac Arrest……………………………………………………………………………179 B. Trauma Cardiac Arrest………………………………………………………………………….…181 C. AED (Automatic Defibrillation)………………………………………………………….……….183 III. Medical Treatment A. Abdominal Emergencies (Medical & Trauma)……………………………………………………..186 B. Airway Obstruction…………………………………………………………………………………187 C. Altered Level of Consciousness………………………………………………………………….... 188 D. Chest Pain…………………………………………………………………………………………...189 E. Ingestion / Poisoning………………………………………………………………………………..191 F. Respiratory Distress…………………………………………………………………………………193 G. Seizures……………………………………………………………………………………………...196 H. Stroke……………………………………………………………………………………………..…197 I. Syncope…………………………………………………………………………………………......198 IV. Trauma Treatment A. Burns…………………………………………………………………………………………….…..200 B. Chest Trauma……………………………………………………………………………………..... 202 C. Eye Injuries……………………………………………………………………….…………………203 D. Head Trauma……………………………………………………………………………………….. 204 E. Orthopedic Trauma…………………………………………………………………………….…… 205 F. Pediatrics…………………………………………………………………………………………..... 206 G. Soft-Tissue Injuries…………………………………………………………………………….….... 208 H. Spinal Injuries………………………………………………………………………………………. 209 I. Shock……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 211 V. Environmental Emergences A. Bites / Stings…………………………………………………………………..………………….….213 B. Frostbite……………………………………………………………………………………….……. 215 C. Hazardous Materials…………………………………………………………………………….….. 216 D. Heat Related Emergencies……………………………………………………………………….…. 217 E. Hypothermia……………………………………………………………………………….……….. 218 F. Near-Drowning…………………………………………………………………………………….. 219 210 Table of Contents (continued) G. Snakebite………………………………………………………….………………………………. 221 VI. Obstetrical Emergencies A. Childbirth……………………………………………………………………………….………… 223 B. Newborn Care………………………………………………………………………………….…. 226 VII. Psychiatric Emergencies A. Behavioral Emergencies………………………………………………………………………….. 228 VIII. Procedures A. Use of Oxygen……………………………………………………………………….…………….230 B. Transfer of Care…………………………………………………………………………….…….. 231 C. Ambulance Transport………………………………………………………………….…………..232 D. Obvious Death……………………………………………………………………………….…… 233 E. Do not resuscitate………………………………………………………………………….….…...234 211 MEDICAL TREATMENT PROTOCOL POLICY These Medical Treatment Protocols are intended for use by Sweetwater County Fire District #1 Basic Emergency Care Providers and Emergency Medical Technicians. These Medical Treatment Protocols were developed to provide a consistency in patient care, while allowing for immediate life support measures in the critically ill and/or injured patient. There must not be any deviation from approved Medical Treatment Protocols without direction from Medical Control. Any deviations must be fully and completely documented on an Incident Report. Any deviation from current approved Medical Treatment Protocols will result in an investigation. Medical Treatment Protocols are constantly being revised and improved. It is your responsibility to maintain your edition. Changes will be distributed to you in writing, and should not be considered effective until you receive them. Oral/verbal changes to the Medical Treatment Protocols will not be recognized. You, as the Basic Emergency Care Provider or Emergency Medical Technician, are responsible for the knowledge, skills, procedure, and philosophy contained within the current Medical Treatment Protocols. State law and regulation apply in all instances regarding procedure, skill, and administration of medication. Basic Emergency Care Providers and Emergency Medical Technicians may only perform procedures, skills, and administer medications that are commensurate with their current certification/license. Patient health, welfare, and security should always be a first priority. 212 Cardiac Arrest 1. Medical Cardiac Arrest 2. Traumatic Cardiac Arrest 3. AED (Automatic External Defibrillation) 213 Medical Cardiac Arrest I. Priorities: A. Consider the possibility of a cardiopulmonary resuscitation directive. B. ABC’S – assessment and treatment. C. Attach and use the automatic external defibrillator. D. History (when possible) 1. Age 2. Down time without CPR 3. Down time with CPR 4. Symptoms prior to collapse, medications, past medical history II. Treatment A. Good basic CPR first. B. Maintain airway with manual airway techniques (chin lift, jaw thrust). C. Insert oropharyngeal airway and ventilate with a bag-valve-mask with reservoir tubing and supplemental oxygen at 15-25 liters/minute suction airway when necessary. D. Initiate automatic external defibrillation. E. Cardiac compressions 1. Adult rate 80-100 per minute 2. Child rate greater than 100 per minute 3. Infant rate greater than 100 per minute F. Place patient on a long backboard with straps. III. Further Evaluation A. Adequacy of CPR 1. Inadequate ventilations – Does the upper chest rise with inflation? Good equal breath sounds? If not, reposition the airway? 2. No pulse with CPR – Consider poor compression technique. B. Pupil size and reactivity. C. History (as time and personnel allow) 214 1. Symptoms prior to collapse? 2. Possible Suicide? Note: Resuscitation takes precedence over history. Notes: A. Near Drowning – People who have been submerged in cold water can be resuscitated even if they have been submerged for a long time. Attempt to resuscitate all near drowning victims. B. Hypothermia – these people often appear dead. They can often be resuscitated. C. Cardiac arrest in the setting of trauma is usually due to hypovolemia. Treatment emphasizes CPR and rapid transport. D. Cardiac arrest in children is usually secondary to respiratory distress. 215 Traumatic Cardiac Arrest I. Priorities: A. ABC’S – Assessment and Treatment B. Determine mechanism of injury C. Rapid Transport II. Treatment A. Initiate CPR B. Maintain airway with manual airway techniques (jaw thrust is preferred. Head-tilt chin-lift is discouraged and should only be used when all other methods have failed). C. Insert oropharyngeal airway and ventilate with a bag-valve-mask with reservoir tubing and supplemental oxygen at 15-25 liters/minute. D. Cardiac compressions 1. Adult rate 80-100 per minute 2. Child rate greater than 100 per minute 3. Infant rate greater than 100 per minute If there is suspicion that the traumatic event may be due to a medical problem utilize the AED. E. Control external bleeding. Arrest in the setting of trauma is usually due to massive bleeding F. Place patient supine on a long board (or equivalent) with legs elevated 12 inches strap the patient securely to the long board. Special attention should be paid to immobilizing the cervical spine with a rigid cervical collar and foam wedges taped or secured in place. G. If the patient vomits, the immobilization should be secure enough to allow the patient to be turned as a unit to maintain the airway and allow suctioning. III. Notes A. History of trauma Mechanism of injury Is it possible that a medical cardiac arrest preceded the accident and caused it? Is this a medical arrest or a traumatic arrest? B. Physical assessment Emphasize good bilateral chest expansion, neck veins, tracheal shift, and chest trauma. C. Associated information 216 Rapid transport and CPR should take precedence over history. Air bag deployment? Pill bottles? Damage to Steering wheel? Windshield damage? Seat belt on? Thrown from car? Speed upon impact? This information should help you in determining hidden injuries and should be relayed to the transport crew. 217 AED (Automatic External Defibrillator) Treatment: A. Confirm that the patient: 1. Is unconscious, pulseless, and not breathing. 2. Is older than 8 years of age or weighs greater than 55 pounds. B. Conduct a primary survey/set up Semi-Auto Defibrillator. 1. If alone do not start compressions, attach and use the AED. 2. If with other rescuers, initiate CPR and setup the AED. C. Step 1 – Turn AED on and have all rescuers clear the patient and let the AED analyze the patient. IF NO SHOCK IS INDICATED GO TO STEP 2 IF SHOCK INDICATED 1. If defibrillator determines that a shock is indicated, clear all personnel and deliver the shock. 2. Check for ABC’s if not present complete 2 minutes of CPR 3. Allow AED to analyze again. 4. If defibrillator determines that a shock is indicated, clear all personnel and deliver the shock. 5. Check for ABC’s if not present complete 2 minutes of CPR and return to the beginning of step 1 D. Step 2 – The initial rhythm is not shockable. 1. Complete 2 minutes of CPR and check carotid pulse. If no pulse then return to the beginning of step 1. E. Step 3 – The patient’s pulse is present after defibrillation. 1. Monitor Airway A. Administer oxygen via non-rebreather mask or assist ventilations with bag-valve mask at 15-25 liters per minute. B. Reassess the patient frequently. C. Prepare patient for transport. Note: Defibrillation is the most important link in the chain of survival. It is our goal to defibrillate the patient in cardiac arrest as soon as possible. Defibrillation has proven to be the most effective tool to increase the survival rate of cardiac arrest. Safety: In the event that the patient is lying on a metal surface or in water, move the patient to a dry or non-conductive surface prior to defibrillation to avoid electrocution of rescuers. Defibrillation should never be attempted in a moving vehicle. In the event that the AED is to be used in a vehicle, ensure that the vehicle is at a complete stop prior to analyzing the patient’s rhythm. 218 Special Considerations: In the event that the patient has an inplantable cardiac electrical device, which will appear as a large bulge under the skin on the chest, do not place the defibrillator patches directly over the bulge. This will interfere with electrode contact and will make the defibrillation attempt less efficient. In the event that the patient has a nitroglycerin patch on his chest, remove the patch and wipe away as much of the residue as possible with something other than your hand. If the medication is left in place there is a risk of fire during defibrillation. If the patient has been involved in trauma, and it is suspected that the patient suffered cardiac arrest prior to the traumatic event, utilization of the AED is the priority of patient care. If cardiac arrest is caused by trauma (blood loss, head injury) alone, the priority of patient care is support of ABC’S, care for shock, immobilization and preparation for transport. When in doubt and you have reason to believe that the patient did not suffer cardiac arrest due to trauma, utilize the AED as the priority of patient care. In the event that the patient has suffered electrocution and is in cardiac arrest, utilization of the AED is the priority of patient care. Although electrocution is a traumatic event, cardiac arrest is most likely due to a disruption of the normal cardiac conductive rhythm and may require defibrillation to convert the cardiac rhythm into one that is sustainable with life. 219 Medical Emergencies 1. Abdominal Emergencies 2. Airway Obstruction 3. Altered Level of Consciousness 4. Chest Pain 5. Ingestion/Poisoning 6. Respiratory Distress 7. Seizures 8. Stroke 9. Syncope/Fainting 220 Abdominal Emergencies (Medical and Trauma) I. Treatment: A. ABC’s B. Oxygen 15 liters by non-rebreathing mask per oxygen administration protocol. C. If in shock, treat according to shock protocol. D. Perform patient assessment and vital signs. E. If non-traumatic place patient in position of comfort. F. Follow spinal immobilization protocol as appropriate. G. If evisceration: 1. Cover area with large moist gauze dressing and cover with airtight (occlusive) dressing. 2. Maintain moistness with normal saline. 3. Do not replace intestines. 4. If uncontrollable bleeding, direct pressure. H. If penetrating wounds: 1. Stop bleeding. 2. Dress and bandage. 3. Stabilize impaled objects in place with bulky dressing. I. If blunt trauma: 1. If in shock, treat as hypovolemia. J. Give nothing by mouth. Note: Beware of the potential for vomiting and be prepared to protect the airway as needed. 221 Airway Obstruction I. Priorities: A. Complete airway obstruction must be relieved rapidly at the scene. B. Partial airway obstruction should be treated with high flow oxygen. II. Treatment: A. Treatment of complete airway obstruction. 1. Conscious victim – Definitions: Patients awake, cyanotic, moving no or little air, unable to speak. a) Ask victim to speak or cough. b) If obstruction persists: Subdiaphragmatic abdominal thrusts (chest thrusts in the markedly obese or late stages of pregnancy. Use five back blows and five chest thrusts in infants less than 1 year. c) Check airway (speak or cough) d) Do not perform blind finger sweeps on the infant airway. e) Repeat steps a-c 2. Unconscious victim a) Open airway, position head, and attempt to ventilate. b) Reposition the head and attempt to ventilate. c) Place victim supine; apply five subdiaphragmatic abdominal thrusts (chest thrusts in the markedly obese or advanced stages of pregnancy). Use five back blows and five chest thrusts in infants less than 1 year of age. d) Perform CPR as appropriate. 222 Altered Level of Consciousness I. Treatment: A. ABC’s – Assist with ventilation as needed. B. In cases of trauma manually immobilize the cervical spine. C. Oxygen 15 liters per/minute via non-rebreathing mask, assist ventilations as needed with bag valve mask at 15- 25 liters/minute. D. Perform patient assessment and vital signs. E. Position the patient so that the airway may be controlled. In cases of trauma immobilize the spine. F. Talk to the patient and reassure, even if the patient appears to be comatose. Have others be careful of the nature of the conversation around the apparently ”comatose” patient. G. Try and obtain a history of why the patient has an altered mental status. Diabetic? Stroke? Alcohol? Epilepsy? Trauma? Infection? Psychiatric patient? Medication administration: Oral Glucose: The administration of oral glucose may only be performed by responders who are trained to the level of EMT basic or higher. A. Oral glucose should be administered to patients believed to have an altered level of consciousness due to hypoglycemia or for an unknown reason. B. Confirm that the patient is alert and oriented and is able to swallow. C. Check that the medication is not expired. D. Contact medical direction for permission to administer the medication. Confirm the order by repeating it back to medical direction word for word. E. Administer the medication. One tube placed in the patient’s mouth between the cheek and gum. Do not squeeze large amounts into the patient’s mouth to avoid airway compromise. F. Stay alert for vomiting and be prepared to protect the patient’s airway. Keeping the patient in a lateral recumbent position will assist in airway protection. G. Document the dosage administered, time of administration, route of administration, and the patient’s response to the medication. H. Reassess the patient. 223 Chest Pain I. Treatment: A. Oxygen 15 liters/minute by non-rebreathing mask. B. Reassure/calm patient. C. Position of comfort (often semi-reclining position) D. Perform Patient assessment and vital signs. E. Prevent patient exertion. F. Be prepared for cardiac arrest by having resuscitation equipment including AED readily available. II. History: A. Onset of pain. 1. What was the patient doing when the pain started? 2. Was it sudden or gradual? B. Provocation. 1. Does anything make the pain better or worse? C. Quality. 1. Is the pain sharp, dull, crushing or burning? D. Radiation. 1. Does the pain radiate to any part of the body? E. Severity. 1. How do you rate the pain on a scale of 1-10 with 10 being the worst? 2. Have you had this kind of pain before? F. Time. 1. When did the chest pain start, and how long did you have it? G. History of cardiac disease. 1. Have you ever had a heart attack or angina, and are you taking medication for it? 2. Did you take any medication prior to our arrival? 224 III. Medication Administration: A. Ensure that the patient’s systolic blood pressure is greater than 100 mm/Hg. B. Ensure that the nitroglycerin is prescribed to the patient now under care. C. Check that the medication is not expired. D. Ensure that the patient is alert and oriented. Do not attempt to administer oral medication to patients who have a deteriorated level of consciousness. E. Ask the patient when the last time was that they took the medication and how much they used. F. Contact medical direction for permission to administer the medication. Confirm the order by repeating it back to medical direction word for word. G. Ask the patient to lift their tongue and place the tablet or spray the dose under the tongue, or have the patient place the medication under the tongue. H. Have the patient keep their mouth closed until the medication is fully dissolved. I. Document the dosage administered, time of administration, route of administration, and the patient’s response to medication. J. Reassess the patient. 1. Monitor the blood pressure within 2 minutes of administering the medication. 2. Monitor pain relief. 3. Contact medical control before administering another dose of the drug or any unexpected action of the drug is encountered. 4. Ensure that the patient is ready for transport. 225 Ingestion/Poisoning I. Treatment: A. ABC’S B. Oxygen 15 liters/minute non-rebreathing mask. C. Position on side if altered mental status (except in hydrocarbon or caustic – position with head up). D. Skin contact with toxic agent: If powder substance, brush off first, then flush with water. Otherwise, wash copiously with water after removing clothing. Be careful of exposure to rescuers. E. Perform patient assessment and vital signs. F. Locate containers or types of substances and bring to hospital for identification, if safe to handle. If they are safe to handle: 1. Note how much was taken and how long ago. 2. If time permits contact medical direction and follow directions. II. Medication Administration: Activated Charcoal: The administration of activated charcoal may only be performed by responders who are trained to the level of EMT basic or higher. A. Activated charcoal should be administered in the event that the patient has ingested medications or poisons by mouth. B. Confirm that the patient is alert and oriented and is able to swallow. C. Check that the medication is not expired. D. Attempt to identify the types of substances that the patient ingested. Activated charcoal should not be given to patients who have ingested corrosive substances or hydrocarbons. E. Contact medical direction for permission to administer the medication. Confirm the order by repeating it back to medical direction word for word. F. Shake the medication vigorously for at least 30 seconds. G. Administer the medication. The dose for both children and adults is 1g/kg. The usual dose for adults is 25-50 grams and for children 12.5-25 grams. H. Following administration stay alert for vomiting and be prepared to protect the patient’s airway. Keeping the patient in a lateral recumbent position will assist in airway protection. 226 I. Document the dosage administered, time of administration, route of administration, and the patient’s response to the medication. J. Reassess the patient. 227 Respiratory Distress I. Treatment: A. ABC’S B. Oxygen 15 liters/minute by non-rebreather mask. C. Patient will probably want to sit upright. If alert, let the patient choose his most comfortable position. II. Notes: A. The conscious patient with respiratory distress may rapidly deteriorate to respiratory failure or arrest. PREPARE TO INTERVENE. B. Allergic reactions are frequently responsible for respiratory distress episodes, thus inquiry for known allergies must include substances other than medications. C. If hyperventilation is suspected and if patient has tingling around mouth or extremities: 1. Reassure patient. 2. DO NOT utilize paper bag breathing. 3. Coach the patient to slow breathing rate. D. If smoke/gas inhalation: 1. Ensure personal safety. 2. Remove patient from harmful environment. 3. Oxygen 15 liters/minute by non-rebreather mask. E. If child has evidence of epiglottis, recent infection, high fever, stridor or quiet crying. Drooling, use of accessory muscles: 1. Allow parent to hold child and reassure the family. 2. Avoid agitating the child. 3. Have mother administer high flow of oxygen to child. 4. If child has complete obstruction, provide positive pressure ventilation utilizing the bag-valve mask with reservoir 15liters/minute. 228 F. Causes of respiratory distress: Asthma, croup, epiglottis, hyperventilation, pulmonary edema, smoke/toxic gas inhalation, COPD. G. If, in visualizing the airway, a dislodged foreign body is seen, carefully attempt to remove it. Do not “ Blind Sweep” the infant airway. III. Medication administration: Epinephrine Auto-injector: The administration of epinephrine may only be performed by responders who are trained to the level of Emt basic or higher. A. Epinephrine should be administered in the event that the patient is experiencing severe respiratory distress believed to be caused by an allergic reaction. B. Ensure that the epinephrine auto-injector is prescribed to the patient now under your care. C. Check that the medication is not expired. D. Ask the Patient when was the last time that they took the medication and how much they used. E. Contact medical direction for permission to administer the medication. Confirm the order by repeating it back to medical direction word for word. F. Remove the safety cap and place the tip of the auto-injector against the lateral aspect of the patient’s thigh midway between the waist and the knee. G. Push the injector firmly against the thigh until the spring-loaded needle is deployed and the medication is injected. Hold the auto-injector in place until all of the medication has been injected. H. Dispose of the used auto-injector as you would treat any other biohazard sharp item. I. Document the dosage administered, time of administration, route of administration, and the patient’s response to medication. J. Reassess the patient. K. If patient’s condition worsens contact medical control in consideration of a second dose of epinephrine if the patient has one available. Metered dose inhaler: The administration of a metered dose inhaler may only be performed by responders trained to the level of Emt basic or higher. A. An MDI should be administered in the event that the patient is experiencing severe respiratory distress. B. Note the name of the medication contained in the MDI and ensure that the MDI is prescribed to the patient under your care. C. Check that the medication is not expired. 229 D. Ask the patient when the last time was that he took the medication and how much they used. E. Contact medical direction for permission to administer the medication. Confirm the order by repeating it back to medical direction word for word. F. Do not attempt to administer an MDI to an unresponsive patient. G. Ensure that the inhaler is at room temperature and shake the inhaler vigorously for at least 30 seconds. H. Place the MDI in the patient’s mouth and advise the patient to slowly and deeply inhale. As the patient is inhaling depress the MDI and advise the patient to hold their breath for as long as comfortably possible. Then advise them to exhale through pursed lips. I. Document the dosage administered, time of administration, route of administration, and the patient’s response to medication. J. Reassess the patient. K. If patient’s condition worsens contact medical control in consideration of a second dose of epinephrine if the patient has one available. 230 Seizures I. Treatment: A. Protect patient from injuring him or herself during the seizure. Move objects away from the patient. Do not forcibly restrain the patient. B. Maintain patent airway: Do not force anything into the patient’s mouth while actively seizing. At the conclusion of the seizure use an oropharyngeal airway as the patient’s condition indicates. 1. Position patient to maintain airway. 2. Suction airway as indicated. 3. Assist ventilations as needed. C. Breathing – Oxygen at 15 liters/minute via non-rebreathing mask. D. Perform patient assessment and vital signs. E. Consider spinal immobilization if any trauma was present. F. Position on side if no trauma. 231 Stroke I. Treatment: A. ABC’s B. Oxygen – 15 liters/minute via non-rebreathing mask. Assist ventilations as needed with a bag valve mask at 15- 25 liters/minute. C. Suction secretions if necessary. D. Perform patient assessment and vital signs. E. Place patient on left side (left lateral recumbent) with head and chest slightly elevated if conscious unless hypotensive. If hypotensive, place supine with legs elevated. F. Calm and reassure the patient, the patient may be unable to speak. G. If evidence of trauma consider spinal immobilization. 232 Syncope/Fainting I. Treatment: A. ABC’s B. Oxygen 15 liters/minute via non-rebreathing mask. C. Perform patient assessment and vital signs. D. If trauma was sustained during the episode consider spinal immobilization. Note: Patients who suffer fainting episodes often do so from a standing position and may suffer trauma when they fall. 233 Trauma Treatment 1. Burns 2. Chest Trauma 3. Eye Injuries 4. Head Trauma 5. Orthopedic Trauma 6. Pediatrics 7. Soft Tissue Injuries 8. Spinal Injuries 9. Shock 234 Burns I. Priorities: A. Ensure rescuer Safety. B. Remove clothing from source of the burn. Remove burning or smoldering clothing. C. ABC’s II. Treatment: A. Thermal burns 1. Oxygen a) 15 liters by non-rebreather mask if spontaneous respirations. b) In severe distress, comatose, or inhalation of products of combustion, oxygen via bag valve mask with reservoir at 15-25 liters/minute. c) Perform patient assessment and vital signs. d) Remove all jewelry and restrictive clothing in the effected area. 2. Sterile dressings to burned areas a) Initially cool all thermal burns and then cover with dry, sterile dressings. 3. Check for associated injuries. 4. Treat shock, if present. 5. Do not break any blisters. 6. Do not apply ice or creams to the burned area. 7. Maintain body temperature. B. Chemical Burns 1. Remove source of burn. Remove all clothing. Wash with copious amounts of water (Exception: dry lime, Metallic sodium or Lithium. Brush these substances off of the skin first). Do not scrub. Wear protective clothing and gloves. (Sterile water or normal saline if available is preferred for small burns, but any available source of tap water may be used for an extensive burn). 235 2. Oxygen a) 15 liters/minute via non-rebreathing mask. b) If comatose, in severe respiratory distress or airway involvement, oxygen by bag/valve mask with reservoir 15-25 liters/minute. 3. Apply sterile dressings after irrigation is complete. 4. Check for associated injuries. 5. Treat shock, if present 6. Do not break blisters. 7. Do not apply ice or creams to the burned areas. III. Notes: A. Fire in enclosed space suggests smoke inhalation or CO poisoning. B. Be aware of the possibility of inhalation injury. Evaluate the patient for respiratory distress and: 1. Burns around face, neck, and chest. 2. Signed nasal hairs. 3. Soot Around nose and mouth. 4. Chemicals in the air as a result of the fire. 236 Chest Trauma I. Treatment A. ABC’s B. Oxygen 15 liters/minute via non-rebreathing mask, assist ventilations as needed with bag valve mask at 15-25 liters/minute. C. Perform patient assessment and vital signs. D. If sucking chest wound, cover with occlusive dressing and tape on three sides loosely. If signs of tension pneumothorax develop, remove the dressing, allow for air to escape and reapply dressing. E. Flail Chest – You may use your hand or a pillow to make the patient more comfortable by stabilizing the injured area. Remove the pressure if respirations deteriorate or if the pressure does not help the pain. Assist ventilation as needed. F. Do not remove impaled objects. G. Consider spinal immobilization. Note: Chest trauma patients may lose large amounts of blood internally, be prepared to treat the patient for shock. 237 Eye Injuries Treatment: A. Perform patient assessment and vital signs. B. Chemical and other foreign objects. Irrigate all with copious amounts of water or normal saline. Irrigate both eyes profusely until the patient reaches the hospital. When irrigating the eyes do so in a fashion so that you do not flush the foreign substances into the other eye of the patient. C. Trauma 1. Cover both eyes loosely with no pressure to globe. 2. Position patient, sitting up if comfortable. Note: Impaled objects should be stabilized, not removed. Embedded foreign bodies in eye – cover both eyes. 3. Consider spinal immobilization. 238 Head Trauma I. Priorities: ABC’s should always be assessed and treated. Treatment: A. ABC’s 1. Manually immobilize the cervical spine. B. Oxygen 15 liters/minute by non-rebreathing mask. If respiratory assistance is required, hyperventilate via bag valve mask 15-25 liters/minute with reservoir. C. Perform patient assessment and vital signs. D. Immobilize spine. Assume cervical spine injury in all patients with a head injury. E. If in shock, treat according to shock protocol. F. Scalp hemorrhage can be life threatening. 1. Scalp lacerations bleed profusely, Control bleeding with gauze dressing and direct pressure. Use caution when applying pressure to a scalp laceration in case an underlying skull fracture is present. Note: It is extremely important to evaluate the patient’s mental status, this Status may change and requires constant monitoring. Note: Isolated internal head injuries rarely cause shock, if shock is present look for other causes and treat for shock. 239 Orthopedic Trauma I. Priorities: A. ABC’s assessed and treated. B. Treat other life threatening injuries as indicated (e.g. shock, chest trauma). C. Oxygen 15 liters/minute by non-rebreather mask. If respiratory assistance is required, assist ventilations with bag valve mask at 15-25 liters/minute. D. Perform patient assessment and vital signs. E. If in shock treat according to shock protocol. F. Splinting 1. If severely angulated and grossly unstable, one attempt may be made to gently straighten an extremity. If crepitus, resistance or severe pain is experienced immobilize the extremity in place. Check pulse motor function and sensation before and after positioning. (Do not straighten joint injuries). 2. Circulation, motor function, and sensation should always be assessed distal to the injured extremity before and after immobilization. 3. Manual immobilization if injured extremities should always be maintained before the application of immobilization devices. 4. The joint above and below the injury should always be immobilized to effectively immobilize the injury. 5. Remove jewelry and restrictive clothing from the effective area. G. Open fractures should be treated with moist sterile dressings covering protruding bone ends and immobilized in place. 240 Pediatrics I. Policy: A. Any child under the age of 14 should be considered a pediatric patient. B. Any patient under the age of 18 is considered to be a minor. Any minor with a life threatening condition should be treated and transported as soon s possible. A minor may consent to health care treatment to the same extent as if he or she were an adult when: 1. The minor was or is legally married. 2. The minor is in the active military service of the United States. 3. The parents or guardian of the minor cannot with reasonable diligence be located and the minor’s need for health care treatment is sufficiently urgent to require immediate attention. 4. The minor is living apart from his or her parents or guardian and is managing his own affairs regardless of his or her source of income. 5. The minor is emancipated under W.S. 14-1-201 through 14-1-206 W.S. 14-1- 101. II. Treatment: A. Oxygen administration to the apprehensive pediatric patient may be accomplished by holding the non-rebreather mask as close as they will allow while oxygen is flowing. The parent or guardian may be helpful by allowing them to hold the non-rebreathing mask. Pediatrics who are suffering from respiratory distress or trauma respond very well to oxygen, administration of oxygen should be done rapidly. B. Avoid agitating pediatric patients. Conducting an assessment or treatment procedure, which is not tolerated by the patient, may provoke or increase respiratory distress. C. Obtaining a blood pressure on the pediatric patient is not necessary when it agitates the patient, the pediatric patient has a greater ability to compensate due to blood loss and will not present with changes in the blood pressure until the pediatric patient “crashes”. The pediatrics circulatory status may be assessed by assessing the patient’s pulse, skin color, and capacity refill time. D. Every attempt should be made to keep the pediatric patient warm during treatment. E. When immobilizing the pediatric onto a long spine board, ensure that the thorax of the patient is padded adequately so that the cervical spine is in neutral alignment. The pediatric patient that has been riding in a child safety seat may be immobilized in that seat. F. Always have a high index of suspicion that a child may have suffered a critical injury when a child has been involved in an incident-involving trauma. The pediatric patient may have 241 suffered severe internal injury without presenting any outward signs and symptoms and may “crash” without warning. G. The automatic external defibrillator should not be used on patients under 12 years of age or a child weighing less than 80 pounds. H. The history of the pediatric medical patient may be extremely crucial in that patient’s survival every attempt should be made to obtain a history from parents and by-standers. III. Pediatric Vital Signs A. The following chart should be used when determining the normal vital sign ranges for the pediatric patient: AGE Weight Respirations Pulse Systolic Blood Pressure Newborn 6-9 lbs. 3-4kg 30-50 120-160 60-80 6 mo-1yr 16-22lbs. 8-10kg. 30-40 120-140 70-80 2-4 yrs 24-34lbs.12-16kg. 20-30 100-110 80-95 5-8 yrs 36-55lbs 18-26kg. 14-20 90-110 90-100 8-12 yrs 55-110lbs 26-50 12-20 80-100 100-110 kg. Over 12 yrs Over 110lbs 55kg. 12-20 60-90 100-120 242 Soft tissue Injuries I. Treatment: A. Stop bleeding 1. Direct pressure 2. Elevation of Extremity 3. Pressure points 4. Tourniquet: ONLY AS A LAST RESORT (Only to the extent needed to control bleeding) B. Sterile dressing. 1. Large lacerations to the neck area should also be covered with an airtight (occlusive) dressing to prevent air bubbles from entering the circulatory system and creating an embolism. C. Bandage. D. Treat shock as indicated. II. Assessment: A. Perform patient assessment and vital signs. B. Check distal neurovascular status (circulation, motor function and sensation) Note: MANY AMPUTATED PARTS CAN BE REIMPLANTED BY MICROVASCULAR SURGERY. TO ENSURE THE BEST CHANCE FOR SUCCESS, THE PART SHOULD BE KEPT COLD TO PREVENT DETERIORATION. A. If avulsed tissue is still attached, return to normal position and secure with a saline- moistened dressing. B. Elevate the extremity. C. Place the amputated parts in dry sterile gauze in a separate container or plastic bag. Place the container or bag on ice to keep cool but not frozen. 243 Spinal Injuries I. Treatment: A. ABC’s B. Oxygen 15 liters/minute by non-rebreather mask. C. Perform patient assessment and vital signs. D. Immobilize on long backboard after rolling patient as a unit. 1. Manually immobilize the patient’s cervical spine. 2. Measure and apply rigid cervical collar. 3. Maintain manual immobilization until secured to immobilization device. 4. Move the patient onto the backboard utilizing a technique that does not cause excessive movement of the spine such as the logroll technique. 5. Immobilize seated patients with a vest type immobilization device (KED). E. Patient should be secured to board to allow the patient to be transported on their side if vomiting. F. Monitor vital signs and reassess circulation, motor function, and sensation exam before and after immobilization. G. Rapid extrication should only be done in the following situations: 1. Safety of you or the patient. 2. The patient is critical. 3. The patient is blocking access to a critically injured patient. Note: Every effort should be made to limit movement of the spine while Rapidly extricating the patient. Policy: All patients presenting with any of the following listed conditions require full spinal precautions including, the use of a spine board, ridged cervical collar, foam wedges to limit lateral head movement, straps, tape and if applicable, a spinal immobilization device, (KED). 244 A. Normal Mental Status 1. Spinal pain or tenderness with a history of trauma. 2. Mechanism of injury consistent with cervical spine injury. 3. Multiple system trauma. 4. Sign of severe head or facial trauma. 5. Complaints of numbness or weakness in any extremity. 6. Any prior loss of consciousness secondary to trauma. B. Altered Mental Status 1. Spinal pain or tenderness. 2. No history available. 3. Found in the setting of trauma (such as lying on the floor or in the street). 4. Signs of head or neck or face trauma (lacerations, contusions, nose bleeds, etc.). 5. Signs of complaints of weakness or numbness in extremity. 6. The patient is unconscious for an unknown reason. 245 Shock Shock exists any time there is inadequate perfusion of tissue to meet metabolic demands of the body. Signs of shock include cool, moist skin, rapid pulse, decreased mental status, and usually low blood pressure. Blood pressure is a late sign, especially in children. I. Priorities: A. ABC’s II. Treatment: A. ABC’s assessment and treatment B. Oxygen 15 liters/minute via non-rebreathing mask. Assist ventilations as needed with bag valve mask at 15-25 liters/minute. C. Control massive bleeding. D. Perform patient assessment and vital signs. E. Supine position – Elevate legs 12 inches. Exception: Patients with cardiogenic shock may want to sit upright. These patients may assume the position of comfort. F. Spine immobilization if necessary by protocol. G. Immobilize associated fractures (without delaying transport – may be done enroute). 246 Environmental Emergencies 1. Bites/Stings 2. Frostbite 3. Hazardous Materials 4. Heat Related Emergencies 5. Hypothermia 6. Near-drowning 7. Snake Bite 247 Bites/Stings I. Treatment: A. Assure scene safety. B. Perform initial assessment (airway,breathing,circulation). C. Administer oxygen at least 15 liters/minute by non-rebreather mask. Ventilate the patient if necessary with a bag-valve-mask device or demand valve. Perform CPR as indicated. D. Perform patient assessment and vital signs. E. Provide specific treatment for type of sting/bite or injury by: 1. Scraping away the stinger – Do not attempt to pull it out. 2. Washing the effected area. 3. Bandaging open wounds with dry dressings. 4. Immobilizing the effected parts. II. Medication Administration: Epinephrine Auto-Injector: The administration of epinephrine may only be performed by responders who are trained to the level of Emt basic or higher. A. Epinephrine should be administered in the event that the patient is experiencing severe respiratory distress believed to be caused by an allergic reaction. B. Ensure that the epinephrine auto-injector is prescribed to the patient now under your care. C. Check that the medication is not expired. If the medication is expired, advise medical control. Medical control may advise to administer the medication. If expired medication is administered ensure that the transport personnel are notified that expired medication was administered. D. Ask the patient when was the last time that he or she took the medication and how much they used. E. Contact medical direction for permission to administer the medication. Confirm the order by repeating it back to medical direction word for word. F. Remove the safety cap and place the tip of the auto-injector against the lateral aspect of the patient’s thigh midway between the waist and the knee. 248 G. Push the injector firmly against the thigh until the spring-loaded needle is deployed and the medication is injected. Hold the auto-injector in place until all of the medication has been injected. H. Dispose of the used auto-injector, as you would treat any biohazard sharp item. I. Document the dosage administered, time of administration, route of administration, and the patient’s response to the medication. J. Reassess the patient. K. If Patient’s condition worsens contact medical control in consideration of a second dose of epinephrine if the patient has one available. 249 Frostbite I. Treatment: A. ABC’s B. Perform patient assessment and vital signs. C. Do not allow refreeze (Do not thaw if serious danger of refreezing exists). D. If transport is greatly delayed, gradually warm extremities in tepid water (Bathe at 100-105 F is ideal). E. Immobilize extremity. F. Do not rub. Protect from further trauma. G. Consider and treat hypothermia. 250 Hazardous Materials I. Priorities: A. Assure personnel and scene safety first. B. Use caution when approaching the patient. C. Isolate and deny access to hazard area. II. Establish Treatment Area: A. Uphill, upgrade, and upwind from hazardous area. B. Decontaminate patients prior to delivering them to the transport crew. III. Treatment: A. Routine basic medical care. 251 Heat Related Emergencies I. Treatment: A. ABC’s – Treat for shock. 1. Administer oxygen 15 liters/minute by non-rebreathing mask. B. Remove from heat source (hot environment). C. Perform patient assessment and vital signs. D. Cool in any way possible. - Spray with water - Fan - Cold packs to armpits, groin, and neck (without pressure) - Remove clothing E. If patient is fully oriented with an intact gag reflex allow them to drink water. 252 Hypothermia Treatment: A. ABC’s B. Administer oxygen 15 liters/minute by non-rebreather mask. C. Perform patient assessment and vital signs. D. Handle patients extremely gently, rough handling can cause cardiac arrest. E. Remove cold or wet clothes. Re-warm with a warm blanket or sheet, and warm ambulance. F. Check Pulse – rate and regularity, assess for 30-45 seconds. 1. If any pulse is felt or the patient has spontaneous movement do not do CPR. G. Treat shock as with hypovolemia. H. If in cardiac arrest, perform CPR, even if they have been in arrest for along time. CPR should be performed until the patient can be warmed in the hospital and then reevaluated. 253 Near-Drowning I. Priorities: A. Assessment – vital signs, lung sounds, level of consciousness, and assess possibility of spine trauma. These items are a minimum – full assessment is always indicated if the situation permits. Resuscitate all victims with an unknown down time. II. Treatment: A. Cardiopulmonary arrest. 1. Good basic CPR first. 2. Maintain airway with manual methods. (Chin lift or jaw thrust is preferred. Head hyperextension is discouraged and should only be used when all other methods have failed). 3. Insert oropharyngeal airway and ventilate with a bag valve mask at 15-25 liters/minute. 4. Cardiac compressions. 5. Spine immobilization if history of diving or head trauma. 6. If the patient vomits, the immobilization should be secure enough to allow the patient to be turned as a unit on his side to maintain the airway and allow suctioning. B. Non-arrest 1. Oxygen: 15 liters/minute by non-rebreathing mask. If ventilatory assistance is needed, assist ventilations with bag valve mask at 15-25 liters/minute. 2. Spine immobilization if history of diving or head trauma. 3. Remove wet clothing, apply dry blankets. NOTE: people who have been submerged in cold water are able to be resuscitated even if they have been submerged for along time. Attempt to resuscitate all Near-drowning victims. III. Notes: A. History 1. Time on submersion, water temperature, water quality. 2. Trauma? (Diving, skiing, and boating). 254 B. Physical Exam 1. Mental status 2. Quality of respiration, cyanosis? 3. Signs of trauma? 255 Snakebite I. Priorities: A. Assessment – vital signs, site of wound, measure the circumference of the extremity, mark and record, note extent of swelling and record time. B. Keep patient quiet and reassure. If snake is available, place in a secure container and bring to the emergency department. Use caution. Do not engage in a search for the snake. The snake may have a bite reflex for hours, despite removal of the head from the body. Handle with extreme care. II. Treatment: If the patient is in shock, refer to shock protocol. A. ABC’s B. Oxygen – 15 liters/minute by non-rebreather mask. C. Perform patient assessment and vital signs. D. Apply constricting bandage 2-5 inches above the bite if transport time greater than 10 minutes. Do not apply to hand or foot. No tourniquet should be used. This should be applied to a tightness, which allows you to slip one finger underneath. E. Keep patient at rest, calm and reassure them. F. Mark area of swelling with pen line and record the time. Notes: A. If the snake was an exotic pet or zoo animal (i.e. coral snake, cobra, krait), neurotoxic symptoms may precede local reaction. Observe for mental status change, respiratory depression, convulsions or paralysis. B. Do not apply ice or cooling. Do not cut the wound. C. Reassure patient. Mortality from snakebite is rare, particularly in young, healthy patients. 256 Obstetrical Emergencies 1. Childbirth 2. Newborn Care 257 Childbirth I. Priorities A. Delivery in the hospital environment where adequate facilities and personnel are available for neonatal resuscitation is always preferable to field delivery. However, if labor is far advanced and it is obvious that delivery will occur prior to arrival at the hospital, the more prudent course may be to assist delivery at the scene. Variables to be considered are: distance to the hospital, road conditions, stage of labor, and condition of mother, experience of pre-hospital personnel, and quantity and skill of available assisting personnel. B. Assessment – Examine infant first (vital signs, lung sounds, color, muscle tone, response to suctioning or flicking foot) Maternal vital signs. Estimate blood loss. Placenta delivered? II. Treatment A. Delivery in progress upon first responder arrival 1. Oxygen – 15 liters by non-rebreather mask to mother. 2. Control the descent of the fully crowned head with your hand cupped over the cranium. 3. As the head delivers, suction mouth and nose with bulb syringe before the first breath is taken. Check for the cord looped around the neck. 4. If the cord is around the neck, gently slip it over the head or across the shoulder, if possible. Clamp and cut between the clamps only as a last resort if the cord is tight and obstructing the descent of the baby. (Once the cord is clamped, baby is without oxygen supply until it breathes on its own). 5. When the head is delivered, it will rotate naturally to face laterally. Gently lower the head to deliver the anterior (upper) shoulder. In the presence of meconium stained amniotic fluid, suction mouth and then nose while the baby’s chest is still in the birth canal advise the mother not to push until you clear the fluid. 6. When upper shoulder is delivered, gently raise the head to deliver the posterior (lower) shoulder. The body should then deliver smoothly. 7. Immediately suction the mouth first and then the nose with a bulb syringe. Hold the baby in a slightly head down position to help in fluid drainage. 8. Clamp and cut the cord with sterile scissors or scalpel. Leave a minimum of 6 inches of cord from the umbilicus and place the clamps about three inches apart and cut between the clamps. There is no hurry to clamp the cord, but do not delay drying and 258 wrapping the baby, remember to keep the infant’s head covered. Document if the cord is cut by sterile or non-sterile equipment. 9. Assess the baby a) Stimulate the baby to breathe by flicking the souls of the feet or rubbing the back. If the baby has spontaneous respirations but blue provide 100% blow by oxygen. b) If baby not breathing or no pulse: 1. Give two gentle but adequate ventilations then reassess respirations and pulse. 2. If still not breathing begin ventilations with mouth to mask or BVM at 60/minute. 3. If no brachial pulse, do compression at 100/minute. Compression to ventilation ratio is 3:1. 4. If pulse is less than 100/minute, continue to ventilate and reassess after 30 seconds. 5. If pulse is less than 80/minute and not rising with ventilatory support, start compressions. 6. If pulse is less than 60/minute, begin CPR and reassess every 30 seconds. 7. Continue resuscitation until baby has spontaneous heart and lung actions with a respiratory rate above 30/minute and a pulse rate above 100/minute. 10. Always consider the possibility of twins. B. Delivery prior to arrival of first responders or performed by first responders 1. If resuscitation not necessary a) . Suction mouth and nose. b) Clamp and cut the cord with sterile scissors or scalpel. Do not attempt to collect cord blood unless placenta has delivered as well. Leave a minimum of 6 inches of cord from the umbilicus. There is no hurry to clamp the cord, but do not delay drying and wrapping baby. Document if the cord was cut sterile or non-sterile equipment. c) Dry and wrap warmly. Begin respiratory or cardiopulmonary resuscitation as indicated above. 259 2. Mother. a) Oxygen – 15 liters/minute by non-rebreather mask if heavy blood loss or abnormal vital signs. b) If BP less than 100 systolic, heavy bleeding or signs of shock, refer to shock protocols. Massage abdomen over the uterus to aid in contraction. Putting the infant to the mother’s breast (if infant’s and mother’s condition allows) will also stimulate contraction. c) If placenta has delivered, place in plastic bag and transport with mother and newborn. If placenta has not delivered, do not apply traction to cord in attempts to deliver it. d) Monitor vital signs. C. If a prolapsed cord is visible at perineum, immediately place mother in a pelvis elevated position, on high flow oxygen, insert gloved hand into vagina and push against presenting part to keep pressure off the umbilical cord. Initiate transport. D. The vast majority of deliveries are completely uncomplicated and require minimal, if any, assistance. The major life threats are baby asphyxia and mother hemorrhage. Neonatal hypothermia is a real, but easily preventable threat. 260 Newborn Care I. Treatment: A. If the infant appears normal, i.e., pink, pulse greater than 100, actively moves all extremities, and good strong cry. 1. Dry thoroughly. 2. Cover head and body to maintain body heat. B. If the infant appears distressed 1. Dry thoroughly 2. Suction the mouth then the nose 3. Stimulate vigorously 4. Assess respiration. If none, assist with 100% oxygen via bag valve mask with reservoir at the rate of 60 breaths/minute. Reassess every 30 seconds. If spontaneous respirations, but blue, provide 100% oxygen blow by. 5. Evaluate heart rate – If pulse less than 80/minute after 30 seconds of oxygen and not rising, begin CPR – 100 compressions/minute, two fingertips – depress ½ - ¾ inch. 6. If pulse is less than 60/minute, begin CPR and reassess every 30 seconds. 7. CPR on the newborn should be done at the rate of 3 compressions to1 ventilation. 8. Continue resuscitation efforts until the baby has a pulse rate over 100/minute and a respiratory rate over 30/minute. 261 Psychiatric Emergencies 1. Behavioral 262 Behavioral Emergencies I. Assess Situation A. Evidence of immediate danger 1. Protect yourself and others. 2. Summon law enforcement. 3. Show of force utilizing law enforcement should be considered if indicated by patient behavior and if necessary to render care. 4. Assess and treat life-threatening injuries. 5. Additional assessment and treatment as situation permits. B. No evidence of immediate danger 1. One firefighter must take responsibility for assessing, treating, and communicating with patient. 2. Obtain and record pertinent medical history if possible. a) Prescription or non-prescription drugs. b) Underlying organic cause, e.g., brain tumor, chemotherapy, hypoglycemia, and hyperglycemia. c) Previous psychiatric problems. II. Notes: A. One firefighter must assume control of the situation. Multiple people attempting to intervene may increase patient’s confusion and agitation. B. Speak in a calm, quiet voice. Move slowly when approaching and caring for patient. C. Approach the patient in a direct, honest manner. 263 Procedures 1. Use of oxygen 2. Transfer of care 3. Ambulance transport 4. Do Not Resuscitate 264 BLS Use of Oxygen I. Procedures: A. Oxygen therapy Oxygen therapy is required for patients who have suffered trauma or medical problems. B. Method of Delivery 1. Use nasal canula (2-6 liters/minute) When: a) Oxygen in concentrations of 25-50% is desired. b) Vomiting may occur. c) Do not exceed 6 liters/minute flow rate d) Patient comfort is desired. 2. Use non-rebreathing oxygen mask (15 Liters/minute – Keep reservoir bag inflated) when: a) High concentrations of oxygen (90-100%) are needed (e.g. sever dyspnea, shock). b) Vomiting is not expected. c) If the patient will not tolerate the mask due to anxiety switch to a nasal canula. d) If the pediatric patient won’t tolerate the mask hold it close to there face with parents assistance. e) When indicated in specific treatment protocols. f) When administering oxygen to pediatric patients it may be useful to use the blow by method. 265 Transfer of Care I. Policy: Patient care and treatment shall be performed by the members of the Sweetwater County Fire District #1 Fire Department, treatment will continue until relieved by another member of the fire department or a member of the transport ambulance service. A verbal report will then be given to the person or persons assuming care of the patient about what you have assessed and treatment provided, fire department personnel will then assist in patient treatment with ambulance personnel. Ambulance personnel will assume responsibility for treatment after they have assessed the patient. Fire department personnel should follow the direction of the ambulance personnel in regards to the treatment of the patient thereafter. 266 Ambulance Transport I. Policy: Fire Department personnel will, upon officer approval or assignment, drive the ambulance or continue patient care with ambulance personnel during transport when requested by the ambulance crew. Fire department personnel should not provide patient care during transport without ambulance personnel present, except in extreme situations and the firefighter is a current Wyoming State Certified EMT-Basic or higher and is assigned to do so by an officer. The officer in charge should to the best of their ability, avoid placing themselves in a position that would prohibit them from performing their command functions on scene or prevent them from responding to additional calls. Response to additional calls should not be delayed to pick-up firefighters at the hospital who may have assisted in ambulance transport. 267 Obvious Death I. Purpose: The purpose of this document is to define the physical findings of a patient that is deemed to be obviously dead in the field whereas any resuscitative efforts would be futile. II. Trauma: In addition to being pulseless and not breathing, one of the following physical findings must be present in the victim of a traumatic event in order to be deemed obviously dead. A. Decapitation (head separated from the body). B. Cranial contents (Brain) Separated from the skull. C. Thorax (chest) separation. D. Total body mutilation. E. Third degree burns to the entire body. F. The patient is frozen. G. In triage situations where the patient is pulseless and not breathing and it is deemed that resuscitation efforts would jeopardize the rescue efforts of critically injured patients due to lack of resources. III. Medical: In addition to being pulseless and not breathing, ALL of the following physical findings must be present in the victim of cardiac arrest in order to be deemed obviously dead. A. Patient is cold to the touch. B. The patient has developed rigor mortis (stiffening of the joints). C. The patient has developed liver mortis (pooling of the blood in low levels of the body). D. The patient’s eyes are dull and the pupils are unresponsive to light. E. The patient has not been seen or heard from for at least one hour. F. The AED advises that no shock is advised. If the patient does not meet the above criteria then full resuscitation efforts must be implemented unless the patient is in possession of a do not resuscitate order, in that case refer to the do not resuscitate protocol. If the patient has been involved in a drowning or is hypothermic refer to the hypothermia and near drowning protocols. 268 Do Not Resuscitate I. Purpose: The purpose of this section is to prevent resuscitative efforts on patients who are suffering from terminal illness and who have documentation that states that resuscitative efforts would not be beneficial to the patient and that they should not be performed and to permit natural death. II. Definitions: A. For the purpose of this policy “Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)” means measures to restore cardiac function or to support breathing in the event of respiratory or cardiac arrest or malfunction. W.S. 35-22-201 (a) (i) 1. “Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)” includes, but is not limited to, chest compressions, delivering electrical shocks to the chest, or manual or mechanical methods to assist breathing. W.S. 35-22-201 (a) (i) B. For the purpose of this section “Cardiopulmonary Resuscitative (CPR) Directive” means an advanced medical directive pertaining to the administration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. W.S. 35-22-201 (a) (ii) C. Examples of CPR directives may include but are not limited to: 1. Living wills 2. Do not resuscitate order (DNR) 3. Comfort One (bracelet may be present) a) An advanced directive usually must be accompanied by a doctors written instructions. When you are presented with it try, to the best of your ability to determine that it is valid and comply with the instructions. b) There should be a high index of suspicion that an advanced directive exists for a patient who is elderly and receiving home health or hospice care. III. Authority: A. Authority of the following are covered in the WYOMING STATE STATUTE 35-22-201 through 35-22-208. 1. Emergency medical personnel, health care providers, and health care facilities shall comply with a person’s cardiopulmonary resuscitative directive that is apparent and immediately available. Any emergency medical service personnel, health care providers, or health care facility or any other person who, in good faith, complies with a cardiopulmonary resuscitative directive, which is perceived to be valid, shall 269 not be subject to civil or criminal liability or regulatory sanction for such compliance. W.S. 35-22-204 (a). 2. In the absence of a cardiopulmonary resuscitation directive, a person’s consent to cardiopulmonary resuscitation shall be presumed W.S. 35-22-204 (c). IV. Treatment: A. In situations where an advanced directive is suspected ask if there is an advanced directive present. If one is present and immediately available comply with the directive and do not perform resuscitation. B. In the event that there is no directive or one is not readily available or you are uncertain of the directives validity, perform resuscitative efforts. C. In the event that resuscitative efforts have begun and an advanced directive is presented resuscitative efforts may be halted upon review of the advanced directive. D. Oxygen administration, airway control and patient comfort are not considered resuscitative efforts. When applicable these procedures should be done in the presence of a cardiopulmonary resuscitation directive.
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