Diabetes

					      Diabetes

Noncommunicable Disease
     Mrs. Whiteman
Diabetes…by Wilford Brimley
             Diabetes Facts…
• Data from the 2007 National Diabetes Fact Sheet (the
  most recent year for which data is available)
• Total: 23.6 million children and adults in the United
  States—7.8% of the population—have diabetes.
• Diagnosed: 17.9 million people
• Undiagnosed: 5.7 million people
• Pre-diabetes: 57 million people
• New Cases: 1.6 million new cases of diabetes are
  diagnosed in people aged 20 years and older each year.
                    Diabetes

       Under 20 years of age
 186,300, or 0.22% of all people in this age group have
                         diabetes
About 1 in every 400 to 600 children and adolescents has
                     type 1 diabetes
About 2 million adolescents aged 12-19 have pre-diabetes
                          Diabetes
• Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas to control blood
  sugar. Diabetes can be caused by too little insulin, resistance to
  insulin, or both.
• To understand diabetes, it is important to first understand the normal
  process by which food is broken down and used by the body for
  energy. Several things happen when food is digested:
• A sugar called glucose enters the bloodstream. Glucose is a source
  of fuel for the body.
• An organ called the pancreas makes insulin. The role of insulin is to
  move glucose from the bloodstream into muscle, fat, and liver cells,
  where it can be used as fuel.
• People with diabetes have high blood sugar. This is because:
• Their pancreas does not make enough insulin
• Their muscle, fat, and liver cells do not respond to insulin normally
• Both of the above
       Diabetes Complications
•   Complications
•   Heart disease and stroke
•   High blood pressure
•   Blindness
•   Kidney disease
•   Nervous system disease (Neuropathy)
•   Amputation
     Heart Disease and Stroke
• • In 2004, heart disease was noted on 68% of
  diabetes-related death certificates among
  people aged 65 years or older.
  • In 2004, stroke was noted on 16% of diabetes-
  related death certificates among people aged 65
  years or older.
  • Adults with diabetes have heart disease death
  rates about 2 to 4 times higher than adults
  without diabetes.
  • The risk for stroke is 2 to 4 times higher among
  people with diabetes.
       High Blood Pressure
• In 2003–2004, 75% of adults with self-
  reported diabetes had blood pressure
  greater than or equal to 130/80 mmHg, or
  used prescription medications for
  hypertension.
              Blindness
• • Diabetes is the leading cause of new
  cases of blindness among adults aged 20–
  74 years.
  • Diabetic retinopathy causes 12,000 to
  24,000 new cases of blindness each year.
             Kidney Disease
• • Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure,
  accounting for 44% of new cases in 2005.
  • In 2005, 46,739 people with diabetes began
  treatment for end-stage kidney disease in the
  United States and Puerto Rico.
  • In 2005, a total of 178,689 people with end-
  stage kidney disease due to diabetes were living
  on chronic dialysis or with a kidney transplant in
  the United States and Puerto Rico.
    Nervous System Disease
• About 60% to 70% of people with diabetes
  have mild to severe forms of nervous
  system damage.
             Amputation
• • More than 60% of nontraumatic lower-
  limb amputations occur in people with
  diabetes.
  • In 2004, about 71,000 nontraumatic
  lower-limb amputations were performed in
  people with diabetes.
             Types of Diabetes
• Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and
  young adults, and was previously known as juvenile
  diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, the body does not produce
  insulin.
• Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. In
  type 2 diabetes, either the body does not produce
  enough insulin or the cells ignore the insulin. Insulin is
  necessary for the body to be able to use glucose for
  energy. When you eat food, the body breaks down all of
  the sugars and starches into glucose, which is the basic
  fuel for the cells in the body. Insulin takes the sugar from
  the blood into the cells.
             Type 1 Diabetes
• Diabetes often goes undiagnosed because many of its
  symptoms seem so harmless. Recent studies indicate
  that the early detection of diabetes symptoms and
  treatment can decrease the chance of developing the
  complications of diabetes.
• Type 1 Diabetes
• Frequent urination
• Unusual thirst
• Extreme hunger
• Unusual weight loss
• Extreme fatigue and Irritability
           Why does this happen?
•   Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas to control blood sugar.
    Diabetes can be caused by too little insulin, resistance to insulin, or both.
•   There are three major types of diabetes:
•   Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in childhood. Many patients are
    diagnosed when they are older than age 20. In this disease, the body
    makes little or no insulin. Daily injections of insulin are needed. The exact
    cause is unknown. Genetics, viruses, and autoimmune problems may play a
    role.
•   Type 2 diabetes is far more common than type 1. It makes up most of
    diabetes cases. It usually occurs in adulthood, but young people are
    increasingly being diagnosed with this disease. The pancreas does not
    make enough insulin to keep blood glucose levels normal, often because
    the body does not respond well to insulin. Many people with type 2 diabetes
    do not know they have it, although it is a serious condition. Type 2 diabetes
    is becoming more common due to increasing obesity and failure to exercise.
•   Gestational diabetes is high blood glucose that develops at any time during
    pregnancy in a woman who does not have diabetes. Women who have
    gestational diabetes are at high risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular
    disease later in life.
Do You Know How Food Portions Have
        Changed in 20 Years?


  National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
        Obesity Education Initiative
                  BAGEL
  20 Years Ago                 Today




140 calories              How many calories
3-inch diameter           are in this bagel?
                    BAGEL
  20 Years Ago                             Today




140 calories                         350 calories
3-inch diameter                      6-inch diameter

            Calorie Difference: 210 calories
Maintaining a Healthy Weight is a Balancing Act
          Calories In = Calories Out




         How long will you have to rake leaves in order to
         burn the extra 210 calories?*

                    *Based on 130-pound person
Calories In = Calories Out




If you rake the leaves for 50 minutes you will
burn the extra 210 calories.*


             *Based on 130-pound person
     CHEESEBURGER
20 Years Ago          Today




 333 calories   How many calories are
                in today’s cheeseburger?
     CHEESEBURGER
20 Years Ago                             Today




 333 calories                        590 calories


      Calorie Difference: 257 calories
Maintaining a Healthy Weight is a Balancing Act
          Calories In = Calories Out




          How long will you have to lift weights
          in order to burn the extra 257 calories?*

                   *Based on 130-pound person
Calories In = Calories Out




If you lift weights for 1 hour and 30 minutes,
you will burn approximately 257 calories.*

               *Based on 130-pound person
SPAGHETTI AND MEATBALLS
   20 Years Ago                     Today




 500 calories                 How many calories do
 1 cup spaghetti with sauce   you think are in today's
 and 3 small meatballs        portion of spaghetti and
                              meatballs?
SPAGHETTI AND MEATBALLS
   20 Years Ago                             Today




 500 calories                          1,025 calories
 1 cup spaghetti with sauce            2 cups of pasta with sauce
 and 3 small meatballs                 and 3 large meatballs

               Calorie Difference: 525 calories
Maintaining a Healthy Weight is a Balancing Act
          Calories In = Calories Out




         How long will you have to houseclean in order
         to burn the extra 525 calories?*

                   *Based on 130-pound person
 Calories In = Calories Out




If you houseclean for 2 hours and 35 minutes,
you will burn approximately 525 calories.*

                  *Based on 130-pound person
          FRENCH FRIES
20 Years Ago              Today




 210 Calories     How many calories are in
 2.4 ounces       today’s portion of fries?
           FRENCH FRIES
20 Years Ago                                Today




  210 Calories                             610 Calories
  2.4 ounces                               6.9 ounces

        Calorie Difference: 400 Calories
Maintaining a Healthy Weight is a Balancing Act
          Calories In = Calories Out




        How long will you have to walk leisurely in
        order to burn those extra 400 calories?*

                       *Based on 160-pound person
   Calories In = Calories Out




If you walk leisurely for 1 hour and 10 minutes
you will burn approximately 400 calories.*

                  *Based on 160-pound person
                SODA
20 Years Ago                 Today




  85 Calories          How many calories are
  6.5 ounces           in today’s portion?
                    SODA
20 Years Ago                              Today




  85 Calories                           250 Calories
  6.5 ounces                            20 ounces
            Calorie Difference: 165 Calories
Maintaining a Healthy Weight is a Balancing Act
          Calories In = Calories Out




         How long will you have to work in the garden to
         burn those extra calories?*

                       *Based on 160-pound person
  Calories In = Calories Out




If you work in the garden for 35 minutes,
you will burn approximately 165 calories.*

              *Based on 160-pound person
     TURKEY SANDWICH
20 Years Ago             Today




  320 calories   How many calories are in
                 today’s turkey sandwich?
     TURKEY SANDWICH
20 Years Ago                                   Today




  320 calories                            820 calories


            Calorie Difference: 500 calories
Maintaining a Healthy Weight is a Balancing Act
          Calories In = Calories Out




         How long will you have to ride a bike in order to
         burn those extra calories?*
                       *Based on 160-pound person
Calories In = Calories Out




If you ride a bike for 1 hour and 25 minutes,
you will burn approximately 500 calories.*


              *Based on 160-pound person
             Thank you for participating in
               Portion Distortion!

For more information about Maintaining a Healthy Weight
               visit www.nhlbi.nih.gov

				
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