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Communication Disorders


									Using Home Visits to Enhance
       Literacy Skills
          Carla Peterson
            Gayle Luze
       Kere Hughes-Belding
       Iowa State University
           June 2, 2010
          Contact Information

• Carla Peterson
  Human Development and Family Studies
  E262 Lagomarcino Hall
  Iowa State University
  Ames, IA 50011

• What is developmental parenting?
• How practitioners can facilitate developmental
• Considerations for promoting language and
  literacy development
How young children learn

            • What is this child
            • How is this child
            • What does this tell us
              about how to intervene
              with young children and
              their families?
Home Visiting – Intervention – Learning
       Today’s Discussion

• Using a parenting-focused
  model to facilitate developmental
  parenting to keep learning alive
  between home visits
      Developmental Parenting

• What parents do to support their children’s
  learning and development
• Values a child’s development, supports a
  child’s development, changes along with a
  child’s development
• Is warm, responsive, encouraging, and
• Is what many early childhood programs strive
  to increase
        Facilitative Approach

• A facilitative approach makes developmental
  parenting easier
• Emphasis is on child development
• Focus is on parent-child interactions that
  support early development
• Practitioner uses strategies to assess and
  expand on family strengths to support early
Triadic Interactions -- Coaching

• Coaching -- a reciprocal process between a
  coach and a learner, comprised of a series of
  conversations focused on mutually agreed
  upon outcomes” (Rush et al., 2003, p. 34).
  Triadic Interactions -- Coaching

• Coaching involves
  – supporting and encouraging an individual during
    the process of learning and using new skills by
    giving specific feedback about performance (Kaiser
    & Hancock, 2003).
  Triadic Interactions -- Coaching

• This learner focused context
  – provides a framework for
    •   self observation,
    •   self correction,
    •   reflection, and
    •   discussion that
  – actively engages the learner by providing multiple
    opportunities to practice new skills with guided
    feedback (Rush et al., 2003).
 Coaching Process – Components

• Initiation
• Observation
• Action
• Reflection
• Evaluation
(Hanft, Rush, & Shelden, 2004)
  Facilitative Approach -- A B C

• Approach and attitudes

• Behaviors

• Content
          Facilitative Attitudes

• Practitioners show facilitative attitudes when
  they are
  – Responsive to family strengths and culture
  – Flexible in strategies and activities
  – Supportive and accepting in relationships with the
         Facilitative Behaviors

• Practitioners show facilitative behaviors when
  – Focus parents on child development
  – Elicit parent-child interaction
  – Support developmental parenting behaviors
  – Establish a collaborative partnership with parents
  – Involve other family members
  – Use family activities as learning opportunities
           Facilitative Content

• Practitioners provide facilitative content when
  – Provide information parents want and need now
  – Emphasize broad developmental foundations
  – Plan a “curriculum” on developmental parenting
  – Help parents plan child development activities
  – Get information about community resources
    Parenting-focused Model


Parent                    Child
     Triadic Interactions – Goal
• Engage parent with child
   – Enjoyable interaction
   – Common activity
      • Daily routine
      • Toy/game/song
      • Task
• Why?
   – Enhance child development
   – Increase parent’s enjoyment of child
   – Build communication foundations
    Triadic Interactions – Tips

• Talk to the parent
  – Directly
  – Through the child
• Hand materials to the child
• Draw parent into activity through the
• Pretend there is a glass wall between
  you and the parent
Why does this make me worry?
      Parenting-focused Model

+Respects parent as child’s teacher
+Builds developmental parenting skills
+Builds parent confidence in parenting
+Helps parent use child development
+Helps parent keep parenting during a crisis
+Establishes an enduring context for a child’s
       Parenting-focused Model

- Requires more practitioner training and skills
Unpacking Home Visits
What is the Role of the Practitioners?
             ITDS & FDS
What is the Role of the Practitioner?

                         Support Child-Oriented Activity
                              Direct Teaching w/Child
                              Model for Parent
                              Coach Parent-Child
                         Support Adult Communication
                         Other
Role of the Practitioner-Overall vs. Parent-
         Child Triadic Interactions
ITDS Role - Mother’s Engagement
    Developing Language & Literacy

• Start with positive adult-child relationship
• Build language skills from the very beginning
  – Use language around children: describe, explain,
    introduce new words and activities
  – Incorporate language into play: describe, explain,
    introduce new words
  – Help parents understand that talking and language
    will help child develop school skills and have more
    job opportunities
 Language and Literacy Environment

• Include things for children to think and talk
   – Make environment interesting
   – Have books available (for all ages)
   – Toys/materials that encourage children to interact
     with one another – helps develop language and
     social skills
 Language and Literacy Environment

• Use pictures
  – Photos of children engaged in home,
    neighborhood, or classroom activities (include
  – Photos of conceptual words – group by concepts
    (color, size, shape, sound)
  – Combine photos with words for labels – make the
    labels meaningful
  – Use meaningful labels in rooms
   Language and Literacy Interaction

• Children learn language/literacy best during
  interactions that include support and
• Ask open-ended questions
• Use new vocabulary words
• Use descriptive words (including feeling
   Language and Literacy Interaction

• Have conversations with children
  – Talk about what interests them
  – Help keep a conversation going for more than one
  – Wait – give children time to respond
• Make talking part of typical routines
  – Describe what you are doing and why
   Language and Literacy Interaction

• Sing with children – especially babies
• Repeat nursery rhymes
• Tell stories related to children’s culture –
  invite others in to tell stories
• Invite people in to read with children
• Combine stories with actions – add motor
  element to language and literacy
 Selecting Books for Young Children

• Books should:
  – Interest children (familiar routines, about things
    they like: trucks, animals, etc)
  – Have simple & engaging stories (plots)
  – Have bright colors & sharp contrast
  – Have big print
  – Rhythmic writing: use repeated phrases, rhyme,
    use familiar phrases
  – Be sturdy (board/bath books for babies; hardcover
    books for toddlers)
 Selecting Books for Young Children

• Books can help children
  – Develop cognitive skills – talk about their world,
    teach new information
  – Develop motor skills – holding books, turning
  – Develop social skills – read about how to get along
    with people, solve relationship problems
  – Develop a love of books – are fun, give them a
    chance to spend time with a favorite adult
        Reading with Children

• Read at a slower pace with children
• Read with expression (different voices for
  different characters)
• Hold the book so children can see pictures
• Ask questions while reading (open ended
  questions, predict story)
        Reading with Children

• Point to words as read, talk about
• Go beyond the text (talk the story)
• Read books without words or without story
  line and make up your own (e.g., Good Dog
  Carl, Richard Scary books)
         Reading with Children

• Read favorite books over and over
• Read books related to classroom themes &
  activities (read about apples during fall, about
  children and naptime, etc)
• Let children act out parts of the story
      Facilitating Parents’ Reading
           With Their Children
• Help them plan a time for reading & set up to
  be relaxed
  – Make short reading sessions routine
     • E.g., at bedtime, after lunch, when Daddy gets home
       from work, with grandma
• Bring books to make waiting easier (e.g.,
  doctors’ office)
      Facilitating Parents’ Reading
           With Their Children
• Help parents go beyond just reading the text
  – Model appropriate reading for them
    • Pace, voice inflection, asking questions, commenting
  – Send home books and tips for reading
  – Give ideas for including literacy in everyday
    activities at home (e.g., let child “write” as parent
    makes shopping list)
   Facilitating Parents’ Reading With
              Their Children

• Encourage use of the local library
  – Find out the library hours
  – Hold group events at the library & in conjunction
    with story time if possible
  – Show parents how to use library if needed
  Learning About Family Routines

• Community map
• Routines-based interview (McWilliam,
• Axtmann, A., & Dettwiller, A. (2005). The visit: Observation, reflection,
  synthesis for training and relationship building. Baltimore: Brookes.
• Kaiser, A. P. & Hancock, T. B. (2003). Teaching parents new skills to
  support their young children’s development. Infants and Young
  Children, 16, 9-21.
• Klass, C. S. (2008). The home visitor’s guidebook: Promoting optimal
  parent & child development. Baltimore: Brookes.
• Rush, D. D., Sheldon, M. L. & Hanft, B. E. (2003). Coaching families
  and colleagues: A process for collaboration in natural settings. Infants
  and Young Children, 16, 33-47.
• Roggman, L. A., Boyce, L. K., Innocenti, M. S. (2008). Developmental
  parenting: A guide for early childhood practitioners. Baltimore:

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