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									Memory II: Not remembering

       Mr. Short Term Memory
   Think H.M.
    • Bilateral medial temporal lobe resection

    • Anterograde amnesia
         New info goes in one ear, out the next

    • Storing is different from encoding
         Knows name, hometown, but…
        Plan: Errors in Memory

   Sins of forgetting, distortion, and
    suggestibility (false memory)

   Ways to improve memory

             How’s your memory?
    7 Sins of (normal) Memory
 Absentmindedness
 Transience
                        Can occur at any
 Blocking               stage
 Misattribution          • Encoding
 Suggestibility          • Storage
 Bias                    • Retrieval
 Persistence
Which is the real deal?
               Tatiana Cooley
      “I’m incredibly absentminded… I
               live by post-its”
   99 photos w/names
    • 15 minutes
    • Same photos, different order
    • 85 correct!
 Also: strings of 4,000 numbers, 500
  words, lines of poetry and deck of cards
 “Visualization & association”
          The Name Game
   Much of what we sense, we never notice
    • Change blindness (even while in our presence)

   Encoding failures
    • Lack of attention OR,
    • Don’t process well enough for consolidation

   Ineffective encoding
    • Imagine reading aloud to yourself while distracted…
   Changes in strength of neural connxns

   Originally, Lashley & “Engram”
    • Rats in maze, more area removed, worse
       No specific location
       Equipotentiality
           Wrong, wrong, wrong
   Specialization: “Bark” sound vs. “Dog”

   Structure: Black-capped chickadees with
    vs. Monkeys w/out.

   Neurochem– epinephrine (stress) &
    • 22 seniors: Country Time vs. Crystal Light
    • 36 teenagers: normally -8%, unless glucose
    • Breakfast before tests…
       Transience: decay over time
   Competing information displaces
    information attempting to retrieve

   Interference
    • Sleep study, 1924: 1, 2, 4, 8 hours
         Not as much decay as interference, inhibition,
          obliteration of old by new
    • Proactive- already known intf’s with new
    • Retroactive- new material intf’s with old
         Stanford President: fish & names
       Memory as Reconstructive
   Filling in missing pieces

   Disadvantages of schemas
    • Office Study
    • Confidence & accuracy NOT well correlated
      (sleep list, 2 voices, remember vs. know)
    • Memories for early events = reconstructions
          Misinformation Effect
 False/ misleading information given
  after eyewitness event incorporated
  into account of event
 Loftus & Palmer (1974)
    • How fast was the car going when it…
       Contacted- 31.8
       Smashed- 40.8

    • Did you see any broken glass…
       Hit- 14%
       Smashed- 32%
                Experiment 1
   Film of 5-car chain-reaction accident
    • Accident = 4 seconds
 Driver runs stop sign into oncoming
 10 questions
    • How fast was Car A going when it ran the
      stop sign?
    • How fast was Car A going when it turned
    10. Did you see a stop sign for Car A? (53%
      vs. 35%
              Experiment 2
   After short video:
    • How fast was white car going when it
      passed the barn while traveling along
      the country road?
    • How fast was the white car going while
      traveling along the country road?
   1 week later
    • Did you see a barn?
    • 17% vs. 2% said “Yes”
           Experiment 3
 Did you see a truck in the beginning
  of the film?
                   0%

 At the beginning of the film, was the

  truck parked beside the car?
                  22%
ACCURACY is VERY important
   Tell me about the time you got a
    hand caught in a mousetrap and had
    to have the trap removed at the

   Commercial…
“My brother Colin was trying to get
Blowtorch from me and I wouldn’t let
him take it from me, so he pushed me
into the wood pile where the mouse
trap was. And then my finger got
caught in it. And then we went to the
hospital, and my mommy , daddy and
Colin drove me there, to the hospital
in our can, because it was far away,
and the doctor put a bandage on this
        False Memory Implantation
   Present 4 childhood events
   3 provided by parents as true
    • 1 created by experimenter, verified as false
   Describe all 4 events

   29% adults recall being lost in mall
   20-30% hospitalized with ear infection, spilling
    punch at wedding, evacuating store with
    activated sprinklers, releasing parking brake &
    rolling into object
           Case study* *  164

 Remembered feeling frightened
 Described store was lost in

 Recalled scolding when found

 Remembered looks of man who

  found him (blue flannel, glasses, old,
 Clarity rated at top of scale

 Chose true experience as false
   Eyewitness Testimony (see clip)
How to improve your memory
How to Improve Memory: Mnemonics
   Increase Practice Time
    • More time spent studying, better
    • Remember more from 4- 2hrs than 1-8hr

   Increase the Depth of Processing
    • Think actively and deeply (how is it
      linked? Ask, think ,talk)

   Hierarchical Organization
    • Outline: Broad categories, subcategories
How to Improve Memory: Mnemonics
   Method of Loci
    • Mentally place in familiar locations. Memorize
      familiar route, then place visual images.
   Peg-Word Method
    • List of words = “pegs”; Hang items on pegs;
      imagine interaction
   Minimize Interference
    • Study before sleeping; review all material right
      before exam
   Utilize Context Effects
    • Setting, mood, time, smell, etc.
Imagery & Mnemonics
      One is a bun
      Two is a shoe
      Three is a tree
      Four is a door
      Five is a hive
      Six is sticks
      Seven is heaven
      Eight is a gate
      Nine is a line
      Ten is a hen
   Persistence of unwanted memories

   Film clip

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