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Bilingual and Multilingual Communities

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					Bilingual and Multilingual Communities
When speakers of different languages interact closely, it is typical for
their languages to influence each other

Bilingual speakers often borrow new word incorporate new words,
morphological and grammatical structures into their primary
languages which then spread into the primary language and thus act
as catalysts for language change.

In bilingual and multilingual
communities different languages
can have different social
meanings and values

Bilingual speakers can choose
which language to speak
depending on context, topics,
personal goals etc.
          Proto-Indo-European language (PIE)
The hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages,
spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans.




                             6000 BP
                  Indo European Numbers

             1     2           3      4       5          6      7           8     9      10

English    One    Two   Three      Four    Five    Six       Seven    Eight     Nine   ten

German     eins   zwei drei        vier    fünf    sechs     sieben acht        neun   zehn

Spanish    uno    dos   tres       cuatro cinco    seis      siete    ocho      nueve diez

French     un     deux trois       quatre cinq     six       sept     huit      neuf   dix

Romanian unu      doi   trei       patru   cinci   s,ase     s,apte   opt       nouâ   zece

Sanskrit   éka    dvá   trí        catúr   páñca   s.as.     sap tá   as.tá     náva   dáça
The Anglo-Saxon Period
       410-787
          Old English (OE) dates from
        approximately 400 A.D. to 1066


1. Se man is god             ‘the man is good’
2. Ne drincst Þu win? “not drinkest thou wine?
3. Ne habbað we cyning       “not have we a king”
4. We eow can.         “We y’all know’
5. Heo hine lærde            “She him advised’
6. Hi hæfdon hire mete geboht. “ They had their
                             food brought’
7. He geseah Þone mann “ he saw the man”
                  Lord's prayer in old english
                     OE Morphology
   OE inflected for
   • Case (subject, object, ind. obj, poss.)
   • Gender (masculine, feminine, neuter)
   • Number (singular, plural)
   • comparative and superlative adjectival
      conjunctions (e.g. the suffixes –er and –est
      as in fair, fairer and fairest )

Old English is nearly impossible to read or understand without
studying it much like and English speaker today would study French,
Latin, or Chinese
   Early England Created by Three Invasions
                                       2. Anglo-Saxon
                                       and Viking
1. Roman Occupation 55 B.C.-410 A.D.   Invasions 410 –
                                       1066 A.D.




                                                         GERMAN(IC)
                                        3. The
                                        Norman
                                        Invasion
                                        (The Battle
                                        of Hastings)
         LATIN                          in 1066 A.D.


                                                         FRENCH
           Middle English (1100-1500)
1066 William the Conqueror of Normandy invades England
 unites the kingdom.
 Replaces traditional gov’t with a new system and his own
   appointments.
 replaces the English nobility with Normans.
 replaces the Church leadership with Normans




                                Middle English Canterbury Tales
                      Middle English
 Class-based division in language use
      Aristocracy –French
      Tradesmen and Servants –English and French
      Peasants –English
      Clergy and “Scholars” –Latin, English, and French
the removal from the top levels of the English-speaking
political and ecclesiastical hierarchy, and their replacement
with a Norman-speaking one, both opened the way for the
introduction of Norman as a language of polite refined
discourse and literature and fundamentally altered the role
of Old English in education and administration.
 Results in a system of class-based synonyms
       English      ox pig sheep wood house         bold
       French       beef pork mutton forest mansion courageous

 Some words of French origin are considered more formal or polite
than Anglo-Saxon equivalents
      Anglo-Saxon source            French source
       Smell                       odor
       Sweat                       perspiration
       Eat                         dine
       Dead                        deceased
       Want                        desire
       Look at                     regard
       Go away                     depart
       Come back                   return

the complex system of inflectional endings which Old English had was
gradually lost and simplified in the dialects of spoken English
                             Some ME loans from French
Law and government
attorney, bailiff, chancellor, chattel, country, court, crime, defendent, evidence, government, jail, judge,
jury, larceny, noble, parliament, plaintiff, plea, prison, revenue, state, tax, verdict

Church
abbot, chaplain, chapter, clergy, friar, prayer, preach, priest, religion, sacrament, saint, sermon

Nobility
baron, baroness; count, countess; duke, duchess; marquis, marquess; prince, princess; viscount,
    viscountess; noble,
royal (contrast native words: king, queen, earl, lord, lady, knight, kingly, queenly)

Military
army, artillery, battle, captain, company, corporal, defense,enemy,marine, navy, sergeant, soldier,
    volunteer

Cooking
beef, boil, broil, butcher, dine, fry, mutton, pork, poultry, roast, salmon, stew, veal

Culture and luxury goods
art, bracelet, claret, clarinet, dance, diamond, fashion, fur, jewel, oboe, painting, pendant, satin, ruby,
sculpture

Other
adventure, change, charge, chart, courage, devout, dignity, enamor, feign, fruit, letter, literature,
magic, male, female, mirror, pilgrimage, proud, question, regard, special
Some of the loan words were changed to fit the sound patterns and
morphology of Anglo-Saxon
modern English /ž/ was absent in old English Anglo Saxon
heard by 11th century Anglo Saxon inhabitants of British isles in
speech of Norman invaders
they replaced the unpronounceable /ž/ with their native /ĵ/

              English        French
Just          /ĵ/ust         /ž/ust
Judge         /ĵ/u/ĵ/        /ž/uz
Jack          /ĵ/aek         /ž/ak

The English consonant /ĵ/ replaced French /ž/ because it is the native
sound closest to the French one
Both /ĵ/ and /ž/ are voiced palatal consonants, although they differ in
their manner of articulation
Eventually /ž/ became incorporated into English in such words as
lingerie, rouge, pleasure, casual
         Prologue from The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer.

Original:                                      Translation:
Whan þat Aprill with his shoures sote          When that April with his showers sweet The
Þe droghte of Marche haþ perced to the rote,   drought of March has pierced to the root
And baðed euery veyne in swich licour,         And bathed every vein in such liqueur
Of which vertu engendred is þe flour;          Of which virtue engendered is the flower,
Whan Zephirus eek with his swete breeþ         When Zephyrus also with his sweet breath
Inspired haþ in euery holt and heeþ            Inspired has in every holt and heath
Þe tendre croppes, and the yonge sonne         The tender crops, and the young sun
Haþ in the Ram his halfe course yronne,        Has in the Ram his half course run,
And smale fowles maken melodye,                And small fowls make melody
That slepen al the niȝt with open ye—          That sleep all the night with open eye,
So prikeþ hem Nature in hir corages—           So pricks them nature in their hearts,
Þan longen folk to goon on pilgrimages,        Then long folk to go on pilgrimages,
And palmeres for to seken straunge strondes,   And palmers for to seek strange strands
To ferne halwes, couthe in sondry londes;      To far shrines known in sundry lands,
And specially, from euery shires ende          And specially from every shires’ end
Of Engelond to Caunterbury þey wende,           Of England to Canterbury they wend
The holy blissful martir for to seke,          The holy blessed martyr for to seek
Þat hem haþ holpen, whan þat þey were seke.    That them has helped when that they were
                                               sick.
            canterbury Tales
Words from ancient Egyptian (usually via Greek)
 Pyramid                   Sphinx
 Mummi                     Susan(na),
 Obelisk                   Phineas,
 Egypt                     Moses
 Gypsy                     Ammonia
 Pharaoh                   Libya
 Gum                       Memphis
 Ebony                     barge,
 Oasis                     Bark
 Adobe                     Barque
 Ivory                     to embark
 Behemoth                  tart
 Manna                     Sash
 Basalt                    pharmacy
 Myth                      Paper
 pitcher                   Alabaster
 Phoenix                   Humphrey
 Lily                      Baboon
 Sack                      alchemy
 Columbus                  chemistry
                                   Pidgin
a simplified language that develops as a means of communication
between two or more groups that do not have a language in common
not a native language of any speech community, but must be learned
as second languages.
usually have low prestige
Usually made up of elements from both languages
Since a Pidgin strives to be a simple and effective form of
communication, the grammar, phonology, and lexicon are as simple as
possible
 •Subject-Verb-Object word order
 •no embedded clauses
 •No tones,
 •Little case inflections
                             Pidgin

Chinese Pidgin English and Melanesian Pidgin English arose through
contact between English-speaking traders and inhabitants of East
Asia and the Pacific islands.
Other pidgins appeared with the slave trade in Africa and with the
importation of West African slaves to Caribbean plantations.
Most of the small vocabulary of a pidgin language (Melanesian
Pidgin has only 2,000 words, Chinese Pidgin English only 700)
It is believed that pidgins become Creole languages when a
generation whose parents speak pidgin to each other teach it to their
children as their first language.
Creoles can then replace the existing mix of languages to become
the native language of a community
                            Creoles
A language descended from a pidgin (usually) that has
become the native language of a group of people.
Creoles arise in contact situations where speakers of
different languages interact and need to develop a mutually
intelligible code
The majority of creole languages are based on English,
Portuguese, French, Spanish and other languages (their
superstrate language), with local or immigrant languages as
substrate languages.
Generally have a low status
Most speakers of a Creole are bilingual
Gullah - derived from English
                                 Examples
and African languages spoken
by about 300,000 people on
islands of the coast of South
Carolina
Louisiana Creole derived
from various African
languages and French about
80,000 Creole speakers
Hawaiian Creole is a complex
mix of English, native
Hawaiian and several Asian or
pacific languages spoken in
Hawaii by about 800,000
people
          Language use in bilingual communities
In bilingual communities particular languages can become
associated with particular contexts and invoke distinct social and
personal meanings
Bilingual speakers must often choose between the two (or more
options)
What will choice depend on?
                                      context, participants, topics,
                                      and goals
                                      Bilingual English and Spanish
                                      may speak Spanish at home
                                      while talking about personal
                                      relationships which gives them a
                                      sense of solidarity
                                       and English at work when
                                      discussing business matters
                               Diglossia
A situation where there are two (often closely-related, or varieties of)
languages coexisting in the same society
These languages are usually arranged hierarchically
The high language
    • the more conservative form of the language
    • high prestige
    • generally used by the government and in formal texts
    • usually the written language
    • Dominates in `Formal' domains such as public speaking, religious
    texts and practice, education, and other prestigious kinds of usage
    • For diglossic situations involving two different (genetically
    unrelated) languages the high language is the language of the local
    power elite or the dominant religious community and/or its
    priesthood.
    • In such cases the High variety language is the language of the
    more powerful section of the society
The low language
   • has low prestige
   • usually the spoken vernacular tongue (i.e. the native or local
   language of an area - the common language).
   • used for informal conversation, jokes, street and market, the
   telephone, and any other domains (e.g. letter writing, cinema,
   television)
   • often associated with strong national loyalty and can be used to
   signal in group membership
Examples
French and English in Canada
 Classic Latin spoken by the Romans and Vulgar Latin spoken by
the common people (Latin word vulgaris, meaning "of people“)
    • Vulgar Latin evolved into the Romance languages
Old English spoken by the English commoners and French
spoken by the upper class
 90% of Paraguans speak Guarani
Both Spanish and Guarani are the official
languages yet Spanish, spoken mostly in
urban areas is the language of prestige (an
international language with a long literary
tradition) and used in government,
schools, and commerce.
Guarani is used in rural areas and in
informal settings with friends and relatives,
in talking with status inferiors.
 bilinguals choice depends on (1)location
of interaction, (2) degree of formality. (3)
degree of intimacy and (4)seriousness of
discourse
 Guaraní is seen as emotional and
unsophisticated but raises feelings of pride,
solidarity, linguistic loyalty and nationalism
in the people
                   Selecting a code
In multilingual communities languages carry social
meanings
By choosing to speak in one over another social messages
concerning relative status, prestige or authority can be sent
Choosing the wrong language can cause offence
E.g. In NYC children and young adults, of Puerto Rican
descent are likely to respond to parents or grandparents in
Spanish thus accommodating to their needs but will use
English with their siblings
Lingua francas are nobody`s language so they transmit
messages of equality
Speakers engage in reciprocal accommodation
                        Lingua Franca

language used by people
whose mother tongues are
different in order to
communicate.
Any language can serve as
a lingua franca between two
groups

Any given language
normally becomes a lingua
franca primarily by being
used for international
commerce, but can be
accepted in other cultural      Pieter Bruegel, The tower of Babel 1563.
exchanges
The Hanseatic League, an alliance of trading guilds trading over the
Baltic and North between the 13th and 17th centuries used
German as a lingua franca
                         Other Examples
French - the language of diplomacy in Europe from the 1600s until
after WW1 when it was replaced by English
 English, French, Spanish in former colonies
 English is the current lingua franca of international business,
science, technology and aviation, diplomacy
 English is also regarded as an unofficial global lingua franca due to
the economic, cultural, and geopolitical power of most of the
developed Western nations in world financial and business
institutions.
                                Swahili
Used throughout large parts of East Africa as a lingua franca since the mid
1700s
Swahili was used along trading and slave routes that extended west across
Lake Tanganyika and into the present-day DRC
About 35% of the Swahili vocabulary derives from the Arabic language,
resulting from the fact that the language evolved through centuries of
contact between Arabic-speaking traders and many different Bantu-speaking
peoples inhabiting Africa's Indian Ocean coast.

It also has incorporated Persian, German,
Indian and English words
Swahili has become a second language
spoken by tens of millions in Tanzania, Kenya,
and Congo (DRC), where it is an official or
national language.
the only African language among the official
working languages of the African Union.
                                 Swahili
Swahili is typically the first language two strangers use upon meeting.
The average East African encounters Swahili in the market, elementary
education, government "how to" publications, popular radio and films.
 New Indian movies often dubbed in Swahili
Tanzania uses Swahili as its official code and is used in all public domains
because it wants the entire population to achieve an adequate level of
literacy and education
In Kenya Swahili is an official language but in practice English is used in
public domains because it wants to en courage a select few to pursue
advanced education
Some non-Swahili ethnic groups speak Swahili
more often than their mother tongues, and
many choose to raise their children with
Swahili as their first language
 leading to the possibility that several smaller
East African languages will fade as Swahili
transitions from being a regional lingua franca
to a regional first language.
English in India
          India has hundreds of different
          languages spread over 4 language
          families and including many
          isolates.
          The largest, Hindi is spoken by
          over 400 million
          After independence Hindi was
          given official status in the hopes
          that it would unite the hundreds
          of ethnic groups in India
           English was given status as an
          ``assistant`` language and was
          supposed to terminate officially
          15 years after independence
           English is mother tongue of only
          200,000 people but known by 100
          million
                               English came to India in 1611 when the East
                               India Company started trading
                                British rulers used high caste Brahmins as
                               mediators and administrators
                                The British policy was to create an Indian
                               class who were “Indians in blood and color but
                               English in taste, in opinions and morals and
                               intellect”.
       British India 1858

English Christian missionaries came to India from 1813 and later built high
schools with English as the language of instruction which obliged the Indians
who wanted to study to have a good knowledge of English.
The British also established universities in India beginning in 1857 again with
English the language of instruction.
 Indian leaders also supported English and, claiming it to be the main key to
success establish many new schools with English the language of instruction
 schools that emphasized English were preferred by ambitious Indians.
 Indians who spoke good English were seen as the new elite of India
Indians who know English will always
try to show that they know English.
It symbolizes in Indians minds, better
education, better culture and higher
intellect.
Indians who know English often
mingle it with Indian languages in
their conversations. English also
serves as the communicator among
Indians who speak different language
Until the beginning of 1990s, foreign
movies in India weren’t translated or
dubbed in Indian languages, but were
broadcast in English and were meant
for English speakers only
Though it lacks the symbolic power to be chosen as the sole official
language, it is used widely in communication.
serious journalism is English both in the print media, and
broadcasting
In higher education English is the premier prestige language.
Careers in any area of business or commerce, or within the
government, or in science and technology require fluency in English.
Very much a part of the educated middle and upper class person's life
especially of the youth in India
the largest number of books are published in English
                              Use of English creates a language barrier
                              that helps maintain the privileged positions
                              of lawyers and other professionals
                              Many Elite classes oppose Hindi as the
                              national language and advocate English
                              because it enhances their prestige and
                              control over governmental, economic and
                              educational institutions
    Bill 101 – the Charter of the French Language.
declaration that French was to be the only language allowed on
commercial signs in the province. With few exceptions, the use of
English was banned
n 1993, introduced Bill 86, which allowed English on outdoor
commercial signs only if the French lettering was at least twice as large
as the English.
                              It's not simply a language thing, but
                              concerns interrelated histories of cultural
                              dominance and exploitation, economic
                              power, wealth, and political power.
situational language use assumes
symbolic and personal meanings
selection of code between bilingual
speakers may reflect underlying
attitudes about each language
By choosing one language over
another, speakers assert their identity
and show their sensitivity to the
linguistic rights of others
speech accommodation theory
suggests that when speakers have
positive attitudes towards
interlocutors the accommodate or
converge to the latter’s speech styles
                   Basque (Euskera or Euskara)
People have strong emotional ties to their native language - ethnic
identity
languages that have lost speakers can be revitalized when attention is
focused on the association between linguistic and ethnic identity

Basque is a language isolate
little is known of its origins
 It is likely that an early form of the
Basque language was present in
Western Europe before the arrival of
the Indo-European languages to the
area
The Romans neglected the western
Pyrenees allowing the language to
survive while other languages in the
area died out
                  Basque (Euskera or Euskara)
was the majority language of the region until 18th century
Outlawed by Franco during the Spanish civil war (1936-39) until 1975
because of its association with radicalism
1959 Euskadi Ta Askatasuna or ETA founded to advocate traditional cultural
ways and language but evolved into an armed group demanding Basque
independence
1960s A lessening of official restrictions
lead to the development of Basque
language schools for children as well as
programs aimed at teaching Basque to
adults
now taught to university level
A standardized form is promoted
although not understood by all
about 1 million speakers
A direct link between the political
autonomy of Euskadi and the maintenance
of their linguistic and cultural heritage
Restoration of languages in decline may be taken as an aspect of
ethnic revival e.g. Irish
English was the language of social prestige in the mid 16th century
when the English colonized Ireland and Irish went into decline

Irish was the language of the poor
 In the mid 19th century Irish
nationalist movement emerged and
sought to encourage and revive the
original language
 part of a national movement which
led to the Irish Free State
 Irish was made the official language
support for it in the form of compulsory
education, bilingual publications etc.
association of Irish Gaelic with an uneducated
poor rural population translates into a negative
attitude toward the language
                    Endangered languages
A language that it is at risk of falling out of
use, generally because it has fewer than 1000
speakers
 If it loses all of its native speakers, it
becomes an extinct language.
 Many indigenous peoples have abandoned
their language after being subjected to
invasion, conquest and subsequent control by
an overwhelming power, e.g. Native American
languages
moribund languages spoken by adults but           Trinidad Pacaya Inuma, one
                                                   of the remaining 150 fluent
are no longer being learned as the mother          speakers of Iquito (Peru).
tongue by the children and are therefore no
longer viable                                      about half the
 at least 3,000 of the world's 6,000-7,000        world’s languages
languages are liable to be lost before the year    have fewer than
2100. (maybe 90%)                                  3,000 speakers.
                    Good or bad?
Pros
represent unmapped and untapped knowledge of the full
capabilities and limits of the mind
 languages embody unique local knowledge of cultures and
natural systems which is essential for promoting scientific
and technological progress
languages serve as evidence for understanding human
history
                            Cons
Fewer languages means better and clearer
communications among the majority of speakers.
maintaining many separate languages is enormous
       e.g. Eu translations
       designing and marketing a product in several languages
      (instructions)
       education in minority languages necessitates huge
      economic investment in teacher training and preparation of
      textbooks
extremist view is that all languages should give way to
one single language, thereby creating the greatest
economic efficiency possible by utterly avoiding all
transaction costs associated with linguistic differences.
Is such a unified language desirable? – does it stifle
originality.
                           Attitudes
Some communities actively resist promotion of their own minority
language, since children educated in the language are perceived to be
at an economic or social disadvantage, when compared to children
educated in a more dominant national language.

members of very small linguistic communities sometimes express
strong appreciation for the language as a means of communication as
compared with other available languages
                                   19th century, the Canadian government
    Residential schools
                                   assumed responsibility for educating and
                                   caring for the country's aboriginal people.
                                   developed a policy called "aggressive
                                   assimilation" to be taught at church-run,
                                   government-funded industrial boarding
                                   schools, later called residential schools
                                   run, under the Department of Indian
                                   Affairs.
                                   Children were away 10 months of the
                                   year, and all instruction was in English
Native languages were forbidden
The aim was improve their life chances by learning English , Christianity and
Canadian customs.
Ideally, they would pass their adopted lifestyle on to their children, and
native traditions would diminish, or be completely abolished
Similar situation in the USA
many native languages were forgotten
                               Arapaho
Plains Algonquian language spoken almost entirely by elders in Wyoming
and is in great danger of becoming extinct,
Early 1800s English was valued as means to communicate with federal
officials who influenced and controlled reservation communities
Bilingual Arapahos became interpreters and brokers of relations with the
native people and outsiders and often rose to positions of tribal leader
Late 1800s federal education policies restricted or even eliminated the use
of native languages in schools thus limiting the young people’s fluency
For much of 20th century Arapaho at home and
community meetings and celebrations and
religious contexts
English in school, government and business
Beginning in the 1950s most children learned
English as their first language
Few parents speak Arapaho to their children
By the 1990s only 500 or 600 people on a
reservation of 5000 are fluent speakers
Most are over 60                                        Scabby Bull, Arapaho
                Language revitalization
The attempt by individuals, cultural or community groups,
governments, or political authorities--to recover the spoken
use of a language that is endangered, moribund, or no
longer spoken.
efforts at revitalizing and maintaining native American
languages have accelerated considerably in the last decade.
Many younger people see it as a way to reconnect with
their identity and try to learn their languages as well as
ceremonial and social practices
education is key to promotion of its use in society
where there are still many speakers, e.g. Inuktitut, Navajo, and Cree
programs are aimed at maintenance
    the native language is used in schools as either a primary or secondary code
    of instruction, books and other reaching materials are printed in the native
    languages, and children are encouraged to speak their native tongue in all
    appropriate settings
    parents and other relatives need to be involved since the best hope for
    survival occurs when languages are sued in ongoing, spontaneous and
    meaningful interaction
where small number of speakers
    language immersion programs and the presence of elders as role models
    help develop the necessary motivation for young people e.g. Mohawk
In California only a handful of elderly speakers
    A master-apprentice language learning program started
    Then returned to communities to involve a wider network
    Unlikely to lead to widespread language use but important for language
    survival
                                Hebrew
After the 2nd century CE the Roman Empire exiled most of the Jewish
population of Jerusalem and Hebrew gradually ceased to be a spoken
language
 Letters, contracts, commerce, science, philosophy, medicine, poetry, and
laws continued to be written in Hebrew
At the end of the 19th century Hebrew began to be revived as part of the
ideology of the national revival.
 As people moved to Israel it began
to replace scores of languages spoken
by Jews from all over Europe
1921 made official language in
British-ruled Palestine
 1948 became an official language of
Israel
Currently spoken by more than
seven million people in Israel and
used for prayer or study in Jewish
communities around the world.
                 The International Dominance of English
Modern English, sometimes described as the first global lingua franca
is the dominant international language in communications, science,
business, aviation, entertainment, radio and diplomacy
80-75% of computer data in English
The initial reason for its spread was the British Empire,
The growing economic and cultural influence of the USA since WWII
accelerated adoption of English as a global language
Approximately 375 million people speak English as their first
language.
Fourth largest language by number of native speakers, after
Mandarin Chinese and Spanish and Hindi
Estimates that of it spoken as a second language vary from 470
million to over a billion
Most frequency aught foreign language in worlds’ schools
In many countries English has a high status through its association
with advanced education and pubic uses
implies privileges of class and social power
Inclusion of English loan words in Japanese seen as modern and
cosmopolitan, technical and scientific




       some react against the seepage of English into Japanese
                       Code Switching
using more than one language or variety in conversation
Bilingual speakers have a choice of languages to chose from
Choices can have several functions
   lexical need – no word in one language or awkwardly phrased
   Social values associated with knowledge of the prestige code
   used to switch topics,
   Signal group identity
   relationship-building (solidarity)
   attention getting devices
   switch to match gender of interlocutor – female switch more to
   male than male to female
   switch as a sign of deference or accommodation to addressees
                            Code Mixing
A process that incorporates various linguistic features such as
affixes (bound morphemes), words (unbound morphemes),
phrases and clauses of from a second language into a base
language.
                        Spanglish
emphasizes hybridization

 "Oh, here comes El Tubbo"
 "I want some snackolas!!"
 "Let's party-ola!", or "Here's the pizza-mundo",
 "Take los kitties to the vet, okay?"
 "No problem-o" (should be "problema").

    Spanglish
                                  Terms
Bilingual and Multilingual Communities
Proto-Indo-European language
Pidgin
Creoles
Diglossia
low language
The high language
Lingua Franca
Endangered languages
Language revitalization
Code Switching
Code Mixing

				
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