Best Practices in Trade Show Preparation and Execution

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					    Handbook For Organizing Trade Shows

     Serbia Enterprise Development Project

Serbian Investment and Export Promotion Agency

                  Version 1.0

                  March 2007

Using This Handbook .................................................................................................................... 3
I. Deciding To Go To Trade Shows ................................................................................................ 4
II. Task List and Timeline ............................................................................................................... 5
III. Selecting the Right Show ......................................................................................................... 7
IV. Choosing the Companies to Take ........................................................................................... 10
V. The Boot h.............................................................................................................................. 11
VI. Shipping Samples from Serbia ............................................................................................... 14
VII. Product Portfolios ................................................................................................................. 15
VIII. Getting the Most from Trade Shows ...................................................................................... 16
IX. Media and Communications at Trade Shows........................................................................... 20
X. Post Show Follow-Up ............................................................................................................. 22
Appendices ................................................................................................................................. 23
    Sample Company Budget ......................................................................................................... 23
    Sample Organizer Budget......................................................................................................... 24
    Prospect Tracking Form ........................................................................................................... 25
    Sales Tracking Form, Page 1. ................................................................................................... 26
    Sample Memorandum of Understanding (“MOU”) wit h companies ............................................... 30
    Sample Press Release for a Company ...................................................................................... 33
    Booth Photos ........................................................................................................................... 34
    Serbia Export Credit and Insurance Agency (AOFI) .................................................................... 43
    Sample Agreements ................................................................................................................. 45

Using This Handbook

This handbook is directed at entities organizing and assisting delegations of Serbian companies
in attending and getting results at trade shows. The term “organizer” is used throughout to refer to
the group that is organizing the companies (a funding entity, export promotion agency ,
association, etc.).

Trade show planning and execution is a complex and multi-task effort, usually involving many
people working toget her in a coordinat ed manner. The handbook presents an overall set of tasks
and timelines for trade show organization. It then provides det ail on some of the key areas of
operation and sub-tasks. The timeline and tasks included here show the main areas that need to
be covered. However, others may come up and some may not be relevant. Timelines will differ
for each show. The timeline should be adjusted accordingly.

An Excel template is included that allows for these adjustments to be made. The template can
also be used to track progress and ensure that all tasks are being completed by the responsible

The two main factors in successful trade show organization are timing and responsibility. Tasks
must be completed on time to avoid not being ready, additional expenses, or losing contingency
planning time. It is also critical that one person be made responsible for: 1) overall oversight and
monitoring of all progress, and; 2) ensuring that each task be carried out. Not observing these two
basic rules invit es problems.

The handbook contains the current knowledge of S IEPA and SE DP. It should be considered a
living document and updated as needed.

No trade show ever goes perfectly. Don’t be discouraged if you miss deadlines or aren’t able to
do all the things listed here. Just work around it. However, since many of them were out of the
market for a period, Serbian companies may have to work harder and smart er than competitors to
gain the attention and confidenc e of buyers. The recommendations in this manual can help gain a
critical edge in promoting sales.

I. Deciding To Go To Trade Shows

For some companies, going to trade shows is not a good use of time and money. It takes energy
and resources away from their business. They may lose sales by being away. They may not
make any new contacts at the show. A trade show is an investment with real costs. However,
trade shows can give benefits that offset these potential negatives.

1.   Connect with New Buyers and Deci sion Makers
     Trade shows allow companies to connect with existing and new buyers. Often, attendees are
     decision-makers who might not take time to meet with a salesperson, but they go to trade
     shows to stay current on their industry. Sellers can take advantage of this time with decision -

2.   Lower Cost per Sale
     Cost per sale can be significantly lower when a company interfaces with multiple buyers in a
     trade show, than if it were to approach buyers one-by-one.

3.   Di splay Goods Three-Dimensionally
     At trade shows, companies can dis play their goods three–dimensionally, and prospective
     buyers can actually handle the g oods. Since Serbia is far from many markets, this may be the
     only chance for Serbian companies to get their products in front of buyers.

4.   Shorten and Facilitate the Buying Process
     Trade show attendees are typically active buyers who are looking to make quick purchasing
     decisions. Buyers do not need to schedule appointments with suppliers. They are there at the
     trade show, and coming to a decision is easier. A buyer can walk between t wo booths if he is
     deciding bet ween two products.

5.   Acce ss a New Market
     In the case of Serbian companies, their buyers will often not come to Serbia. Companies
     have no choice but to go to the buyers and display their goods.

6.   Test Market for a New Product
     Trade shows also give sellers an opportunity to test the market for a new product that they
     are uncertain about selling. Exposing a new product to a large number of potential buyers ,
     and gauging interest is important intelligence to have before rolling it out.

7.   Gather Market Intelligence on Industry
     Companies can gather market intelligence on their industry: they can walk around, look at the
     booths of their competitors, examine their products, and better understand their position in
     the market.

8.   Generate Publicity
     Companies can generate publicity by attending trade shows, if they are proactive about
     generating it. Much of this publicity is free, becaus e, when a trade show is organized well,
     companies will be covered by the media.

The rest of this handbook outlines the steps to take after an organizer and group of companies
has decided to attend trade shows.

II. Task List and Timeline

The best shows will require registering a year in advance and good preparation can take as long. Initial work with companies needs to begin early
on. This can be a challenge for organizations that have only been in existence for a few years, or for associations, Agencies, Ministries, etc. that
have annual and/or constantly revising budget cycles.

First, the organizer should establish the timeline and assign responsibilities. The ideal timeline is one year. This timeline is then reviewed on a
regular basis to ensure that tasks are being completed on-time.

More detail on the broad tasks given below is provided in the rest of the Handbook.

      Activity                                     1 year     9         8          6          4          3          2         6          1            At the
                                                              months    months     months     months     months     months    weeks      month        Show

 1    Book the space
 2    Pay deposit for the booth
 3    Build the booth if booth is to be made
      in Serbia and taken to the fair
 4    Invite companies to participate at the
 5    Select companies for the fair
 6    Sign Memorandum of Understanding
      with the companies
 7    Work with companies on their
      strategies for the fair
 8    Companies modify products and
      package designs for the fair
 9    Complete/review organizer and
      company budgets
 10   Book hotels and tickets
 11   Companies define products that will
      be taken to the fair

12   Get show manual and review all
     elements internally and with
13   Making booth design, if booth is done
     with builders affiliated with the fair
14   Order booth utilities and services
15   Order equipment for the booth
16   Doing trainings for show participants:
     sales and marketing, PR and media.
     See separate sections.
17   Issuing press releases and making a
     press kit
18   Making graphics for the booth
19   Companies make mark eting materials
     and (update) web site
20   Create a master schedule for the
     show wit h all tasks and
21   Companies send invitations to buyers
     and set up meetings
22   Companies ship samples and
     marketing materials
23   Companies finalize price lists
24   Organizers arrive at the show            3 days
25   Organizers set up the boot h,            2 days
     electricity, press box                   before
26   Exhibitors arrive at the booth and       1 day
     organize their samples, press boxes      before
     and ot her details
27   Complete "at show" checklist             E very day
28   Track all buyers at show                 E very day

III. Selecting the Right Show

There are thousands of trade shows held around the world each year. They represent numerous
sectors, sub-sectors, buyer groups, times, competitors, and geographic markets. Identifying the
right shows for your companies is critical for success.

1. Research Re source s

a) Ask other companies. Many will have an idea of the main shows in their industry. They may
   also not have any idea at all, particularly if they have not tried to access the international
   market previously. Start here to get the names of the main shows, but cross check and
   expand the list using the methods below.

b) Internet. Research on trade shows can be done quickly on the internet. Every industry has
   certain shows that are their flagship events. A place to start is the trade show’s website. The
   show will list who has attended in the past, and who intends t o attend at the upc oming show.
   This research must be conducted in a very discriminating manner. Trade show organiz ation is
   a business, so sites will try to make the shows sound better than they may be.

    If competitors (or potential competitors) of the target Serbian companies are listed as
    attendees, then the Serbian companies should consider going if it is consistent with their
    strategy. To find out who attends the show, check the website. There will be a free list of
    exhibitors and products.

    It is very important to know where buyers go. Organiz ers should determine to which (if any)
    shows current customers of the Serbian companies go. The companies should be present at
    those shows to ensure that their buyers do not choose to go with a competitor and to connect
    with similar buyers who also attend that show.

    After checking and cross checking numerous company sites, it will become apparent that
    certain shows are not to be missed. This may take some time, but is much less costly than
    attending the wrong show.

    The following websites are good sources of information on trade shows in general:

c) Trade show organizers. The hosts of the trade show can be an excellent source of
   information, beyond just looking at the trade show’s websit e. They want to sell space at their
   show, so they will take time to ensure a good fit for a pot ential exhibitor.

    In general, a show that has been in existence for a long time is wort h investigating. It may not
    be right for a certain Serbian company’s strategy, but longevity can indicate volume.

d) Industry publications Subscribing to industry publications is recommended not only to stay
   competitive, but to learn about the most important shows. They will advertise and be reported
   on in industry publications. Companies should also join international industry associations.
   Associations will publish newsletters and keep members informed of important trade shows
   and ot her pertinent industry happenings.

2. Whole industrie s versus sub sectors

Trade shows can be for entire industries, or for sub sectors within that industry. Choosing the
show must be done carefully. Using an example from the food industry, Serbia has many fruit
producers. Producers who specialize in dried fruit may do well at Gulf Food in Dubai, whereas
those who specialize in fres h fruit may do better at the Fruit Logistica show in Germany. The sub
sector expertise of a company must be matched to the trade show and its buyers.

3. Timing Considerations

A factor in where to go is timing. Shows require considerable preparation, so choosing a show
may require deciding far in advance.

a.   Consider a preview visit
     Organizers may consider supporting companies in initial visits to a trade show, without
     displaying. Then, the following year, the company can decide to attend as an exhibitor.

b. Anticipate industry seasonality
   In general, shows will be timed to the industry (i.e. linked to the growing season for fruit or the
   fashion season for apparel).

4. Competitor Attendance

An import ant consideration in choosing the “right” show is going to a show where the company’s
competitors are exhibiting. This requires a sophisticated unders tanding of a company’s position
and who its regional and international competitors are.

5. Buyer Profiles

Understanding the profiles of buyers, and ensuring that those buyers are consistent with the
profiles of the companies who will go to the shows, is important. Are the buyers looking to
outsourc e to Serbia? Or perhaps the buyers at the show are upscale retailers who are l ooking for
an already created, packaged, and branded items to put directly on shelves. Do the buy ers
already source from the region or is there a compelling case to be made for them to buy from

6. Geographical Markets

If companies can’t supply the market represented by the show, it’s likely a waste of money to

a.   Link between geographic mark et and certifications
     Geography and certifications go hand-in-hand. For example, it is very challenging to sell
     certain food products in the Middle East without a Halal certification.

b. Varying costs to enter different geographic mark ets
   Geography will play a large role in det ermining if market entry will be cost effective for a
   company. The target markets must be appropriat e to the capabilities and st rategies of the
   attending companies.

c.   Visa difficulties
     Serbian companies’ employees can have difficulty getting visas to go to cert ain plac es. The
     ability to get visas should be kept in mind.

d.   Access to different mark ets
     Trade shows in certain markets may not be strictly limited to those markets. Buyers from
     promising, but less developed markets may not have their own good shows, but may attend
     others close to their region. This can be very important, as initial assessments of trade
     shows may not be correct.

7. Cultural Preferences

The companies’ image and products should comply with the target market’s political, cultural and
social environment.

If the market is the Middle East, the organizer should contact the commercial attaches in
Belgrade for that region, and gauge opinion on the products. Commercial attaches can also
provide information on cultural differences from region to region. For example, in Western
Europe, food consumers may prefer small packages, whereas in the Middle East, with larger
families, consumers may prefer larger packages. All of this research provides input into the
decision to go to a market. Exhibiting at a trade show in a certain market implies that the decision
has been made.

8. Cost

Serbian companies will in general have limited resources, and organizers will as well. It is
important when choosing shows, to choose the shows with the highest probability of making

In general, size matters. The largest shows will have the largest amount of potential customers.
But the largest shows may also have a large number of information -seekers and browsers, not
buyers looking to close a deal.

Smaller, more targeted shows may be better for certain industries. There is no general rule that
can be followed. This requires doing industry research, reading publications, talking to players in
the industry, and learning what shows will produce the most impact.

Some shows will be more expensive than others to attend. Thos e more expensive shows may
provide more customers and more sales. Organiz ers should be thinking in terms of ret urn on
investment instead of in terms of cost of supporting companies.

9. Multiple Shows

Traveling to multiple shows in one region is preferable, but attending a show only because it is
nearby is not a good business reason. Organizers should encourage companies to attend shows
nearby as a visitor to gather market intelligenc e, but the choice to exhibit needs to be strategic.

IV. Choosing the Companies to Take

Organizers may send out invitations for companies to attend, but it’s up to the companies to meet
the standards to be able to participate. Participation must be open to all. When there is a limit on
participants, then the choice falls to those qualified companies that apply first. To verify and invite,
organizers must have first-hand knowledge of the candidate companies and visit the company to
assess its management and facilities. This checklist can help organizers know whether they will
see good res ults from a particular company.

Organizer’s Check Li st for Companies

    1.    Does the company understand the costs and benefits of attending this trade show
          and is it willing to make the necessary investments?

    2.    Has the company identified the market into which it plans to sell and made
          preparations ?

    3.    Is the company taking products that are appropriate for the types of buyers that
          will be at the trade show?

    4.    Is product presentation appropriate, i.e. are labels and packaging legible, high
          quality, in the appropriate language, attractive and compliant with regulations ?

    5.    Does the company have the certifications it need to sell into the target markets,
          whet her retail, food service, and/or as intermediat e products?

    6.    Does the company have a sales strategy, i.e. are they looking for distributors or
          final buyers and do they know their products strengths and weaknesses?

    7.    Does the company have the capacity to produce significant additional products
          should it get sales?
    8.    Do the representatives of the company speak the required language(s)?

    9.    Does the company well represent Serbia and the industry?

    10.   Are the right people attending and can they negotiate for the company?

  For example, if the company is selling own label, it needs to invest in additional resources to
develop a very sophisticated design, which will mean higher costs for the company. For a private
label, there should be some mock-ups or examples shown. The company must also be placed
correctly in the fair in accordance with this decision.
  Different types of buyers come to different trade shows. The product must reflect the types of
buyers. In specialty shows, sellers need to have more than commodity type products.
  The company should bring copies of the certifications wit h them to the show and display them
on their website. See the appendix for samples.
  As noted, gaining mark et intelligence to determine investment strategy can be a good reason for
attending a trade show. However, if there is no capacity to produce for orders obtained, the
company should not be displaying at the show.
  Usually English is adequat e, though at some fairs it will not be. For example, at Russian fairs
the sellers will be expected to speak Russian, not English.

V. The Booth

The booth is what gets fair attendees to stop and visit. It is the physicall y largest element of the
companies (or group of companies) branding efforts. If companies have done their pre-show work
effectively, buyers will come to the booth because of advance buzz and because of an invitation
they received. When they find the booth, it must exceed expec tations, and be capable of drawing
un-targeted buyers as well.

Trade shows are very competitive. Some booth designs are excellent, and many others less so.
Buyers have been surprised and delight ed by Serbia’s strong showing in creative and beautiful
design. This has been critical to developing a national brand of quality. Good booths attract
attention and sell products. This takes a tremendous amount of effort. If possible, talk to someone
who has exhibited at the show you’re preparing for. They can help talk you through the process.

(See appendix for pictures of booths).

1.   Booth Location

a.   Beginner’s Luck
     Companies and organizers will not usually be able to get the ideal space for the booth. The
     desirable spots will be highly contested. By registering ea rly for the show (a year in advance),
     companies can increase their chances of a desirable spot. Often, companies will get a
     desirable spot at the show in their first year, as an incentive to attend. In subsequent years,
     companies may get a less desirable spot, but can work their way back towards the best
     spots, which are based on seniority. A desirable location is generally one that is well -lit, near
     other desirable booths, in the front of the hall (near the door), and in an area with a large
     amount of foot traffic.

b. Compens ating for a less-than-desirable location
   A less-than-desirable location is off in a corner with minimal foot traffic , at a dead-end, or near
   an overflowing food concession area. E ven a great display will not overcome a truly bad
   location. However, pre-show promotion (s uch as invitations and press releases) can help to
   overcome a bad location. Organizers and companies should get a floor plan from show
   management. Unfortunate architectural elements like a column in the middle of a booth or a
   sloping floor or ramp can be partially compensated for by good booth design, but designers
   must know of these issues.

c.   Determining booth size
     Part of location selection is deciding how large the space will be. More space costs more
     money to rent, and a larger booth will be more expensive to build than a smaller one.
     Generally, the size of the booth does have a direct impact on the number of visitors that a
     company or group of companies will have. This is also of course determined by the number of
     companies expected to participate.

2.   Allocating Rental Space

     Of the rental space, usually one-third is set aside for the exhibit itself (graphics, the products).
     The other two-thirds is the space where buyers and sellers meet. A restrictively small boot h
     will make it impossible for more than a few people to be within it. This is an import ant
     consideration for companies and organizers.

3.   Image Is Everything

     The image that the booth projects is crucial. See the Serbia Fruit booth at Fruit Logistica
     (photos in appendix). Its lines are clean; it is modern, fresh, airy. The visuals are bold and
     bright and evok e freshness. The product is fresh fruit, and the booth represents multiple
     companies. The booth is a representation of the product, but also of the message being
     communicated about Serbian fruit growers. The messaging must be consistent with the
     websites of the companies, their marketing materials, the marketing materials created for the
     show itself, and all press materials. This will, in general, be the responsibility of the organizer.

     The organizer must evaluate the companies that will be representing Serbia, find a theme
     that will be projected, and then create a consistent message. Italy does this very well;
     products are associated with quality and also with Italy as a country. Italy does this so well
     they can delineate by region. Tuscany can go to a show with various companies and
     products, and there is an implied quality.

4.   Designing the Booth

     The booth itself can be designed in many ways. It can be large and modular and fill the entire
     space, or the exhibit might be small and exist on a tablet op. The design will grow from the
     amount of space (and budget) available. In general, an organizer of S erbian companies will
     want to use a large booth to be able to adequately promot e a group of companies.

     A custom display is designed and built expressly for a t rade show or for an organizer. It must
     be the highest quality and will be the most expensive. Other options include renting from the
     trade show, buying a used display, building a modular display with less custom elements, and
     creating something portable and easy to travel with.

     The design of the booth should be consistent with the image of the companies, and the
     message. The following design elements will play a significant role in communicating the
     image, and in attracting customers: color, graphics, lighting, shelves and counters to display
     and demonstrate products, photos, video, and flooring. It should go without saying that
     booths should be kept free of jackets and other clutter, and they should be kept as clean as
     possible given all the foot traffic.

     Booth design must take into consideration precise knowledge of the location and its

5.   Constructing the Booth

     The construction experienc e depends on where it is done. In many cases, the boot h design
     will be sent to an approved booth constructing contractor for the fair. In this case, other than
     last-minute adjustments the construction will be out of the hands of the organizer.

     If the booth is constructed in the organizer’s country, the construction of the booth will
     generally occur twice. The first time, it will be built to the design specifications so that the
     organizers and companies can approve it. Then, it will be dismantled, shipped, and rebuilt at
     the trade show. There are a few implications. It must be built to withstand travel. It will be
     expensive, from a labor standpoint. Sometimes, the builders of the boot h travel to trade
     shows to set it up. In many cases, this will not be possible, as labor unions may have
     exclusive contracts. The organizer must be aware of all these issues and factor them into the
     cost. This decision should be made keeping in mind quality and cost.

     In general, organizers should solicit tenders before choosing a des igner or a builder.

6.   Purcha sing Equipment

     Depending on what equipment the companies will take to the show, care (and money) must
     be taken to ensure that it all runs smoothly. If a display requires running a video on a laptop, it
     must be tested in the planning stage, in Serbia, and also at the show, before it begins.
     Lighting, computers, and video and audio equipment can be another level of challenge at a
     show when personnel are trying to mak e a sale. All of these elements must be tested, and
     well-integrated into the design of the booth so as not to seem superfluous. Bells and whistles
     for their own sake are not desirable, and could actually cheapen the display. All elements
     must be considered for how they contribute to the overall presentation and image of the
     company (ies). Unless there are extensive contingency plans in case things go wrong, a
     display should not rely on technical equipment. It should only enhance the booth.

7.   Purcha sing Labor

     In addition to the construction of the booth, local crews will h ave to be hired to assist with
     other services such as running an electrical line, hooking up an internet connection, or
     supplying lighting. This process begins far in advance when the organizer and companies
     familiarize themselves with the show manual. When companies send in the forms requesting
     assistance from show personnel, they should have an accurate understanding of the needs of
     the booth. The set-up time prior to the show will be hectic, and show personnel will be in high
     demand by many exhibitors. Therefore, organizers must ensure that they have requested
     (and paid for) ex actly the services they need. They must have a record of requesting these
     services and they should start early in the days before the show to ensure that all elements
     are in place for the opening of the show. Shows can be chaotic and everything needs to be
     arranged in advance and confirmed. If this is not handled properly, the set-up may face
     additional unforeseen costs.

VI. Shipping Samples from Serbia

Organizers of trade shows face challenges when shipping samples. For Serbia, one of the target
sectors is fruit and food, which is perhaps most challenging. There are different considerations
when shipping to Europe and shipping to the United States.

1.   Obstacle s to Shipping to the United State s

     Companies must register food samples to be shipped under the Public Healt h Security and
     Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 (Bioterrorism Act). The Food And Drug
     Administration implements the Act with regards to food, specifically.

     Air freight companies do not want to handle frozen product s and do not like to use dry ice,
     which is necessary to get frozen Serbian food products to trade shows in the United States .

     If the product is perishable, it risks deterioration if hel d too long in customs.

     It is best to have shipping delegated to someone who can expedite clearance and delivery.
     The express shipping companies can do this, but they will not make guarantees on
     perishable products. Express shipping companies are also very expensive.

2.   Recommended Approach for Shipping Samples to the United States

     Some companies have shipped larger volumes via sea freight and then warehoused the
     samples in the US. When necessary, the samples are then shipped to potential customers
     from a US-based warehouse. This method is more labor -intensive and so can be pricey, but
     also more cost effective at volume. Potential buyers need to know that a sample will reach
     them quickly, and the warehouse approach reassures those buyers.

     Sample shipping is much easier for non-food products. The most inexpensive method of
     shipping, regular air mail, usually is too slow. DHL, Federal Express and UPS all operate
     from Serbia, and are reliable methods to move samples.

3.   Shipping Samples to Europe is Ea sier

     The European Union is closer, and in general shipping is faster. Express mail is still
     expensive, but items tend to clear customs more easily than in the United States. When
     taking samples to a trade show in Western Europe, they are usually trucked along with all
     other items for the show. Trucks usually need ten days of advanc e time.

VII. Product Portfolios

1.   Bring Repre sentative Products Targeted to the Market

     Organizers need to ensure that the companies bring appropriately repres entative products to
     display at the show. This is generally intuitive. The companies should bring what will sell and
     what they can produce in adequate quantities. However, knowing this is the result of knowing
     their strategies and capacities, the market the trade show serves, and how the company is
     positioned to sell to that market.

     What sells in the Serbian market may not sell in other markets.

2.   Bring High Quality Products and Marketing Materials

     Prices are competitive throughout all mark ets. Companies may seek to differentiate by price,
     but will always have an upper hand if what they present shows quality or something different.

3.   Pay Attention to Product Pre sentation

     The products need to be visually appealing. This is, of course, subjective. However, what is
     appealing is generally linked to a deep knowledge of the market and the buyers. The
     products brought to a trade show will need to be visually appealing enough to get attendees
     to stop and look at them. The products need to be more visually appealing than thos e of the

     For Serbian companies, this may require changing packaging and labeling. Products that go
     to trade shows should be compatible with the state of the industry, and representative of the
     capabilities of the companies. Companies need not bring all pro ducts, only the ones with the
     highest probability of selling and which they can produce in adequate quantities .

4.   Demonstrate the Product.

     If people don’t know what it is, they won’t buy it. Product demonstrations are one of the most
     effective ways to attract attention and explain how to use unfamiliar products. Product
     demonstrations can include video demonstrations, preparatio n of food samples or showing
     the mechanics of how the product works. Few attendees at Fancy Food are likely to know
     what to do with a jar of ajvar. But if the company demonstrates how ajvar is served, either by
     preparing samples for visitors to taste or through a video present ation, the company is much
     more likely to draw buyer interest. Exhibitors should be selective in offering samples,
     otherwise costs can get out of control or the company may run out of product by the time a
     buyer shows interest.

A taped training covering some of this material is available at

VIII. Getting the Most from Trade Shows

The following can be us ed as text for a handout sent to companies, or preferably presented at a
mandatory pre-s how training.

1.   Plan in Advance

     Companies will get the most from trade shows if the planning process (one y ear prior) has
     been done well. Companies should have defined their objectives, and then execute against
     them at the show. Companies also need to schedule meetings with buyers ahead of time.
     Once at the show, companies need to reassess their reasons for being there. They will want
     to make sales, but also get leads for new buyers, find part ners or distributors, and gather
     market intelligence.

     If companies don’t have a list of buyers to send invitations to, lists may usually be purchas ed
     from the fair. As a last resort, representatives may stand outside of the fair at the entrance
     and pass out invitations as visitors arrive at the fair.

2.   Define Objectives

     Companies need to set clear goals, such as the number of new contacts, or the volume of
     sales. An important goal is a specific number of follow-up meetings scheduled.

3.   Track Visitors

     At the booth, it is crucial for the companies and the organizer to track all visitors. Companies
     need to not only respond to foot traffic, but also meet with pre-invited buy ers. E very visitor
     contact should result in either: a sale, a follow-up meeting, contact information for a follow-up
     call, or a clear reason why business cannot be done.

4.   Present Company and Booth Well

     The booth is the showcase for the company (or group of companies). Therefore, during the
     show, it should be clean and neat. There should be no garbage, no luggage or bags, and no
     untidy piles of paperwork. The personnel representing the company should be well-groomed,
     professionally dressed, not smoking, and on their feet, ready to sell. They should only be
     sitting if they are discussing a deal with a buyer. There should always be two company
     representatives at the fair at any given time, and more if the show is sufficiently large. At least
     one should be at the booth at all times, while the other may take some time to find customers
     and research competition on the floor.

     If representatives are not dressed in company clothing (polo shirts with logos, for example),
     they should be in business dress. Cons ervative grooming is important as companies need to
     know that the only reason that a buyer might not be int erested in talking, is because they
     really are not interested in the product.

5.   Strike the Right Balance When Speaking with Prospects

     When talking to prospects, company represent atives should be eager to talk, but not
     aggressive. Representatives should avoid the impression of being too pushy. Salespeople
     need to be proactive and engage actively in the conversation. They should never passively
     sell, by playing a presentation on a laptop for example and letting that speak for the product
     and company. The reps should speak clear English and/or the ot her languages of the show’s

     buyers. They should begin with an open-ended question about the buyer and the buyer’s
     company, and move quickly to discussing the Serbian product and its match for the buyer.

     Salespeople should make eye contact with prospective buyers. Always. There may be
     cultural modifications to the eye contact rule based on area of the world, but in the E uropean
     Union, the US, and Eastern Europe, where many trade shows will be, eye contact is

6.   Connect with Attendees

     a.   Obtain contact information

          E very conversation with a prospect at a trade show should result in getting contact
          information. A bowl where pros pects leave their business cards and a log book are also
          ways to get contact information. Those methods leave the responsibility up to the visitors
          and should only supplement, not substitute for more active methods . Salespeople must
          be active, getting business cards during conversations.

          After the conversation, sales people should quickly write down information that they can
          use when they follow up lat er. Standardized prospect tracking forms should be used for
          this purpose. See the Appendix for a sample form.

     b.   Give-aways

          At the show, companies may have items to give away that will remind potential customers
          of the company and their products. Give-aways can increase foot traffic to the boot h, but
          they will not generally increase the quality of leads. If the booth is in a low traffic area of
          the show, give-aways can definitely help attract visitors. Give-aways also can help
          companies long after the show, as some visitors keep them and refer to them later for
          web addresses and contact information.

7.   Meet and Discuss Leads

     Wrapping up the show is crucial. Before leaving, while the show is still fresh in everyone’s’
     minds, all salespeople should meet and discuss leads. All prospect tracking forms should be
     completed and rank ed. A plan should be outlined for follow-up.

8.   Engage in “Booth Hunting”

     Companies need to spend a certain amount of time outside their booth, learning about the
     competition and the market in general. Companies should not only look specifically for
     buyers, but should also try to sell their products/services to others who are exhibiting. In
     certain industries, time spent at other booths can be valuable sales time.

     Success can vary. In the fruit sector, it may be difficult to sell fruit to other fruit sellers, while in
     the IT sector, other exhibitors may need the your company’s services. This concept is
     referred to as “boothhunting” and is very industry-specific. Booth-hunting is a proactive way
     for companies to find customers instead of waiting for the customers to come to them.

     The advantages are obvious: decision-makers will be selling at booths, and they not only
     have a need to sell their products, but they are buyers of products and services too. They are
     easy to find, and do not need to be tracked down. They are there. Since you are at a trade
     show, there is immediat e legitimacy associated with you and your product or service.

9.   Maximize Media Relationships after the Trade Show

     Companies will get more from trade shows if they effectively use the media by following the
     guidelines below:

     a.   Track progress in terms of publications targeted and articles that were written.

     b. Update company website with notable stories about the show (“s old new product to new
       mark et”) and also feature any press coverage received.

     c.   Send thank you notes to media and buyers, as appropriate.

     d.   Update company contacts and media database

     e.   Continue to pitch stories to trade media based on sales results and findings

10. Engage in “Face Time”

     Companies should also wisely use the time outside of show hours. They should set up
     meetings to take place over drinks or dinner. Serbian companies will normally have to travel
     in order to get to trade shows. As a result, they should use all the time available to them,
     during and after “working” hours. “Fac e time” is inval uable, and also expensive if buyers are
     thousands of kilometers away.

11. Sell proactively

     While at a trade show, companies should aggressively be making contacts, but without being
     pushy or offensive. The larger companies will have procurement managers, and companies
     should be meeting with those managers during the fair.

     Companies are there to sell. If they aren’t selling, then they are missing the objective of the
     trade show. Companies should take advantage of momentum and try to close deals at the fair
     if possible. This means they must be prepared to enter into a cont ract at the fair.

12. Sell at the Show

     Companies must have a price list. The persons representing the company must have
     decision rights and be able to sign a contract and come to a decision with a buyer. They must
     know the product and the production capacity, so that all promises made can be delivered
     upon. Repres entatives need to understand negotiation, and be prepared to deal effectively at
     the shows.

13. Have fun

     Buyers can tell when an exhibito r is enthusiastic about their product. Enthusiasm and
     creativity attract attention.

Organizer’s At-Show Checkli st

Organizers should remember that the companies need to be prepped intensively for the shows
and pushed and reminded regularly of key points while there. The organizers are not at the trade
show to sell. But, they are there to assist the companies in selling. The organizers are putting
time and often money into the shows and have the right to monitor for and correct inappropriate

These checklists should be maintained for each company and be used to give feedback during
and at the end of the show.

Name of Company:                                                                          Date:

1.   Representatives arrive before opening hours to prepare

2.   Stay until booth closes

3.   Representatives are standing and actively selling

4.   Price lists are available

5.   Booth is clean and clear of non-display items (incl. coats, garbage, papers, etc.)

6.   Products are displayed clearly

7.   Representatives are assertive, but polite and respectful

8.   Representatives are dressed appropriately and well groomed

9.   Representatives engage in both direct sales and boot h-hunting

10. Representatives are tracking leads

11. Representatives speak appropriate languages

12. Representatives have appropriate authority

13. Representatives are engaging media

14. Representatives are using time outside of the show effectively

15. Wrap-up session occurs

IX. Media and Communications at Trade Shows

Aside from the obvious potential sales benefits, companies can generat e signific ant publicity from
trade shows. This is free advertising. Their products will be feat ured in the media at no cost,
except for the cost of the work getting them there. The trade show lasts only a few days. The
media ex posure can last much longer.

This process must be carefully managed by the organizers. In general, Serbian companies do not
have the internal resources (yet) to do this successfully. Organizers should plan training sessions
to enable companies to manage the media. Most of the work in getting publicity happens in
advance of the show.

Taped versions of previous media trainings are available on

It is desirable, but not always possible, to appoint a person within each company to handle Public

Action Item s Before the Show:

a.    Monitor trade media for trends and coverage. This helps the company adequately position
     itself and predict what types of products are likely to be “hot” in the media.

b.   Read, and re-read, the show manual.

c.   Companies should pay to access the media database, which will allow companies to send
     promotional materials to the media before they get to the show.

d.   Develop a news wort hy story.

e.   Write a press release. This is probably best done initially with the assistance of the organizer.
     See an example in the appendix.

f.   Design a press kit. The company should tailor this specifically for each show. The kit should
     contain the press release, a company overview in English, promotional materials, a brochure,
     FAQs, photos, and a business card.

g.    Register each company and their product line on the trade show web -site. If they are not in
     the catalogue, buyers cannot find them.

h.   Design company business cards and website in English and anot her language relevant to the

i.   Create a link to the trade show website from the company website. Any visitor to the website
     should be able to easily locate that company at the upcoming trade show. They should be
     specific: “Visit us at Booth 37, Hall 5 at Bio Fach. We will have product XY Z on display.”

j.   Pitch their story to the media that will be attending the trade sho w to create awareness of the
     company and the products they will bring.

k.    Look at the trade show newsletter from the previous year, and get the editorial calendar for
     the upcoming period.

l.   Take digital photos, which can then be distributed to various media outlets and posted on the
     company website.

m. Pitch stories to newsletter according to editorial calendar.

n.    Understand media procedures, and the message. Company’s staff should know to put media
     inquires in touch wit h the company’s Public Relations person (or designee). Staff should also
     know what to do when a journalist comes to the booth, and how to sell the story. Staff may
     need to appear on camera, and they should be ready for this.

Company Action Item s During the Show:

a.   Rent a “pigeon box,” online or physical, which will allow the company to get information about
     it and its products (including samples) directly to journalists. Online press boxes have to be
     taken care of well in advance. For high volume trade shows, even the press boxes have to be

b. Ensure that press kits are in the hands of the right people, and visit the press room regularly
   to distribute more kits.

c.   Consider organizing press conferences at the trade show if the company has a news worthy

d.   Organize a media event at the booth and serve refreshments.
     This should be scheduled in advanc e, after assessing the media who will be in attendance.

e.   Set up individual meetings, in a quiet spot away from the booth, with journalists to sell the

X. Post Show Follow-Up

Attending or exhibiting at a show is only one part of the overall process of inc reasing sales. It is
the companies’ job to conduct follow-up, not the organizer’s. However, the organizer is also very
interested in seeing performance from the show and companies are often not knowledgeable
about good follow-up practices. A training or set of consultations around the following points can
help increase trade show results.

Each company should appoint a person responsible for follow-up. This will often be the person(s)
who represented the company at the show.

1.   Companies should keep themselve s remembered by buyers through complimentary

        a. Circulate company newsletters
        b. Send personal notes documenting recent activities
        c. Make personal phone calls

2.   Complete the Prospect Tracking Form (see Appendix)

        a.   Allows you to k eep detailed records of follow-up actions

        b. Cont ents of track ing form

             Companies will be filling out prospect tracking forms during the show itself. Each form
             should have information on the pers on who attended the show, the business activity
             of the contact (i.e. manufacturer, distributor, supplier, agent, etc.), his/her role at
             his/her company, contact details, matters discussed, and most importantly, a follow -
             up rating. The ratings will allow the companies to prioritize their follow up efforts.

        c.   Assigning Ratings

             Ratings should incorporate information about the contact: currently attempting to
             broaden the product port folio; “just looking;” gathering market intelligenc e. A high
             priority contact may want to visit the facility in Serbia.

        d.   Prioritizing cont acts

             Immediately after the show, the Serbian company should sort the prospect tracking
             forms by priority and begin to contact them in order. High priority contacts are
             contacted via telephone and e-mail. Follow-up telephone calls will be more
             successful than waiting for a reply to an e-mail. Lower priority contacts can be mailed
             (via paper mail) not es that confirm the conversation at the show and provide any
             follow up materials promised.

        e.   Immediately res pond to any buyer contact

3.   Make an Offer (if applicable)

        The elements of an offer are given in the template in the Appendix.


Sample Company Budget

                                                                Cost per   Number of units (m2, number of ex hibitors,
Items                                                           unit       etc)                                          Total cost

Participation fee
Design of catalogue and web site (if any)
Translation of catalogue and web site to desired language (if
Printing of catalogues
Shipping of catalogues and samples
Samples for the show
Interpreter (if any)
Flight ticket
Per diems
Follow-up calls

Sample Organizer Budget

Items                                                         Cost per
                                                              unit       Number of units (m2, number of ex hibitors, etc)   Total cost

Booth space rent
Design of booth
Design of posters for the booth
Printing of posters for the booth
Renting furniture for the booth
Renting the equipment for the booth
Booth construction labor
Electricity cost
Electricity installation labor
Water cost (if any)
Water installation labor (if any)
Registering exhibitors for the fair brochure
Design of joint catalogues
Printing of joint catalogues
Shipping of catalogues (if any)
Booth staff (if any)
Mandatory fee for organization organizing the show (if any)

Travel expenses for the staff (it emize separately)

Prospect Tracking Form

        Trade Fair Contact Form


        Date: ________________________
        Recorded By: _________________

            New Business Contact

            Existing Customer

        Classification:                                                         Business Card
        A    Very Important
        B    Important
        C    Less Important

                A         B         C

      Name of Company: ______________________________________________________

      Specification:           Agent      Importer      Distributor      Manufacturer     Other

      Addre ss: ________________________________________________________ ___________________
      Postal Code: ______________________________ Telephone: _____________________________
      City: _____________________________________ Fax: ____________________________________
      Country: _________________________________ E-Mail: _________________________________

      Name of Visitor: __________________________ Position: ________________________________

        Remarks: (P roducts Interested in, Nat ure of Interest, Orders Placed, Delivery, Terms, Etc )

        Follow-up Required

Sales Tracking Form, Page 1.

Electronic version available at

                                                                        Sales Plan                                 Qtr 1
Company            XYZ USA                                                            ANNUAL             Volume                Revenue
Address            128 Cedar Street                           COMPANY    PRODUCT      USAGE        Estimate   Actual     Estimate     Actual
                   Savannah, GA 31406
Contact            Clark Lane                                 XYZ USA
Phone              912-352-4444 Fax            912-352-2550             Fruit IQF    10,000 MT
E-mail    Web Page                 Raspberry   4000 MT        60.00            120,000.00
                                                                          Blackberry   3500 MT
                                                                           Blueberry   2500 MT
Contact Date:      Fancy Food 2005
1st Follow-up Date:     04-Jul-05                                       Mushroom 610 MT
Agreed Details:    Send samples and pricing                                  Porcini 500 MT
2nd Follow-up Date:                                                      Chanterelle 100 MT
Agreed Details:                                                               Morel   10 MT

Requirments        Independent Quality Audit                            Slatko        415 Cases
Arranged Date:                                                           Forest Straw 100 Cases
Completed Date:                                                                  Plum 300 Cases
Sent to Buyer:                                                            Red Currant   15 Cases

Contract:                                                               Ajvar        500 Cases

                                                                        Chocolate   50 Kg
                                                                            Gourmet      50 Kg

                                                                        Marzipan     650 Kg

                                                              TOTALS                                                   120,000.00

Sales Tracking Form, Page 2.

                  Qtr 2                                         Qtr 3                                         Qtr 4
       Volume                  Revenue               Volume                  Revenue               Volume                  Revenue
  Estimate    Actual      Estimate     Actual   Estimate    Actual      Estimate     Actual   Estimate    Actual      Estimate     Actual

      50.00               100,000.00                20.00               40,000.00                100.00               200,000.00

                          100,000.00                                    40,000.00                                     200,000.00

Sample Follow-up Letter – Email

                                                                           August 2, 2005

Mr. Ted Kaczinski
128 Easy Street
Butte, MT 31406

Dear Mr. Kaczinski:

Thank you for visiting our booth at the Fancy Food Show in New York. I enjoyed our conversation
and look forward to being of service to you and your company.

I would like to follow-up on our discussion and your interest in our XXXXXXXX.

Serbia Co. is dedicat ed to producing the highest quality SSSSSSSS products to meet the needs
of our customers. We have been in business for 30 years and are ISO and HA CCP Certified. We
have independent quality audits are prepared by BRC and A IB and we have achieved a Superior

I will be calling you within the next few days to discuss our business in more detail and the
requirements of your company.

Thank you again for visiting us.

My Best Regards,

Marko Markovic
Sales Director
Serbia Co.

Sample Term Sheet/Offer Letter

                                     Company Header


Dear Mr. ___________,

       I am pleased to confirm the following sale between XYZ Co. (hereinafter
Supplier) and ABC Co. ” (hereinafter Buyer)

Item No. Description of             Quantity           Unit Price        Amount

Product Description:                  IQF Rolend Quality Willamette Frozen Raspberries
Product Specification:                As per attached document include micro analysis
Quantity                              20 Metric Tons
Price per unit                        1.50 Euros / Kg
Contract terms:                       (ex-works, FOB….)
Mode of transport:                    (ocean, land, air….) Refer Container
Terms of payment:                     (Payment in advance, 30 Days after Delivery, etc.)
Packaging                             2 x 10 Kg Plastic Bag / per Box
Pieces Per Pallet                     50 Boxes Per Pallet
Number of Pieces Per Container:       20 Pallets per 20 ft container.
Shipment:                             Within ______ days after receipt of payment
Validity:                             _______ days after buyer confirmation

Any controversy or claim arising out of or relating to this Sales Confirmation, or the
breach thereof, shall be settled by International Arbitration Rules per International
Chamber of Commerce.

Please, confirm with your signature and seal that you accept this confirmation.

Confirmation by ABC Co,


On behalf of XYZ Co., we thank you for the opportunity to start being a supplier to ABC
Co. and look forward to developing a lasting business.



Sample Memorandum of Understanding (“MOU”) with companies

Below is the text of an MOU us ed by SIEPA for Gulf Food in Dubai. Please check with SIEPA for
an updated version.

1.   Агенција за с трана у лагања и промоцију извоза, из Београда, Влајковићева 3/ V, коју
     заступа Јасна Матић, директорка (у даљем текс ту: Агенција)


2.   „__________________________________“
     коју заступа ___________________ (у даљем тексту: Излагач )


                           УГОВОР О ЗА ЈЕДНИЧКОМ НА СТУПУ НА СА ЈМУ
             “Gulf Food” 19.02. до 22.02.2007. године, Дубаи, Уједињ ени Арапски Емирати

                                              Члан 1.

Агенција за с трана у лагањ а и промоцију извоза, у сарадњи са Минис тарс твом
пољопривреде, шумарс тва и водопривред е организује нас туп домаћих предузећа из
облас ти прехрамбене индус трије на сајму „Gulf Food ”, који се одржава од
19.02. до 22.02.2007. године у Дубаиу (Уједињ ени Арапски Емирати).

                                              Члан 2.

Овим уговором у тврђују се међусобна права и обавезе организатора и излагача, услови
финансирања учешћа на заједничком штанду као и обавезе везане за период по завршетку

                                              Члан 3.

Агенција се обавезује да:

        изврши пријаву националног штанда и пријави излагача;
        у сарадњи са Министарс твом пољопривреде обезбеди с редства за трошкове
         закупа прос тора и трошкове изградње штанда;

                                             Члан 4.

Под националним штандом подразумева се заједнички ш танд на коме излажу предузећа из
Штанд је величине 72 м у Zabeel Hall, број ш танда З6-48.

                                             Члан 5.

Излагач се обавезује да уплати партиципацију у износу од 500 (петс тотина) евра у
динарској противвредности на дан уплате према продајном курсу Народ не банке Србије на
рачун 840-1282721-52, позив на број 97-41-601.

Рок за уплату је 15. децембар 2006. године. Након истека овог рока сматраће се да је
излагач одустао од наступа на сајму и накнадне уплате се неће узимати у обзир.

                                           Члан 6.

Партиципација из члана 5. овог уговора обухвата:

   -   Трошкове с трује на националном ш танду;
   -   Дизајн каталога излагача
   -   Остали непланирани трошкови.

Партиципација се однос и искључиво на трошкове у вези наступа на сајму “Gulf Food”.

                                           Члан 7.

У случају одустајања од нас тупа на сајму, а након уплате партиципације, излагач нема
право на повраћај средс тава.

                                           Члан 8.

Излагач се обавезује да ће обезбедити присуство свог представника на ш танду током
целог трајањ а сајма. Предс тавници на сајму морају да имају активно знање енглеског и/или
арапског језика и да познају карактерис тике производ а и предузећа.

                                           Члан 9.

Излагач се обавезује да након завршетка сајм а поднесе организатору писмени извеш тај о
резултатима наступа на сајму у року од 30 дана од дана завршетка сајма.

                                          Члан 10.

Излагач има право да одређене делове извеш таја означи ознаком „Пос ловна тајна”.
У том случају организатор се обавезује д а те податк е не износи у јавнос т већ их може
корис тити само за агрегатне извеш таје.

                                          Члан 11.

Евентуални спорови првенс твено ће се реш авати договором, а у случају неуспеха
надлежан је Трговински суд у Београду.

                                          Члан 12.

Уговор се може допуњавати и мењати сагласношћу воља обе уговорне стране.

                                          Члан 13.

Уговор ступа на снагу даном потписивањ а.
Овај уговор је сачињен у 4 (четири) ис товрсна примерка, од којих су по 2 (два) за сваку
уговорну страну.

        За Организатора           За Излагача
          Јасна Матић             ___________

Датум                     Датум

Sample Press Release for a Company

                                                                             FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
                                                                                         July 6, 2006


The SerbianFruit Pavilion showcase s the No. 1 Balkan favorite a t Fancy Food

NEW YORK - Once again, Serbia’s leading exporter Norma Co. will present the
company’s finest selection of forest picked mushrooms at the 52nd Summer Fancy Food
Show in New York, from July 9-11, 2006. But this year, Norma Co. has a surprise in store.

This year, for the very first time visitors will have the unique opportunity to experience
Serbian white truffles and connect with the supplier. In fact, the Serbian truffle promises to
be Fancy Food’s biggest discovery this summer. It differs notably from its French and
Italian cousin, with an unapologetic pungency and notes of hazelnut, butter and morels.

Just before the trade show, Norma Co. signed one of the country’s largest ever mushroom export
deals. Worth an estimated $13 million over 6 years, the contract provides frozen and dried golden
chanterelles, black trumpets, porcini and other specialty mushrooms to the US based distributor
Waldemar. Over the next few weeks, the wild mushrooms, prized by chefs for their int ense aroma
and vivid earth colors, will begin appearing in restaurants and grocery stores throughout North


Norma Co. will be exhibiting with 10 ot her specialty food companies from Serbia at the
SerbianFruit pavilion at Fancy Food, from July 9 -11, Jacob K Javits Center, New York. The
SerbianFruit pavilion is located at BOOTHS 4758-4774.


Norma Co. offers conveniently packaged wild mushrooms and truffles from Serbia. Specializing in
golden chanterelle, black trumpet, porcini and delicious wild morel mushrooms, Norma Co. is also
one of the first ever suppliers of Serbian white truffles. The company’s product range includes
fresh, dried and frozen, as well as convenient herbed mushrooms packed in oil. For more
information about Norma Co., please visit our website at

Cont act:

        Mr. Marko Markovic
        Export Manager
        Ph. +381-11-3225980
        Fax. +381-11-3225981
        marko.markovic @normac

Booth Photos

1. Keep it simple

Simpler is better. Exhibitors have a fraction of a second to grab attention and communicate the
nature of the product vis ually. Here there are no taglines, language requirements or complicated
technology. The exhibit uses simple props to say that these are wild mushrooms collected from
pine forests. Out of thousands of exhibitors, this inexpensive exhibit earned a place in the trade
show’s permanent gallery. The company made numerous sales. Photo courtes y Fruit Logistica.

2. If you don’t light it, you can’t sell it

Trade show floors are lit like warehouses. Unless you plan ahead, bad lighting can make your
products look cheap and dull. And your exhibit will just fade into the landscape. Always add
lighting. But be selective. Here the brand panel is brightly lit with an overhead spot. Soft
fluorescent fixtures built into the display light the product with refracted light from white panels.
Your eye doesn’t wander. It goes right to the product.

3. Show it, don’t say it

Your exhibit should make it absolutely clear what you’re selling. Don’t rely on the product name or
complicated visuals. Don’t rely on signs with lots of words. Let the product speak for itself. Photo
courtesy Fruit Logistica.

4. Video is for your living room

Can you tell what’s being sold here? Video can be an exciting addition to a well designed display
– and it can definitely stop traffic - but it’s not a substitute for good planning. Relying too much on
video can weaken your exhibit. It can distract from products. If you must use video, keep it to a 60
second loop. Video is used most effectively to demonstrate complex products or to communicate
emotional aspects of an offer. But remember, the buyer’s head is likely spinning from hundreds or
thousands of exhibits. You want your offer to be simple and bold. A busy video doesn’t
necessarily help you.

5. Don’t make buyers run a gauntlet

Make it comfort able for buyers to explore your ex hibit. If you have an open entrance, sales people
should be posted to the left or right, not the center. They shouldn’t appear to block the entrance.
Don’t give the impression that you have to go through a sales person to enter. It’s okay for
customers to be curious and to poke around a little.

6. Products belong on the aisle

In most cases, products are best placed toward the aisles. It makes it easy for customers to see
what you’re selling. This exhibit, which promoted manufacturers of apparel, included clothing
samples on three of four sides. It’s simple, but it worked. This exhibit earned a place on the cover
of the catalogue of one of Europe’s largest clothing shows.

In this tea exhibit the product does all the work. It’s on the aisle and impossible to miss.

7. Use literature selectively

Don’t waste your money giving away expensive brochures to everyone who shows up. Be
selective. Most print materials end up in the garbage.

8. Brochures go inside

Don’t put brochures toward the aisle. People will take them and leave. They’ll ignore your
products. Experienced exhibitors reserve print materials to be handed directly to buyers who’ve
shown interest. Brochures help seal the deal.

9. Too much lighting looks creepy

The wrong lighting can be a disaster, especially for food trade shows. Food lighting should be soft
and warm. Cool lights and blue tints may draw attention, but they’ll make your food look pasty
and unappealing. Best to hire a light designer who understands trade shows and store exhibits.

Serbia Export Credit and Insurance Agency (AOFI)

The Export Credit and Insurance Agency of the Republic of Serbia was founded in July 2005 in
line with the Law on the Export Credit and Insurance Agency of the Republic of Serbi a. Since the
start of its operations, on November 25, 2005, the Agency has pursued its mission – national
exports support – by short-term financing for export operations, and since May 2006, also by
becoming involved in the field of insurance, and – later – by factoring. i.e. accounts receivable


The first product offered is accounts receivable insurance in the short term (up to 180 days)
against commercial risks (bank ruptcy of foreign buyer and extended non -payment). This applied
in cases of open account sales of goods and services when the foreign buyer does not wish to
provide any security instrument, in the form of a bank guarantee or letter of credit.


In December 2006, the Agency started factoring operations, i.e. purchasing commercial accounts
receivable. In this way, the Agency enables exporters to improve their:

1.   creditworthiness (the debt ratio is not increased, the balance sheet is not weakened, and the
     possibility of obtaining loans from commercial banks is not diminished);
2.   liquidity (by assignment of accounts receivable to the Agency, exporters reduce collection
     time and quickly obtain liquid funds required for financing the production), and;
3.   security (the Agency assumes the risk of non -collection due to buyer’s illiquidity).

This enables exporters to offer longer payment cycles as well as open account sales (without
bank guarantees or letters of credit ) and thereby increase their competitiveness in the
international market.


Before December 2006, the Agency approved short-term loans with 6 months’ repayment period
to exporters – business entities, domestic legal entities and entrepreneurs. General requirements
for exporters are as follows:

1.   Export contract with a foreign buyer;
2.   Exports totaling at least EUR 1.0 million in the previous year, or a corresponding, pro-rated
     amount in the current year as of the date of submitting the application, with an export contract
     wort h at least EUR 1.0 million in the current year;
3.   Positive net income in the previous year;
4.   The share of domestically-produced goods in the total value of goods for the exports of which
     financing is sought must be at least 51%.

Under the above conditions, loans of up to EUR 900,000 are approved, with annual interest rates
of 3-5% depending on the applicant’s exports volume in the previous year. Predominantly export -
oriented companies with positive net export effect have priority for credits.

Since December 2006, the Agency has responded to the increasing interest of exporters whos e
annual exports totaled less that EUR 1.0 million and launched the credit program for companies
whos e exports in the previous year amounted to at least EUR 300,000. Loans are approved for
this category of companies with repayment periods of up to one year, and wi th Euribor-based
interest rates increased by 1, 2 or 3 percentage points, depending on the applicant’s
creditworthiness and ex port volume. In addition to the general requirements for larger exporters

which are applicable to this category as well, the compa nies must have a positive credit rating,
positive profitability assessment of the export project in question, as well as a repayment security.

Financing for foreign buyers

Financing for foreign buyers is the latest in the AOFI product range. It is offered to foreign buyers
importing goods from Serbia. The repayment period is up to one year.

International cooperation

In early December of 2006, at the meeting in Muscat, Oman, the Export Credit and Insurance
Agency of the Republic of Serbia was admitted as a member of the Prague Club, which is a part
of the Berne Union, the worldwide association of insurers and reinsurers.

The Agency’s technical departments maintain cont acts and collaborate with counterparts from
similar institutions in Slovenia, Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Italy, Russia and some other
countries. On the operational level, this enables information exchange, and on the institutional
level, this has been formalized by signing the Memorandum of Understanding on Collaboration.

Sample Agreements

These agreements are given as examples. It is up to the companies, their internal policies and
their legal couns el to develop the appropriate wording.

1.   Broker Agreement
2.   Exclusivity Agreement, for distribution
3.   Example of fraudulent contract

Broker agreement



When fully executed by authorized representatives of the parties, the terms and
conditions set forth below shall constitute the whole of an agreement between <Your
Corporate Name>, (hereinafter called company name if different), address, city, state,
zip, and <Name of the Broker>, (hereinafter called “Broker”, and shall become effective
month / date/ year.

   1.     Scope of Agreement:
          Broker will aggressively sell specified products of (company name) in accordance
          with (company name) authorized prices and published policies. All orders shall be
          subject to confirmation by (your company name).

   2.     Normal Brokerage:
          Brokerage rate shall be (industry standard is ???5%) on net amount of invoice on line
          of retail &/or foodservice products. There will be adjusted brokerage rates on chain
          account and proprietary products.

   3.     Payment of Brokerage:
          Payment of brokerage will be computed on transactions in the calendar month and
          made after the closing thereof. No brokerage will be paid on un-collectable accounts.
          Brokerage will be deducted against all credits issued to any customer, spoilage

   4.     Incentives:
          Bonus and incentives may supplement this Agreement for periods, under
          conditions, and at rates specified by (Your Company Name).

   5.     Stipulations:
          No like competitive products will be accepted by Broker for his territory without
          prior clearance and written approval of (your company name). No competitor shall
          be consulted directly or counseled in any manner.

   6.     Split Brokerage:
          In the event there are overlapping territories, the brokerage rate will be one-half to
          the Broker soliciting and submitting the order, and one-half to the Broker into whose
          territory the merchandise is shipped.

   7.     Broker Certification:
          By executing this Agreement, Broker agrees that no part of brokerage paid would in
          any manner whatsoever be passed on or granted directly or indirectly to any
          customer, buyer, agent, or intermediary acting in behalf or under the control of any
          customer to whom merchandise was sold.

8.    Broker and Buyer Harmless :
      (your company name) agrees to hold the Broker and Buyer harmless from and against
      any claim made upon Seller as a result of, or injury from the use of any (your
      company name) products sold to Buyer pursuant to the terms hereto, provided (your
      company name) is promptly notified of such claim or injury and is permitted to deal
      therewith, at its own discretion.

9.    Insurance:
      (your company name) liability insurance coverage covers only employees and
      product quality. Broker is to adequately insure and cover his interest relating to his
      own employees.

10.   Termination:
      Either party with written notice of intent may terminate this Agreement. Termination
      shall be thirty days from date of such notice. Brokerage shall be earned and paid
      only on orders shipped and invoiced prior to the effective date of termination.

11.   Other:
      No other conditions are implied or included that may alter or enlarge this Agreement.

12.   Territory Limitations:
      Specific geographic locations that Broker would represent your product line.

      ______________________                ____________________
      Your company name                            Brokerage Name

      ______________________                ____________________
      Name & Title                                 Name & Title

Exclusivity Agreement


made on …………………,2006, between

   1. XYZ Co,. Addesss. , hereinafter referred to as PRODUCER
   2. ABC Co - Address,, hereinafter referred to as DISTRIBUTOR

                                            Article I
According to this contract, the PRODUCER gives exclusive rights to the DISTRIBOTOR,
being the sole exclusive distributor on the market of ??????????, hereinafter referred to
as DISTRIBUTORS’ MARKET, to sell the products from the whole existing assortment
as well as the new producer’s products, hereinafter referred to as PRODUCTS, and
markets the products as the representative of the PRODUCER.
                                           Article II
The DISTRIBUTOR is an autonomous and independent firm which will sell the
PRODUCTS for and on behalf of itself. The DISTRIBUTOR has no right to make
agreements on behalf of the PRODUCER that could in any way be binding upon the
                                           Article III
The quantity and the type of products out of the existing assortment of the PRODUCER,
being the term of this contract, will be delivered to the DISTR IBUTOR in terms of single
                                           Article IV
The DISTRIBUTOR will provide a warehouse on the DISTRIBUTORS’ MARKET and
distribute the PRODUCTS on the DISTIBUTORS’ MARKET for the means of achieving
effective sales and supplying the market successfully.


                                          Article V
Both parties agree that the price of the products is specified in the annex I of this
contract. Selling prices are ex-works. The PRODUCER is obligated to inform the
in case of price increase/decrease at least (???15) days before the new price list comes
into force.
All payments agreed by this contract are (?????? Terms).

                                       Article VI
The PRODUCER will send invoices of the delivered PRODUCTS, for each delivery
separately. The DISTRIBUTOR is obliged to pay the invoices for the delivered products
on time according to terms of sale which will be sent by fax or e-mail by the


                                       Article VII
Based on sale terms – outline specifically how products are to be picked-up or delivered


                                        Article VIII
The PRODUCER binds itself that the quality of delivered PRODUCTS will be
accompanied with the certificates valid on the territory of Serbia and Montenegro. In
case of further certificates demanded by the DISTRIBUTOR, the DISTRIBUTOR has to
inform the PRODUCER in written form. The PRODUCER is not bound to penalties if the
needed certificates cannot be provided.

                                        Article IX
The PRODUCER has the obligation to deliver ordered PRODUCTS, that are at least 9
months from there expiration date, to the DISTRIBUTOR.

                                         Article X
The PRODUCER is obligated to label all the delivered PRODUCTS with an EAN code.
In the case of unlabeled or mislabeled products, the PRODUCER will exchange those
products for correctly labeled products at his own expense and in the shortest period of
time or reduce the amount on the invoice for the value of incorrectly coded products in
the case that the products are not exchangeable.

                                          Article XI
In the event of damaged PRODUCTS which are concluded damaged during the loading
of PRODUCTS, or which are concluded functionally damaged (incidental mishandling,
etc.) that could not be found during the loading of the PRODUCTS. The DISRIBUTOR
has the right to reduce the amount of the invoice for the value of damaged PRODUCTS
unless the PRODUCER exchanges the products at his own expense and in the shortest
period of time.
The PRODUCER is not liable for the PRODUCTS which are damaged in the
DISTRIBUTOR’S warehouse nor for damaged PRODUCTS during transport.


                                       Article XII
The DISTRIBUTOR is obligated to use the PRODUCER’S brand name and trade-mark
specifically in marketing campaigns which aim to profile and popularize the PRODUCTS
taking into account the PRODUCER’S reputation.


                                       Article XIII
This contract becomes effective and is valid for one year from the day of signing. For the
purpose of providing adequate conditions for reaching agreed business goals and long-
term business cooperation of mutual interest, both parties agree that the contract will
renew on an evergreen basis which is tied to achieving goals that both the PRODUCER

and the DISTRIBUTOR defined in the annex II of this contract. The goals are defined on
a yearly basis, and if necessary, they may be revised on a quarterly basis.

                                         Article XIV
  Both parties have the right to terminate the contract within a 3 month period if one of
the parties breaches the contract due to violation of the defined terms in this contract,
and if the party, which caused the breach of the contract, does not comply with the
defined terms of the contract within 14 days of having received a written notice from the
other party.

                                           Article XV
The contract may be terminated with immediate effect if one of the parties avoids its
obligations defined in this contract which are essential for business and the reputation of
the other party. The contract can be breached with immediate effect without delay if one
of the parties defaults in payment to the other party. If one of the parties is insolvent or
facing bankruptcy proceedings, it is obligated to send a written notice to the other party,
and if the offending party does not do anything within 30 days from the day of receiving
the written notice, according to this article the contract may be terminated.

 As soon as one party learns that the other failed to perform any of the conditions
contained in this contract, they are obligated to, without delay, provide the offending
party with a written notice of the termination rules, otherwise, they lose all rights of
contract termination according to this article.

                                            Article XVI
If the DISTRIBUTOR is unable to create an effective contract with a buyer on the
distributor’s territory, the DISTRIBUTOR is obligated to inform the PRODUCER who
decides whether they wish to sign the contract directly with the potential buyer on the
distributor’s territory. In the case that the PRODUCER accepts to sign the contract,
depending on the outcome of the agreement with the potential buyer, the PRODUCER is
obligated to pay a quarterly commission to the DISTRIBUTOR due to a new made
contact and further cooperation with the buyer. The rate of the commission depends
directly on achieved agreement between the PRODUCER and the potential buyer.

                                      Article XVII
Both contractual parties agree to make a demand for the termination of the contract in
written form.

                                        Article XVIII
Both contractual parties agree that neither party can suffer consequences defined in this
contract in the case of considerable changes in the surroundings which cannot be
influenced upon by the contractual parties (war, war measures, change of law, and
decisions of government authorities).


Article XIX

The PRODUCER and the DISTRIBUTOR agree to decide upon the capacity of further
business cooperation for the following year near the end of the current year, taking into
account the existing results from the previous period, general conditions of cooperation
and market factors which are essential for the marketing of the PRODUCTS on the

                                           Article XX
The DISTRIBUTOR is obligated to provide the PRODUCER with the necessary logistics
in accordance within the law of the DISTRIBUTOR’S market that refers to the products
that are the subject of this contract in order to make the declarations of the products
suitable for the market. The DISTRIBUTOR accepts the obligation of translating the
declarations and other needed texts in order to increase the sale of products.

For all the mistakes and potential expenses tied to the products which are the
consequence of the DISTRIBUTOR’S ill-advisement or disinformation which the
DISTRIBUTOR sent in verbal or written form to the PRODUCER, the DISTRIBUTOR
agrees to cover all the expense out of his own budget.

                                           Article XXI
All the details in this contract are considered strictly confidential.
No document, data or information contained in this contract can be passed on to a third
party without the mutual consent of both contractual parties. This confidentiality is
required within the period of 24 months after the termination of this contract for any

                                        Article XXII
 In order to improve business results, contractual parties agree upon mutual cooperation
and the exchange of information with the goal of expending to other markets out of the
DISTRIBUTOR’S MARKET, for which the DISTRIBUTOR is not authorized by the
PRODUCER, and if the PRODUCER shows interest resulting from information proven
by evidence about potential business deals on the other markets, the DISTRIBUTOR
should inform the PRODUCER.

                                       Article XXIII
Dispute Jurisdiction should be mutually agreed, but recommend International Rules of
Arbitration per International Chamber of Commerce

Example of fraudulent or predatory contract