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					Multilingua-Culturality
For All?
     The History and Prospects of Languages
               in American Higher Education

          H Stephen Straight, Binghamton U,
                State University of New York

                                        Keynote Speech
        Cultures and Languages Across the Curriculum
                         University of Iowa, 2005-11-05
H Stephen Straight: Biodata

 Professor of Anthropology and of Linguistics
 Vice Provost for UG Ed & International Affairs
    BA in English Language & Literature, U Michigan;
     MA & PhD in Linguistics, U Chicago
    Developmental psycholinguist, Mayanist, language
     program innovator, international educator
    NDEA Fellow/NSF Grantee, research in Yucatán
    Fulbright Senior Lecturer, U of Bucharest, Romania
    Founding Dir, Lgs Across the Curriculum, Bing U
    Mellon Fellow, National Foreign Language Center
    Senior Associate, American Council on Education


            H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,        2
                       2005-11-05
What I’m Going to Say Today
 The status of languages other than English (LOTEs) in
   US institutions of higher education (IHEs) has waxed and
   waned in interesting ways over the past 45 years.

 Even before 9/11 various factors created an upturn in
   college study of LOTEs, though huge gaps persisted.

 Ending a long history of antipathy and neglect, 9/11
   brought urgent calls for study of languages and cultures.

 In partnership with K-12 schools and universities abroad,
   perhaps US IHEs will at long last begin to offer two-way
   immersive English/LOTE undergraduate and graduate
   programs in a wide array of LOTE/discipline pairs.

              H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,               3
                         2005-11-05
Report from the Association of
Departments of Foreign
Languages

 Foreign Language Enrollments in United States
  Institutions of Higher Education, Fall 2002
 Elizabeth B. Welles
 ADFL Bulletin, Vol. 35, Nos. 2–3, Winter-Spring
  2004

 http://www.adfl.org/resources/enrollments.pdf



           H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,     4
                      2005-11-05
http://www.adfl.org/resources/enrollments.pdf
          H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,    5
                     2005-11-05
http://www.adfl.org/resources/enrollments.pdf
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                    2005-11-05
H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,   7
           2005-11-05
H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,   8
           2005-11-05
H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,   9
           2005-11-05
H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,   10
           2005-11-05
           Secondary School Enrollments,
           Fall 2000: A Similar Pattern




Draper & Hicks, May 2002, http://www.actfl.org/files/public/Enroll2000.pdf

                          H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,           11
                                     2005-11-05
Report from the Modern
Language Association
 Successful College and University
  Foreign Language Programs,1995–99,
  Part 1
 David Goldberg and Elizabeth B.
  Welles
 Profession 2001, pp. 171-210
 http://www.mla.org/pdf/succollege_p1.pdf




          H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,   12
                     2005-11-05
Ratio of Introductory Enrollments
to Majors, By Institutional Type




        H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,   13
                   2005-11-05
Ratio of Advanced Enrollments to
Majors, By Institutional Type




       H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,   14
                  2005-11-05
Double Majors & Minors,
1995-1999
 Most departments (60.3 percent) reported a
  gain in the number of double majors, 35.3
  percent reported a stable number, and 4.5
  percent a decline.
 For minors, 69.2 percent reported an increase,
  25.9 percent stability, and 4.9 percent a loss.
 In other words, the majority of departments
  offering these options reported that the options
  are increasingly utilized by students.


            H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,       15
                       2005-11-05
Graduate Enrollments, Fall 2003:
Bad News for Languages
                                            Syverson & Brown, Council
                                            of Graduate Schools
                                            http://www.cgsnet.org/
                                            pdf/2003GEDRep.pdf




       H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,                        16
                  2005-11-05
Languages in US IHEs:
Recapitulation
 Decline of “The Big Two” (French and German)
 Hegemony of “The Big One” (Spanish)
       Despite anti-Spanish “English-Only” politics in US
 Rise of “LCTLs”, esp. heritage languages
 Continuing shortfalls in LOTEs with respect to:
       enrollments, especially in LOTS;
       levels of study, both undergrad & grad;
       variety of specialized disciplinary expertise
 Upshot: The 2000 Census revealed that less
   than 10 percent of the U.S. population claim to
   speak a LOTE fluently
       In contrast to more than 50 percent of Europeans
                H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,           17
                           2005-11-05
Pre-9/11 Upturn in LOTEs

    With regard to all four of the “missions”
     of language study in higher education*:

General Education
Language Specialist
Heritage Languages
Applied Language (LSP)
                *Richard Brecht & Ronald Walton, NFLC
          H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,             18
                     2005-11-05
Pre-9/11 Upturn in LOTEs

 General Education: Globalization &
 globalism, cultural diversity &
 internationalism




         H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,   19
                    2005-11-05
          Missouri Southern University’s
          Global Learning Outcomes

 Understanding of how cultures and societies around the
    world are formed, sustained, and evolve.
   Empathy for values and perspectives of cultures other
    than their own, and awareness of international &
    multicultural influences in their own lives.
   Ability to identify and discuss international issues and
    cultures other than their own.
   Communicative competence in a second or third
    language.
   Experience, or desire to experience, a culture other than
    their own.
                      H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,    20
                                 2005-11-05
            California State U-Stanislaus’s
            Global Learning Outcomes
 Multiple Perspectives
      Recognize that people in different cultures have profoundly different
       perceptions of the world.
 Interdependence
      Understand how the world’s systems are interdependent and how local
       economic and social patterns have global impact.
 Equity/Living Responsibly
      Understand how the behavior of individuals, groups, nations affects others,
       in terms of human rights and economic well being, both within and beyond
       the U.S.
 Sustainability
      Understand the cost of individual and national actions to the physical and
       social environment both within and beyond the U.S. (e.g. population growth,
       resource use, health issues).
 Intercultural Communication
      Including required language study – appeared in original, later dropped

                             H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,                  21
                                        2005-11-05
Language Requirements, 1995-
1999 (Goldberg & Welles)
 Of the responding institutions, 23.7 percent had
  an entrance requirement and 60.1 percent had
  a graduation requirement in 1999.
 In comparison with the percentages reported in
  the MLA’s 1995 survey (Brod & Huber),
  entrance requirements rose from 21 percent in
  1995 to 31 percent in 1999, and graduation
  requirements from 68 percent to 75.4 percent.
 In two-year colleges entrance requirements
  rose from 3 percent to 8.4 percent and from 23
  percent to 30.9 percent for graduation.

           H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,    22
                      2005-11-05
Language Requirements, By
Institutional Type, in 1999
    90

    80

    70

    60

    50
                                                Entrance
    40                                          Graduation

    30

    20

    10

    0
         AA         BA         MA         PhD


         H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,                  23
                    2005-11-05
             A “Language Requirement”

 [Harvard College’s “Foreign Cultures” requirement can be met in any one of
   the following three ways, only the second of which actually requires use or
   study of a foreign language:]

       A one-term course listed under Foreign Cultures devoted to a culture or
        cultures distinct from that of the United States and [other] anglophone
        cultures … . This course may be taught in English or in the language of that
        particular culture, …. Courses on French, German, and Spanish cultures are
        usually taught in the language of the culture.
       A two-term foreign language course listed under Foreign Cultures, in
        which the substance of the course, in addition to language study, meets the
        specifications of the Foreign Cultures guidelines. Students choosing this
        option must complete both semesters to meet the requirement.
       A pre-approved summer program of study abroad. Consult the Core
        Office for details regarding this option.

                              H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,                  24
                                         2005-11-05
              A “Graduation Requirement”


   Foreign Language skills are ensured by requiring that students pass either a
    3rd-semester college-level course in one foreign language or a second-semester
    course in two foreign languages, or satisfactorily complete some other significant
    activity that requires second-semester foreign language proficiency as a
    prerequisite, such as study abroad in a non-English environment or an internship
    serving people who can communicate only in a language other than English.

   Students may fulfill the foreign language requirement prior to enrolling in
    college either by completing four or more units of one high school foreign
    language with a course grade in the fourth year of 85 or better, or three units
    each of two high school languages with course grades in each third unit of 85 or
    better, by passing the Advance Placement examination (or its equivalent) with a score
    of 3 or better, or by demonstrating equivalent proficiency in some other fashion.

   Binghamton University, State University of New York

                                H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,                     25
                                           2005-11-05
Pre-9/11 Upturn in LOTEs

 General Education: Globalization &
  globalism, cultural diversity &
  internationalism
 Language Specialist: Proficiency-
  oriented & content-based pedagogy




         H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,   26
                    2005-11-05
National Standards for Foreign
Language Learning
 Communication
 Cultures
 Connections
 Comparisons
 Communities

     National Standards in Foreign Language Education
      Project (1996)
     a collaborative project of ACTFL, AATF, AATG, AATI,
      AATSP, ACL/APA, ACTR, CLASS/CLTA, & NCSTJ/ATJ

             H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,             27
                        2005-11-05
Communicate in Languages
Other Than English.
 Standard 1.1: Students engage in
  conversations, provide and obtain
  information, express feelings and
  emotions, and exchange opinions.
 Standard 1.2: Students understand and
  interpret written and spoken language on
  a variety of topics.
 Standard 1.3: Students present
  information, concepts, and ideas to an
  audience of listeners or readers on a
  variety of topics.
         H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,   28
                    2005-11-05
Standards for Foreign
Language Learning
 Communication
 Cultures




         H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,   29
                    2005-11-05
Gain Knowledge and
Understanding of Other Cultures.
 Standard 2.1: Students demonstrate an
  understanding of the relationship
  between the practices and perspectives
  of the cultures studied.
 Standard 2.2: Students demonstrate an
  understanding of the relationship
  between the products and perspectives
  of the cultures studied.

         H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,   30
                    2005-11-05
Standards for Foreign
Language Learning
 Communication
 Cultures
 Connections




         H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,   31
                    2005-11-05
Connect with Other Disciplines
and Acquire Information.
 Standard 3.1: Students reinforce and
  further their knowledge of other
  disciplines through the foreign language.
 Standard 3.2: Students acquire
  information and recognize the distinctive
  viewpoints that are only available
  through the foreign language and its
  cultures.

          H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,   32
                     2005-11-05
Standards for Foreign
Language Learning
 Communication
 Cultures
 Connections
 Comparisons




         H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,   33
                    2005-11-05
Develop Insight into the Nature
of Language and Culture.
 Standard 4.1: Students demonstrate
  understanding of the nature of language
  through comparisons of the language
  studied and their own.
 Standard 4.2: Students demonstrate
  understanding of the concept of culture
  through comparisons of the cultures
  studied and their own.

         H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,   34
                    2005-11-05
Standards for Foreign
Language Learning
 Communication
 Cultures
 Connections
 Comparisons
 Communities




         H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,   35
                    2005-11-05
Participate in Multilingual
Communities at Home & Around
the World.
 Standard 5.1: Students use the
  language both within and beyond the
  school setting.
 Standard 5.2: Students show evidence
  of becoming life-long learners by using
  the language for personal enjoyment and
  enrichment.


         H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,   36
                    2005-11-05
Standards for Foreign
Language Learning
 Communication
 Cultures
 Connections
 Comparisons
 Communities

     National Standards in Foreign Language Education
      Project (1996)
          Executive Summary available in PDF format at:
          http://www.actfl.org/


                H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,         37
                           2005-11-05
Literary Emphasis Persists in HE




       H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,   38
                  2005-11-05
Bad News: Standards May Hurt
Postsecondary Language Study
 “The long-term result of ignoring [the]
  Standards [, as most postsecondary faculty are
  doing,] will be a serious diminishment of student
  numbers in higher education foreign language
  courses. That diminishment will come because
  the content and instruction of such courses will
  be directly antithetical to students’ preparation,
  knowledge, experience, and capabilities as
  developed through [K-12 adherence to the]
  Standards.”
      Dale Lange, ACTFL Newsletter, Vol. XI, No. 1,
       Summer 1999

             H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,        39
                        2005-11-05
Pre-9/11 Upturn in LOTEs
 General Education: Globalization &
  globalism, cultural diversity &
  internationalism
 Language Specialist: Proficiency-
  oriented & content-based pedagogy
 Heritage Languages: Language as a civil
  right rather than as a civic problem
      32M people in bilingual households
       (approximately 70 percent Spanish)
      but most college-level heritage learners lack
       even elementary school literacy
              H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,       40
                         2005-11-05
H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,   41
           2005-11-05
Pre-9/11 Upturn in LOTEs

 General Education: Globalization &
  globalism, cultural diversity &
  internationalism
 Language Specialist: Proficiency-
  oriented & content-based pedagogy
 Heritage Languages: Language as a civil
  right rather than as a civic problem
 Applied Language: Language as a
  valued societal resource

         H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,   42
                    2005-11-05
Multilingualism Increasing
Worldwide
 Despite the spread of English, the
  world is effectively becoming more
  rather than less multilingual.
     The number of speakers of the top 100
      languages is increasing at a rate much
      faster than that of the world population in
      general (e.g. Bengali, Indonesian/Malay).
     The spread of first languages other than
      English (LOTEs) exceeds that of English.

            H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,      43
                       2005-11-05
English Declining As 1st Language

 Despite the accelerating growth of English as the
  world’s favorite second language,
    – there are more speakers of English in India than in
     Australia, Britain, Canada, and the U.S. put together –
 many languages will probably surpass English in
  number of first-language speakers in the near future.
    Mandarin will stay at number one, while Spanish,
     Hindi/Urdu, and Arabic will overtake English by 2050.
            And other languages (e.g. Bengali, Tamil, and
             Indonesian/Malay) are growing even faster!
       Meanwhile the vast majority of the world’s 6,000
        languages are dying at a rate of one per week.
                 H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,          44
                            2005-11-05
Language Skills More Valuable
Than Ever, and Employers Know
 There are more people to talk to, and
  more varied tasks to be performed.
     Purposes of use extend well beyond
      communication with cultured élites and
      other purposes demanding high-level skill.
 Widespread knowledge of English
  makes it easier for intermediate-level
  users to get help when they need it.
     Even low-level skill can be very helpful.
            H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,    45
                       2005-11-05
Language “Sells”

    If you want to buy something, any
     language will do, but if you want to sell
     something – be it a consumer product or a
     political precept – you must learn the
     language of your customer.

         Is this a contributor to the
         US/world trade imbalance?
         And perhaps also to some
         of our other international
         difficulties?

              H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,   46
                         2005-11-05
Languages on the Internet

 The growth of LOTEs on the Internet
  provides access to current, authentic
  language resources.
     A  little more than one third of the world’s
       current Internet users use English.
      Another third use other European languages.
      Almost a third use Asian languages.

 Growth in use implies a reversal of the
  above ranking in the next decade.
      Source:     www.glreach.com/globstats

          H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,     47
                     2005-11-05
Pre-9/11 Upturn in LOTEs:
Recapitulation
 General Education: Globalization &
  globalism, cultural diversity &
  internationalism
 Language Specialist: Proficiency-
  oriented & content-based pedagogy
 Heritage Languages: Language as a
  civil right rather than as a civic problem
 Applied Language: Language as a
  valued societal resource

          H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,   48
                     2005-11-05
 Despite the Upturn, …
 Thirty percent of high school students study a
  language other than English.
 Eight percent of college students do so.
      One quarter of these (two percent) study a
       language for more than two years.
 Except for language programs per se, US
  higher education institutions (IHEs) do not use
  LOTEs as languages of instruction.
 In fact, they only offer very small numbers and
  low levels of classroom opportunities for
  meaningful use of students’ existing languages.
      Binghamton has high numbers but minimal levels;
       others have high levels but minimal numbers.

               H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,        49
                          2005-11-05
Richard Lambert, 1991:
 "We expend almost all of our national resources
  for foreign language learning on first-time, low
  level language learning among high school and
  college students, then watch those minimal
  skills decay and disappear through lack of use
  or reinforcement...We need a set of institutions
  that will reinforce and build upon past language
  learning."
      From A National Plan for a Use-Oriented Foreign
       Language System
      Lambert founded the National Foreign Language
       Center in 1986, “to improve the capacity of the US
       to communicate in languages other than English.”

              H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,            50
                         2005-11-05
Richard Lambert, 1989
       Recommendations for the improvement of
        language teaching in the US
 Diversify language uses [cf. “cultures,
    connections, comparisons, communities”]
   Prolong: Begin earlier, continue through college
   Target most promising students (e.g. heritage
    learners, area studies majors, …)
   Offer options in timing (intersession) and mode
    (classroom, brief immersion, video gaming, …)
   Support maintenance beyond formal ed
   Develop emergency capability


              H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,   51
                         2005-11-05
The Post-9/11 Imperative

 “Devout monolingualism” has left US
  vulnerable to attack from (and unable to
  deal effectively with) LOTE speakers.
 Department of Defense has joined the
  Departments of State and Education in
  support of new initiatives in LOTEs.
 Military, Congress, and populace in
  general (finally) see the need for multi-
  lingua-culturality in the 21st century.
          H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,   52
                     2005-11-05
Devout US Monolingualism
 “I consider it the paramount duty of public
  schools … to form American citizens of [its
  pupils] … [by] obliterating … all [their]
  distinguishing foreign characteristics and traits
  … as obstructive, warring, and irritating
  elements.”
       RandolphGuggenheimer*, Commissioner of
        the Common Schools of New York City, 1896
             Quoted in Senator Paul Simon, The Tongue-Tied
              American: Confronting the Foreign Language
              Crisis, 1980, p. 11
             *A member of the Tammany Hall NYC Democratic
              establishment, who nevertheless “secured the
              retention of the German language as part of the
              school curriculum” (Jewish Encyclopedia).

              H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,            53
                         2005-11-05
One U.S. President’s View
 “We have room but for one language
  here, and that is the English language,
  for we intend to see that the crucible
  turns our people out as Americans and
  not as dwellers in a polyglot boarding
  house.”

     Theodore Roosevelt, 1919
        Quoted in Senator Paul Simon, The Tongue-Tied
         American: Confronting the Foreign Language
         Crisis, 1980, p. 91
            H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,       54
                       2005-11-05
“The Foreign Language
Problem”
 “The United States today carries new
  responsibilities in many quarters of the globe,
  and we are at a serious disadvantage because
  of the difficulty of finding persons who can deal
  with the foreign language problem.”

      Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, 1953
         Quoted by Rep. Rush Holt in his talk, “Is American
          Security Being Lost in Translation?”, at the first-
          ever National Language Conference, held on 22
          June 2004

              H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,           55
                         2005-11-05
Another U.S. President’s View
 “The American people generally are
  deficient in foreign languages,
  particularly those of the emerging
  nations in Asia, Africa, and the Near
  East. It is important to our national
  security that such deficiencies be
  promptly overcome.”

     Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1958
        Quoted in Senator Paul Simon, The Tongue-Tied
         American: Confronting the Foreign Language
         Crisis, 1980, p. 61
            H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,       56
                       2005-11-05
Languages and US National
Security in the Post-9/11 World
     “… unless we soon … establish … better
      communication with the countries whose names we
      not now even recognize, those … names will erupt
      in unhappy headlines … . The alternative to
      understanding and communicating … is not
      isolation. It is chaos.”

          The late Senator Paul Simon (Dem-IL)
               In The Tongue-Tied American: Confronting the
                Foreign Language Crisis, 1980, p. 9




                H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,             57
                           2005-11-05
9/11: “A Sputnik Moment”
 In 1957 the Soviet Union jolted the US out of its
  smug superiority in science and engineering
  with the launch of Sputnik, the first outer-space
  vehicle.
      This led to the National Defense Education Act of
       1958.
 Similarly, beginning with the Al Qaeda attacks
  on New York and Washington in 2001 and
  continuing with the US reactions in Afghanistan
  and Iraq in 2002 and 2003, the US has come to
  realize that its lack of cultural sensibilities and
  linguistic abilities has left it vulnerable to attack
  and unable to respond effectively.

              H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,           58
                         2005-11-05
A New Day May Be Near

    “We need a national commitment to
     languages on a scale of the NDEA
     commitment to science, including improved
     curriculum, teaching technology and
     methods, teacher development, and a
     systemic cultural commitment.”

    Rush Holt, New Jersey member of the US
     House of Representatives, June 2004

          H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,   59
                     2005-11-05
US Federal Support for
Language Education
 1958: National Defense Education Act identified
  “critical languages” for purposes of national
  defense
 1988: Foreign Language Assistance Program
  (FLAP) to seed elementary and secondary
  language programs across the country as a
  response to the newly emerging needs of
  globalization
 1991: National Security Education Program,
  charged with responding to the expanding
  federal needs for linguistically competent
  professionals brought about by the fall of the
  Soviet Union
           H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,      60
                      2005-11-05
Secretary of Defense Donald
Rumsfeld

    “We simply must develop a greater
     capacity for languages that reflect the
     demands of this century. No technology
     delivers this capability; it is a truly human
     skill that our forces must have to win, and
     that we must have to keep the peace.”




            H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,       61
                       2005-11-05
         Post-9/11 Moves By the US
         Department of Defense
 Increased Defense Language Institute’s budget by more than
  $50 million
 Raised the Language Proficiency bonus for soldiers from $300
  to $1000 per month
 Established the National Flagship Language Initiative
      for advanced training in Arabic, Chinese, Korean, and Russian
 Sponsored a National Language Policy Conference (June 2004)
      to discuss the needs of government, industry, and academia,
       and develop a comprehensive strategy to meet them
 2005-03-31: Defense Language Transformation Roadmap,
      establishing a Defense Language Office in the Pentagon and
       recommending new initiatives to increase language readiness
 2005-10-07: Senate defense spending bill includes $1.5M for a
  pilot “Civilian Linguist Reserve Corps” (now in joint committee)
                        H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,             62
                                   2005-11-05
H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,   63
           2005-11-05
Gail McGinn, DepUndSecDef

 “This is really more than just finding linguists
  and people with ability to speak languages. It’s
  a transformation in the way language is viewed
  in the Department of Defense – how it is
  valued, how it is developed, and how it is
  employed.” Integrating language and cultural
  expertise into the military mindset will have far-
  reaching implications, “affecting the way we
  conduct operations and the way we conduct
  ourselves in the world.”


            H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,       64
                       2005-11-05
2005 Congressional Bills
 2005-02-17 & 2005-03-08: US Senate
  (S.Res.28) & House of Representatives
  (H.Res.122) Resolutions designating 2005 as
  the “Year of Foreign Language Study”
    “studying other languages has been shown
     to contribute to increased cognitive skills,
     better academic performance, and a greater
     understanding of others, while also providing
     life-long learning opportunities”;
    and that “the study of languages contributes
     to the intellectual and social development of
     a student and the economy and security of
     the United States”.

           H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,    65
                      2005-11-05
H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,   66
           2005-11-05
2005 Congressional Bills
 2005-03-16: House Resolution
 (H.Con.Res.100) calling for a new
 international education policy,
 including the objective to
     “Ensure that every United States
      college graduate has knowledge
      of a second language and of a
      foreign area, as well as a broad
      understanding of the world.”


          H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,   67
                     2005-11-05
2005 Congressional Bills
 2005-06-16: H.R. 2949: To amend
 the Higher Education Act of 1965
   On 2005-08-10 this bill was referred
    to the Subcommittee on 21st Century
    Competitiveness – it would authorize
    $200M in FY 2006
   “with an emphasis on high-need
    subjects such as math, science,
    foreign languages, and teaching
    the English language to students
    with limited English proficiency”
        H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,   68
                   2005-11-05
Bilingual University Education:
A New Day Dawning?
 How about two-way bilingual (English + LOTE)
  baccalaureate degrees? As follows:
 In selected language/discipline pairs
 Offered jointly to incoming freshmen by pairs of
  institutions of higher education
      one in the US and the other where LOTE is the (or
       a) national or local language
 Provided that both languages are known at a
  college-ready level of proficiency by sufficient
  numbers of qualified applicants to each partner
      Unfortunately, NCLB (2001) devalues bilingual ed

              H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,          69
                         2005-11-05
Bilingual, Jointly Delivered
Degrees in Various Fields
 Enroll bilingual (LOTE + Eng) students from 2-
  way K-12 immersion programs & non-US IHEs
 Target disciplines with adequate stream of
  disciplinary resources in both languages (no
  English- or LOTE-specific fields allowed)
      With growing bodies of original scholarship in both
 Alternate years of study in US & abroad
    E.g. years 1&3 “at home”, years 2&4 “abroad”
 Design each degree jointly with faculty from
  both IHEs and award a diploma from each
 Support faculty exchange to ensure high-level
  bilingual/bicultural instruction at both sites

              H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,         70
                         2005-11-05
Sources of Support for Joint
Bilingual Dual-Diploma Degrees
 US and EU initiatives for language learning
    E.g. Nat Flagship Lg Init in US, TNP3 in Europe
 Heritage and national language communities
    Programs preserve LOTE while mastering English.
 Global internationalization of higher education
    Programs increase study abroad and international
     enrollment, internationalize curricula at both IHEs.
 English as a lingua academica to the world
    Potential partners exist in every corner of the globe.
 Global wish to curb hegemony of English
    Programs preserve and maintain traditions of
     scholarship in languages other than English.

             H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,          71
                        2005-11-05
What I Said Today
 The status of languages other than English (LOTEs) in
   US institutions of higher education (IHEs) has waxed and
   waned in interesting ways over the past 45 years.

 Even before 9/11 various factors created an upturn in
   college study of LOTEs, though huge gaps persisted.

 Ending (?) a long history of antipathy and neglect, 9/11
   brought urgent calls for study of languages and cultures.

 In partnership with K-12 schools and universities abroad,
   will US institutions of higher education devise two-way
   immersive English/LOTE undergraduate and graduate
   programs in a wide array of LOTE/discipline pairs?

              H Stephen Straight, C/LAC, U Iowa,             72
                         2005-11-05
Multilingua-Culturality
For All?
     The History and Prospects of Languages
               In American Higher Education

          H Stephen Straight, Binghamton U,
                State University of New York

                                      Keynote Speech,
        Cultures and Languages Across the Curriculum
                         University of Iowa, 2005-11-05

				
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