Art of the Enlightenment and Neoclassical Art William V. Ganis, PhD – constructed PowerPoint frame work. Notes from Gardner's Art Through the Ages 12th and 13th editions. THE ENLIGHTENMENT: PHILOSOPHY AND SOCIETY The Enlightenment expanded the boundaries of European knowledge. It offered a new way of thinking critically about the world and about humankind. The Enlightenment employed reason and empirical evidence, and promoted the scientific method. The Doctrine of Empiricism: The Doctrine of Empiricism, promoted by John Locke, argued that the mind is a blank tablet upon which our experience of the material world, acquired through the senses, is imprinted. Ideas are formed on the basis of this experience. Locke also believed that the law of Nature grants people the natural rights of life, liberty, and property, and that the purpose of government is to protect these rights. The Doctrine of Progress: The philosophies in France identified individuals and societies-at-large as part of physical nature and argued that through the application of reason and common sense the problems of society could be remedied. They believed that knowledge was the basis of freedom and that through knowledge societies could be systematically improved. A compendium of knowledge: The comprehensive compilation of articles and illustrations (historical, scientific, technical, religious and moral) by over one hundred contributors in the Encyclopédie provided access to all available knowledge and political theory. Editor, Denis Diderot, greatly influenced the Enlightenment's rationalistic and materialistic thinking. Diderot's contemporary, Comte de Buffon's Natural History provided a kind of encyclopedia of the natural sciences. Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus established a system of plant classification. Revolutionary change: The political, economic, and social consequences of this increase in knowledge and the doctine of progress were explosive. It is no coincidence that the French Revolution, the American Revolution, and the Industrial Revolution in England all occurred during this period. Advances in manufacturing technology, together with advances in heating, lighting, and transportation, produced the Industrial Revolution, which also led to an expansion in the growth of cities and of an urban working class. The increase in the demand for cheap labor and raw materials also promoted territorial expansion and colonial exploitation. This enthusiasm for growth gave birth to the doctrine of Manifest Destiny the ideological justification for the continued territorial expansion. VOLTAIRE VERSUS ROUSSEAU: SCIENCE VERSUS THE TASTE FOR THE "NATURAL" While Voltaire thought the salvation of humanity was in science's advancement and in society's rational improvement, Jean-Jacques Rousseau believed that the arts, sciences, society, and civilization in general had corrupted "natural man" and that humanity's only salvation was to return to its original condition. The eighteenth century developed a taste for depictions by artists of "natural" landscapes. Growing travel opportunities, including the "Grand Tour," also increased interest in the depiction of particular places and geographic settings. The taste for the "natural" in France: Rousseau placed feelings above reason as the most "natural" of human expressions and called for the cultivation of sincere, sympathetic, and tender emotions. Because of this belief, he exalted as a model for imitation the unsullied emotions and the simple, honest, uncorrupt "natural" life of the peasant The new state and direction of society gave rise to "modern" art, which, with a new awareness of history, responded to and addressed these changes. William Hunter Child in Womb from Anatomy of the Human Gravid Uterus 1774 Joseph Wright of Derby A Philosopher Giving a Lecture at the Orrery ca. 1763-1765 oil on canvas 4 ft. 10 in. x 6 ft. 8 in. Wright's celebration of the inventions of the Industrial Revolution was in tune with the Enlightenment doctrine of progress. In this dramatically lit scene, the wonders of science mesmerize all that are present Joseph Wright of Derby Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump 1768 oil on canvas 6 x 8 ft. Abraham Darby III and Thomas E. Pritchard Iron Bridge at Coalbrookdale Coalbrookdale, England 1776-1779 The first use of iron in bridge design was in this bridge over the Severn River. The Industrial Revolution brought engineering advances and new materials that revolutionized architectural construction. Abraham Darby III and Thomas F. Pritchard designed and built the first cast-iron bridge. The bridge's exposed cast-iron structure prefigures the skeletal use of iron and steel in the nineteenth century. Jean-Baptiste Greuze The Village Bride 1761 oil on canvas 3 ft. x 3 ft. 10 1/2 in. Greuze was a master of sentimental narrative, which appealed to a new audience that admired "natural" virtue. Here, in an unadorned room, a father blesses his daughter and her husband to be. The Sentimentality of Rural Romance: The expression of sentiment is apparent in Jean-Baptiste Greuze's much-admired painting of The Village Bride, which shows a peasant family in a rustic interior. Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin Grace at Table 1740 oil on canvas 1 ft. 7 in. x 1 ft. 3 in. Chardin embraced naturalism and celebrated the simple goodness of ordinary people, especially mothers and children, who lived in a world far from the frivolous Rococo salons of Paris. Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin's Grace at Table, which shows an unpretentious urban, middle-class mother and two daughters at table giving thanks to God before a meal, satisfied a taste for paintings that taught moral lessons and upheld middle-class values Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin The Soap Bubble ca. 1739 oil on canvas 61 x 63 cm Élisabeth Louise Vigée-Lebrun Self-Portrait 1790 oil on canvas 8 ft. 4 in. x 6 ft. 9 in. Vigée-Lebrun was one of the few women admitted to France's Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture. In this self-portrait, she depicted herself confidently painting the likeness of Queen Marie Antoinette. Adélaide Labille-Guiard Self-Portrait with Two Pupils 1785 oil on canvas 6 ft. 11 in. x 4 ft. 11 1/2 in. William Hogarth Breakfast Scene from Marriage à la Mode ca. 1745 oil on canvas 2 ft. 4 in. x 3 ft. Hogarth won fame for his paintings and prints satirizing 18th century English life with comic zest. This is one of a series of six paintings in which he chronicled the marital immoralities of the moneyed class. Visualizing Morality through Satire: William Hogarth expresses the taste of the newly prosperous and confident middle class in England in his moralizing satires of contemporary life. In his carefully detailed painting of the Breakfast Scene from Marriage à la Mode, Hogarth comments on the social evil of the arranged marriage Thomas Gainsborough Mrs. Richard Brinsley Sheridan 1787 oil on canvas 7 ft. 2 5/8 in. x 5 ft. 5/8 in. In this life-size portrait, Gainsborough sought to match the natural beauty of Mrs. Sheridan with that of the landscape. The rustic setting, soft-hued light, and feathery brushwork recall Rococo painting. Thomas Gainsborough's portrait, painted in a soft-hued light and with feathery brushwork, shows Mrs. Richard Brinsley Sheridan dressed informally and seated in a rustic natural landscape of unspoiled beauty. Gainsborough's painting is also an example of "Grand Manner portraiture," in which the sitter is elevated and the refinement and elegance of her class is communicated through the large scale of the figure relative to the canvas, the controlled pose, the "arcadian" landscape setting, and the low horizon line. Sir Joshua Reynolds Lady Sarah Bunbury Sacrificing to the Graces 1765 oil on canvas 7 ft. 10 in. x 5 ft. Sir Joshua Reynolds Lord Heathfield 1787 oil on canvas 4 ft. 8 in. x 3 ft. 9 in. In this Grand Manner portrait, Reynolds depicted the English commander who defended Gibraltar. Typical of the genre Heathfield is large in relation to the canvas size and stands in a dramatic pose. Sir Joshua Reynolds's painting shows an honest English officer who was honored for his heroic defense of Gibraltar with the title Baron Heathfield of Gibraltar. Charles Wilson Peale George Washington ca. 1779-81 oil on canvas 95 x 61 3/4 in. Benjamin West The Death of General Wolfe 1771 oil on canvas approximately 5 x 7 ft. West's great Innovation was to blend contemporary subject matter and costumes with the grand tradition of history painting. Here West likened General Wolfe's death to that of a martyred saint. Benjamin West's The Death of General Wolfe shows a contemporary historical subject with realistic figures in modern costume, but in a composition arranged in the complex and theatrically ordered manner of the grand tradition of history painting, which West uses to transform the heroic battlefield death into a martyrdom charged with religious emotion John Singleton Copley Portrait of Paul Revere ca. 1768-1770 oil on canvas 2 ft. 11 1/8 in. x 2 ft. 4 in. In contrast to Grand Manner portraiture, Copley's Revere emphasizes his subject's down-to-earth character differentiating this American work from its European counterparts. A sense of directness and faithfulness to visual fact is conveyed in John Singleton Copley's Portrait of Paul Revere, which shows the figure informally posed in a plain setting with clear lighting. Canaletto dome of the Chapel of Saint Ivo College of the Sapienza Rome, Italy 1740 Caneletto was the leading painter of Venetian vedute, which were treasured souvenirs for the 18th-century travelers visiting Italy on a Grand Tour. He used a camera obscura for his on-site drawings. Antonio Canaletto's veduta paintings of Venice were acquired by English tourists as pictorial souvenirs. He often used a camera obscura to help make his on-site drawings more true to life. THE REVIVAL OF INTEREST IN CLASSICISM Models of Enlightenment: A defining characteristic of the late eighteenth century is a renewed interest in classical antiquity, which is manifested in painting, sculpture, and architecture, as well as in fashion and home decor. The geometric harmony of classical art and architecture embodied Enlightenment ideals, while classical cultures of the Greek and Roman republics, with their traditions of liberty, civic virtue, morality, and sacrifice, served as ideal models of enlightened political organization. The excavations of Herculaneum and Pompeii also stirred public interest in the classical past. The ancient world also became the focus of scholarly attention, notably in the work of Johann Joachim Winckelmann, the first modern art historian, who characterized Greek sculpture as manifesting a "noble simplicity and quiet grandeur" and who drew attention to distinctions between Greek and Roman art. Angelica Kauffmann Mother of the Gracchi ca. 1785 oil on canvas 3 ft. 4 in. x 4 ft. 2 in. Kauffman's painting of a virtuous Roman mother who presented her children to a visitor as her jewels exemplifies the Enlightenment fascination with classical antiquity and with classical art. Angelica Kauffmann contributed to the replacement of "natural" pictures with simple figure types, homely situations, and contemporary settings with subject matter of an exemplary nature drawn from Greek and Roman history and literature. Her Cornelia Presenting Her Children as Her Treasures treats the theme of virtue with the example of Cornelia presenting her own sons as her jewels. Jean-Antoine Houdon Voltaire 1781 marble approximately life-size Jean-Antoine Houdon Voltaire 1778 marble 18 7/8 in. high Jean-Antoine Houdon George Washington 1788-92 marble 6 ft. 2 in. high Jacques-Louis David Oath of the Horatii 1784 oil on canvas approximately 11 x 14 ft. David was the Neoclassical painter-ideologist of the French Revolution. This huge canvas celebrating ancient Roman patriotism and sacrifice features statuesque figures and classical architecture. Jacques-Louis David Death of Socrates 1787 oil on canvas 51 x 77 1/4 in. Jacques-Louis David The Death of Marat 1793 oil on canvas approximately 5 ft. 3 in. x 4 ft. 1 in. David depicted the revolutionary Marat as a tragic martyr, stabbed to death in his bath. Although the painting displays severe Neoclassical spareness, its convincing realism conveys pain and outrage. Jacques-Louis David The Coronation of Napoleon 1805-1808 oil on canvas 20 ft. 4 1/2 in. x 32 ft. 1 3/4 in. Houdon portrayed Washington in contemporary garb, but he incorporated the Roman fasces and Cincinnatus's plow in th estatue, because Washington had returned to his farm after his war service. As First Painter of the Empire, David recorded Napoleon at his December 1804 coronation crowning his wife with the pope as witness, thus underscoring the authority of the state over the church. Jacques-Louis David Monsieur Lavoisier and His Wife 1788 oil on canvas 8 ft. 8 1/4 in. x 7 ft. 4 1/8 in. The Italian Baroque architect Francesco Borromini created a dynamic counterpoint of concave and convex elements in the façade of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane in Rome. The centrally planned interior space molds a Greek cross design into an oval shape. The undulating walls with projecting columns support a deeply coffered oval dome with hidden windows around its base. Baroque Architecture: Borromini employed concave and convex forms in the design of the façade of the Chapel of Saint Ivo. The dome, which is supported by a convex, drumlike structure, is topped by an ornate, spiralling lantern. The star shape of the centralized plan rises through the interior elevation from the floor into the dome to create a single, dynamic, unified, and cohesive space The most famous classical structure of all time – The Parthenon: Following the destruction of the original temples by the Persians, the Acropolis of Athens was rebuilt during the Age of Pericles (c. 500-429 BCE) to celebrate the accomplishments of Athens. The centerpiece of Pericles's great building program on the Acropolis was the Parthenon, or the Temple of Athena Parthenos, erected in the remarkable short period between 447 and 438 BCE For the Parthenon, the controlling ratio for the symmetria of the parts may be expressed algebraically as x=2y + 1 The Pantheon, a huge temple dedicated to all the gods, is one of the best- preserved buildings of antiquity. The cylindrical drum enclosing the interior space is topped by a concrete hemispherical dome pierced in the center by an oculus Jacques-Germain Soufflot The Panthéon (Sainte-Geneviève) Paris, France 1755-1792 Soufflot's Pantheon is a testament to the Enlightenment admiration for Greece and Rome. It combines a portico based on an ancient Roman temple with a colonnaded dome and a Greek-cross plan. Pierre Vignon La Madeleine Paris, France 1807-1842 Napoleon constructed La Madeleine as a "temple of glory" for his armies. Based on ancient temples and Neoclassical in style, Vignon's design linked the Napoleonic and Roman empires. Roman Temple architecture shows a blending of Etruscan and Greek features, and emphasizes the front of the building The Forum of Augustus is in ruins today, but the conservative neoclassical Augustan style it epitomizes may be seen in an exceptionally well preserved temple at Nimes in southern France. The classicizing style of the so-called Maison Carrée was admired by Thomas Jefferson, who used it as the model for his design of the State Capitol in Richmond, Virginia. Pierre Vignon La Madeleine Paris, France 1807-1842 Antonio Canova Paulene Borghese as Venus 1808 marble life-size Canova was Napoleon's favorite sculptor. Here, the artist depicted the emperor's sister nude – at her request - as the Roman goddess of love in a marble statue inspired by classical models. Antonio Canova Paulene Borghese as Venus 1808 marble life-size Antonio Canova Paulene Borghese as Venus 1808 marble life-size Antonio Canova Perseus with the Head of Medusa ca. 1800 marble life-size Antonio Canova Cupid and Psyche 1787-93 marble 5 ft. 1 in. x 5 ft. 8 1/4 in. Karl Gotthard Langhans Brandenburg Gate Berlin, Germany 1788-91 Richard Boyle and William Kent Chiswick House near London, England begun 1725 For this British villa, Bohyle and Kent emulated the simple symmetry and unadorned planes of the Palladian architectural style. Chiswick House is a free variation on the Villa Rotunda. Influential Architect Venetian Andrea Palladio's Villa Rotonda: Andrea Palladio's employs a central plan design for the Villa Rotonda near Vicenza that has four identical façades and projecting porches (each resembling a Roman temple) arranged around a central dome-covered rotunda inspired by the Pantheon. The parts of the building are systematically related to one another in terms of calculated mathematical relationships. John Wood the Younger The Royal Crescent Bath, England 1769-1775 James Stuart Doric Portico Hagley Park, Worcestershire, England 1758 Most Neoclassical architects used Roman buildings in Italy and France as models. Stuart, who spent four years in Greece, based his Doric portico on a fifth-century BCE temple in Athens. Wedgwood and Co. Vase with Bridal Preparation Scene black basalt stoneware 1769-1775 18 in. high Horatio Greenough George Washington 1832-1841 marble approximately 11 ft. 4 in. high In this posthumous portrait, Greenough likened Washington to a god by depicting him seminude and enthroned in the manner of Phidias's Olympian statue of Zeus, king of the Greek gods Ancient Roman wall painting Robert Adam Etruscan Room Osterley Park House Middlesex, England begun 1761 Thomas Jefferson Monticello Charlottesville, Virginia 1770-1806 Jefferson led the movement to adopt Neoclassicism as the architectural style of the United States. Although built of local materials, his Palladian Virginia home recalls Chiswick House. Jefferson led the movement to atopt Neoclassicism as the architectural style of the United States. Although built of local materials, his Palladian Virginia home recalls Chiswick House. Modeled on the Pantheon, the Rotunda, like a temple in a Roman forum, sits on an elevated platform overlooking the colonnaded Lawn of the University of Virginia. Benjamin Latrobe Major L’Enfant Capitol Building Plan of Washington Washington, DC Washington, DC 1803-1807 1791 Thomas Jefferson wanted to adopt a symbolic Neoclassicism as the national architecture of the United States. He re-designed his own home of Monticello to emulate Palladio's architecture, with a façade inspired by the work of Robert Adam. Pierre L'Enfant's plan for the city of Washington, D.C., is logically ordered. In his design for the Capitol, Benjamin H. Latrobe said he wanted to re-create "the glories of the Greece of Pericles in the woods of America. Benjamin Latrobe Tobacco Capital Washington, DC 1809 Benjamin Latrobe Corncob Capital Washington, DC 1809 Edmonia Lewis Forever Free 1867 marble 3 ft. 5 1/4 in. x 11 in. x 7 in. The Neoclassical style Jefferson championed so successfully for the architecture of the new democracy was invoked by American sculptors as well. The following sculpture depicts freed African American slaves.