Cloud Computing

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					  Cloud Computing

Remzi Seker and Kenji Yoshigoe
 Computer Science Department
              UALR
{rxseker , kxyoshigoe}@ualr.edu
                        Outline
•   What is it and its history
•   Where is it
•   Pros
•   Cons
•   Things to consider
•   Questions



       ISACA Seminar   May 2010   Seker and Yoshigoe, UALR   2
 What is it? (Good Luck Defining It)
• ―Cloud‖ is a metaphor for Internet
• ―Computing‖ that is available as commodity
  – No knowledge, control, ownership in the
    computer infrastructure
  – User simply rent or access the software
  – Much like power, water, etc.
• Resources are available to the customer
  over the Internet
  – The Internet is the service delivery infrastructure

     ISACA Seminar   May 2010   Seker and Yoshigoe, UALR   3
         What is it? (cont’d)
• It’s not something new
• Ever heard of…
  – Service based computing
  – Service oriented computing/architectures
  – Software-as-a-service (SaaS)
  – Infrastructure-as-a-service, platform-as-a …?
• Now, on to some history…


     ISACA Seminar   May 2010   Seker and Yoshigoe, UALR   4
                       History
• 1960’s - Underlying concept by John McCarthy:
  ―Computation may someday be organized as a
  public utility‖
• 1990 - Idea that revolutionized: Moving from
  ―clustering computing‖ to ―grid computing‖
   – Electricity grid-like service model…‖use only when
     needed‖
• 1990’s - Virtual Private Network to switch traffic
  to effectively utilize network bandwidth


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             History (cont’d)
• Pioneers of cloud computing…
  – 1995 - Microsoft’s free web browser (blocked by court
    with a help from Google, Salesforce, and Amazon)
  – 2002 - Amazon Web Services – online services for
    other websites or client-side applications
  – Mid 2000 - IBM’s Blue Cloud and 3tera’s AppLogic
    system
  – 2007 www.live.com - Microsoft’s free software
    connects Windows software service delivered on the
    Internet.


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                 Where is it?
• Underlying Concept … ―Utility Computing‖
• ―Cloud‖ (hardware/software) is provided
  only by super-super large data centers
  – Most likely, your businesses are (will be)
    cloud users (to provide service to your
    customers)



Cloud Provider           SaaS Provider/Cloud User              SaaS User

         Utility computing                          Web applications

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     Where is it? (cont’d)
• Amazon’s Elastic Computing Cloud ( EC2)
  – Low-level abstraction
  – +) User can control nearly the entire software
    stack from the kernel upward
  – -) Impossible to offer automatic scalability and
    failover




     ISACA Seminar   May 2010   Seker and Yoshigoe, UALR   8
     Where is it? (cont’d)
• Google AppEngine
  – High-level abstraction
  – Application domain-specific platforms
  – Targeted for traditional Web applications
  – +) Automatic scaling and high-availability
  – -) Less flexibility




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     Where is it? (cont’d)
• Microsoft Azure
  – More flexible than application frameworks like
    AppEngine
  – Less flexible than hardware virtual machines
    like EC2
  – Written using .NET libraries and compiled to
    the Common Language Runtime, a language-
    independent managed environment


    ISACA Seminar   May 2010   Seker and Yoshigoe, UALR   10
                        Pros
• You don’t have to invest a lot in
  hard/software
• Green is ―in‖
• Potential reduction in costs
• Potentially less to worry about
• You can brag about being high-tech



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                       Cons
• Potentially bumpy transition
• Switching from one provider to another
  may not be a piece of cake
• Forensics and data recovery techniques
  not as well developed
  – There is no decent forensics analysis on
    widely used distributed file systems
    • UALR Commercial: wait for our results


    ISACA Seminar   May 2010   Seker and Yoshigoe, UALR   12
                                Oops..!
• “Dude, where is my data?!”
• ―Regrettably, based on Microsoft/Danger’s latest
  recovery assessment of their systems, we must now
  inform you that personal information stored on your
  device — such as contacts, calendar entries, to-do lists
  or photos — that is no longer on your Sidekick almost
  certainly has been lost as a result of a server failure at
  Microsoft/Danger. That said, our teams continue to work
  around-the-clock in hopes of discovering some way to
  recover this information. However, the likelihood of a
  successful outcome is extremely low.‖
http://gigaom.com/2009/10/10/when-cloud-fails-t-mobile-microsoft-lose-sidekick-customer-data/



           ISACA Seminar      May 2010       Seker and Yoshigoe, UALR                           13
        Issues to consider
• Legal
  – Mr. Newton will talk about them
  – Briefly, who is responsible from what
  – Service-level-agreements
  – Etc.




     ISACA Seminar   May 2010   Seker and Yoshigoe, UALR   14
     Issues to consider –2
• Certification
  – Where is your data?
  – How are backups handled?
  – Is your certification in danger?
• Potential embarrassment
  – E.g. Accidental disclosure




     ISACA Seminar   May 2010   Seker and Yoshigoe, UALR   15
    Issues to consider –3
• Too big of a bite
  – Is going the ―cloud-way‖ really for you?
  – What’s your ROI?
  – How are you going to switch from one
    provider to another if you are unsatisfied?
     • If balance transfer from one financial institution to
       another is not easy why should transferring your
       data?



     ISACA Seminar   May 2010   Seker and Yoshigoe, UALR       16
    Issues to consider –4
• Differences in regional/international
  standards and regulations
  – Newton…
• ―Your data will be transferred over the
  Internet securely‖
  – Ok but what happens once they have it?




     ISACA Seminar   May 2010   Seker and Yoshigoe, UALR   17
    Issues to consider –5
• Control issues
  – How much control do you have and at what
    granularity
• Auditing
  – How accessed what and when
     • Mr. Montrose
• Usability and user education
  – Mr. Reich

     ISACA Seminar   May 2010   Seker and Yoshigoe, UALR   18
     Issues to consider –6
• The good ole Information Assurance (IA) model
  – Confidentiality
  – Integrity
  – Availability
• There are some encryption methodologies being
  proposed
  – Usually born out of adapting/extending of existing
    techniques
     • UALR Commercial: Jigsaw Distributed File System (JigDFS)
       currently under development
• Mr. Reich will speak on security issues

     ISACA Seminar   May 2010   Seker and Yoshigoe, UALR      19
    Issues to consider –7
• How is your data ―retired‖?
  – Say you ended your engagement with a
    company
     • How is your data wiped?
     • You shred/wipe retired drives for a reason
• Immediate cost savings vs long-term
  utilization



     ISACA Seminar   May 2010   Seker and Yoshigoe, UALR   20
                      Trends
• The crystal ball says…
  – CC is here to stay
  – More service providers and services will
    surface
  – Will get more cost effective
  – Regulation issues will come up
  – Perhaps new ―kinds‖ will be there
    • The entertainment cloud
    • Healthcare cloud
    • etc

     ISACA Seminar   May 2010   Seker and Yoshigoe, UALR   21
                       Summary
• Great technology
• May need some more time to fully mature
• Great for some applications (right now)
    – Not so great for others
•   Definitely not for everyone
•   Certainly a great research area
•   Can be a great cost saver
•   Not aware of a court case asking for e-
    discovery for data deleted from a cloud
       ISACA Seminar   May 2010   Seker and Yoshigoe, UALR   22
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