AP European History Free Response Questions 1976-2002

Document Sample
AP European History Free Response Questions 1976-2002 Powered By Docstoc
					AP European History Free                                 Paper Topics                                    Sun Valley High School
Response Questions 1976-                                                                                 Dr. Frampton
2002

  Instructions: Each marking period you will be required to submit a paper selected from
  the plethora of questions listed below. This is an exercise that will simulate the questions on
  the AP Exam { they have already been asked) while also preparing for the time limitations
  of thirty minutes. All papers should be no longer than three typed pages with
  documentation.

1400's

1. To what extent is the Renaissance a concept for a distinct period in early modern European history?

2. Explain the ways in which Italian Renaissance humanism transformed ideas about the individual's role in society.

3.   To what extent and in what ways may the Renaissance be regarded as the turning point in the Western intellectual and
     cultural tradition?

4.   Describe and analyze the ways in which the development of printing altered both the culture and the religion of
     Europe during the period 1450-1600.

5.   "In thefifieenth century. European society was still centered on the Mediterranean region, but by the end of the
     seventeenth century, the focus of Europe had shifted north. .. Identify and analyze the economic developments between
     1450 and -1700 that helped bririg around the shift.

6.   Between 1450 and 1800, many women gained power as rulers, some as reigning queens, others as regen~. /.
     Identify two such powerful women and discuss how issues of gender, such as marriage· and reproduction,
     influenced their ability to obtain and exercise power.

7.   Why were Europeans able to achieve economic and political control over many non-European peoples between 1450
     and 17507

8.   Discuss how Renaissance ideas are expressed in the Italian art of the period, referring to the specific works and artists.

9.   Analyze the changed European economy from about 1450 to 1700 brought about the voyages of exploration and by
     colonization. Give three specific examples.

1500's

10. In 1519, Charles Hapsburg became Charles V. Roman emperor. Discuss and analyze the political, social, and
    religious problems he faced. over the course of his imperial reign (1519-1556).

11. Machiavelli suggested that a ruler should behave both" like a lion" and " like a fox." lillalyze the policies of TWO of the
    following rulers. Indicating the degree to which they successfully followed Machiavelli's suggestion.

12. Discuss the relationship between politics and religion by examining the wars of religion.          Choose TWO specific
    examples from the following:                                               .
                               Dutch Revolt
                               French Wars of Religion
                               English Civil War Thirty
                               Years War

13. Compare and contrast the views of Machiavelli and Rosseau on the human nature and the relationship between
    government and the governed.
                        -------------------------------------------~
14. How did the developments in scientific thought from Copernicus to Newton create a new conception of the
    universe and of humanity's place within it?               .

 15. Compare and contrast the motives for European expansion during the Age of discovery (fifteenth and si.xteenth
     centuries) and during the Age of New Imperialism (nineteenth and early twentieth centuries).

16. European monarchs of the late fIfteenth centuries and early sixteenth centuries are often referred to as the "New
    Monarchs.'; What was "new" about them? Do their actions warrant this label?

17. "Luther was both a revolutionary and a conservative. " Evaluate this statement v.i.th respect to Luther's responses to the
    political and social questions of the day.

 18. "The Protestant Refonnation was primari~v an economic event. " By describing and determining the relati ve
     importance of the economic, political, and religious causes of the Protestant Reformation, defend or refute this
     statement

 19 .. 'The Reformation was a rejection of the secular spirit of the Italian Renaissance. " Defend or refute this
       statement using specific examples from sixteenth-century Europe.

 20 . Trace the evolution of religious toleration as a potential practice and assess the factors behind its development from
       the Reformation through the Enlightenment.

 21. Compare and contrast the cultural views of the sixteenth-century Northern Renaissance with those of the
     Enlightenment

 22. What were the responses of the Catholic authorities in the sixteenth century to the challenges posed by the
     Lutheran Reformation?

 23. Describe and analyze the ways in which sixteenth-century Roman Catholics defended their faith against the
     Protestant Reformation.

24. Explain how economic, technological, political,. and religious factors promoted European explorations from about 1450
    to about 1525.

 25. In 1490 there was no such country as Spain, yet within a century it had become the most powerful nation in Europe
     and within another had sunk to the status of a third-rate power. Describe and analyze the major social, economic, and
     political reasons for Spain's rise, and fall.

26. Compare and contrast the attitudes of Martin Luther and John Calvin toward political authority and social order.

27. Assess the extent to which the Protestant Reformation promoted new exceptions about social roles in the 16 th
    century. Refer to at least two social groups in your assessment.

28.' Focusing on the pckod before 1600, describe and analyze the cultural and economic interactions between Europe and the
      Western hemisphere as a result of the Spanish and Portu"auese exploration and settlement

29. Compare and contrast the Lutheran Reformation and the catholic Reformation of the sixteenth century regarding he
    reform of both religious doctrines and religious practices.

30. "Leadership determines the fate of a country." Evaluate this quotation in terms of Spain's experience under Philip II.

31. Discuss the political and social consequences of the Protestant Reformation m the fIrst half of the sixteenth
    century
1600's

32. Describe and analyze the changes in the role of Parliament in English politics between the succession of James I and
    The Glorious Revolution ..

33. Evaluate the relative importance of the religious rivalries and dynastic ambitions that shaped the course' of the
    Thirty Year's War~


                                                                                                                                 .,"
                                                                                                                                 ,


19.
              14. How did the developments in scientific thought from Copernicus to Newton create a new conception of the
                  universe and of humanity's place within it?               .

               15. Compare and contrast the motives for European expansion during the Age of discovery (fifteenth and si.xteenth
                   centuries) and during the Age of New Imperialism (nineteenth and early twentieth centuries).

              16. European monarchs of the late ftfteenth centuries and early sixteenth centuries are often referred to as the "New
                  Monarchs." What was "new" about them? Do their actions warrant this label?

              17. "Luther was both a revolutionary and a conservative. " Evaluate this statement with respect to Luther's responses to the
                  political and social questions of the day.

               18. "The Protestant Refonnation was primarily an economic event" By describing and determining the relative
                   importance of the economic, political, and religious causes of the Protestant Reformation, defend or refute this
                   statement

               19. "The Reformation was a rejection of the secular spirit of the Italian Renaissance. " Defend or refute this
                   statement using specific examples from sixteenth-century Europe.

               20. Trace the evolution of religious tolemtion as a potential pmctice and assess the factors behind its development from
                   the Reformation through the Enlightenment.

               21. Compare and contrast the cultural views of the sixteeo.th-century Northern Renaissance with those of the
                   Enlightenment

              22. What were the responses of the Catholic authorities in the sixteenth century to the challenges posed by the
                  Luthemn Reformation?

              23. Describe and analyze the ways in which sixteenth-century Roman Catholics defended their faith against the
                  Prmestant~furmation ..

              24. Explain how economic, technological, political, and religious factors promoted European explorations from about 1450
                  to about 1525.

               25. In 1490 there was no such country as Spain, yet wifuin a century it had become the most powerful nation in Europe
                   and within another had sunk to the status of a third-mte power. Describe and analyze the major social., economic,
                   and political reasons for Spain's rise and fall.

              26. Compare and contrast the attitudes of Martin Luther and John Calvin toward political authority and social order.

              27. Assess the extent to which the Protestant Reformation promoted new exceptions about social roles in the 16 th
                  century. Refer to at least two social groups in your assessment.

              28.' Focusing on the pbiod before 1600, describe and analyze the cultural and economic interactions between Europe and the
                   Western hemisphere as a result of the Spanish and Portu"ouese explomtion and settlement

              29. Compare and contrast the Luthemn Reformation and the catholic Reformation of the sixteenth century regarding he
                  reform of both religious doctrines and religious practices.

              30. "Leadership determines the fate of a country." Evaluate this quotation in terms of Spain's experience under Philip II.

              31. Discuss the political and social consequences of the Protestant Reformation in the first half of the sixteenth
                  century
              1600's

              32. Describe and analyze the changes in the role of Parliament in English politics between the succession of James I and
                  The Glorious ~volution ..

              33. Evaluate the relative importance of the religious rivalries and dy.nast:ic ambitions that shaped the course-of the
-------~---
                  Thirty Year's War:
                ---_.,---_._~_.,-   -------   -------.---.---------




                                                                                                                                             ..
                                                                                                                                             .,
34. In the seventeenth century what political conditions accOlmted for the increased power of both the Parliament in
    England and the monarchy in France?

 35. "In the seventeenth-century England the aristocracy lost its privileges but retained its power; in seventeenthcentury
     France the an'stocracy retained its privileges but lost its power. " Assess the accuracy of this statement with respect to
     political events and social developments in the two conntries in the seventeenth century.

36. In the seventeenth century, England and the Netherlands developed effective capitalist economies while Spain did not.
    Why did the economies develop so differently in England and the Netherlands, on one hand and in Spain on the other?

37. In the seventeenth century, how did England and the Dutch Republic compete successfully with France and Spain for
    control of overseas territory and trade?

 38. Analyze the ways in which specIDcintellectual and scientific developments of the seventeenth and eighteenth
     centuries contributed to the emergence of the religious outlook known as "Deism."

39 .. "Absolutism was the indispensable counterpart of mercantilism. " Evaluate this statement with reference to England
AND France between 1648 and 1715 ..

40. Why did absolutism flourish in France but declin~ in England in the second half of the sev~teenth century?

41. How did the works of Michaelangelo and Rembrant reflect the different social and intellectual conditions ofItaly in the
    late Renaissance and the Netherlands in the seventeenth century?

 42. How did the diplomacy of Russia and England between 1689 and 1725 alter the continental balance of power
     established by the Peace of Westphalia?

43. Describe the new astronomy of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and analyze the ways in which it changed
    scientific thought and methods.

44. "Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night! God said 'Let Newton be, • and all was light" The couplet was Alexander
    Pope's way of e},.-pressing the relationship between the Scientific Revolution and Christianity. What was the effect of
    seventeenth-century science on Christianity, and how did each react to each other?

45. Compare the rise of absolute monarchy and enlightened despotism in Prussia with the rise of absolute monarchy and
    enlightened despotism in Austria from the late seventeenth century to the eye of the French Revolution.

46. Anal)ze the military, political and social factors that acconnt fothe rise ofPruss~ between 1640 and 1786.

47. Analyze the major ways through Tsar Pete the Great (1689-1725) sought to reform his society and its iiistitutions in
    order to strengthen Russia and its position in Europe.

48. Analyze the infltickce of the theory of mercantilism of the domestic and foreign policies of France, 1600-1715.

49. Explain the development of the scientific method in the seventeenth century and the impact of scientific thinking on
    traditional sources of authority.

50. Describe and analyze how overseas expansion by European states affected global trade and international relations from
    1600-1715.

1700's

51. in what ways did the Enlightenment thinkers' build or make use of the ideas of Newton and Locke?

52. "By'1700 it had become evident that Western Europe and Eastern Europe were moving in opposite directions in terms
    of their basic social structures." Discuss.

53. How did the social and political conditions in eighteenth-century WestemEurope prior to 1788 influence the ideas
    nfthe Fnli~htemnent?                              ..
                          54. How and in what ways did the writing of.Karl Marx draw the Enlightenment concepts of progress, natural law, . and
                              reason?

                          55. "In the eighteenth century, people turned to new science for a better understanding of the social and economic
                              problems of the day. " Assess the validity of this statement by using specific examples from the Enlightenment era.

                          56. In a well-organized essay, discuss how the enlightenment was an attempt to imply the principles of the Scientific
                              Revolution to the problems of society.

                          57. Compare and contrast the attitudes toward science and tecbnoloey held by Enlightenment thinkers with the
                              various attitudes held by European artists and intellectuals in the twentieth century.

                          58. Analyze the ways in which Enlightenment thought addressed the religious beliefs and the social issues in the
                              eighteenth century.

                          59. Between 1750 and 1850 more and more Western Europeans were employed in the cottage industry and in factory
                              production. Analyze how these two types of employment affected the emp10yee-employer relations, working
                              conditions, family relations, and the standard of living during this period.

                          60. Describe and analyze the issues and ideas in debate in Europe between 1750 and 1846 over the proper role of
                              government in the economy. Give specific examples.

                          61. The essential cause of the French revolution was the collision between powerful, rising bourgeoisie and the entrenched
                              aristocracy demanding its pnVileges. " Assess the validity of this statement as the explanation of the events leading up
                              to the French Revolution in 1789.

                          62. "Political leaders committed to radical,or extremists goals often exert authoritarian control in the name of higher
                                                                                            of
                              values." Support the refute of this statement with reference the political and cultural policies of Robespierre in
                              the French Revolution.              .

                          63. Compare and contrast the roles of the peasantry and of urban workers in the French Revolution of 1789 to those of the
                              urban workers in the Russian Revolution of 1917.

                          64. To what extent and in what ways was the French Revolution during the period during the period 1789 through the Reign
                              of Terror (1794) an attempt to create a government based on the Enlightenment ideals?

                          65. Napoleon I is sometimes called the greatest enlightened despot Evaluate this assessment in terms of Napoleon 1's
                              policies and accomplishment. Be sure to include a definition of enlightened despotism in your answer.

                          66. "Napoleon was the child of Enlightenment. " Assess the validity of the statement above. Use examples referring both to
                              the aspects of the Enlightenment and to Napoleon's policies and attitudes.

                         67. How do you accorint for the fact that Russia did not undergo a major social and political transformation from
                             1715-1850?

                         68. "Classicism dominated the eighteenth century; romanticism the fist half of the nineteenth century. " EvalUate this
                             generalization with the reference to ONE of the following pairs:
                                            Mozart                David               Pope
                                            Beethoven             Delacroix           Wordsworth

                         69. How did the technological change and laissez-faire policy during the Industrial Revolution (1750-185-) alter the social
                             and economic conditions for the laboring classes in England?

                         70, What internal and external factors account for the ascendancy of the Prussia over Austria in the struggle for
                              supremacy in the Getmanies between 1740 and l866?

                         71. How did the concept of unchanging natura1law affect the social and political thinking of the eighteenth-century
                             Enlightenment?

                     72. Identify the social and economic factors in'"the pre-industrial England that explain why England was the first
____ ~ _________________ ~~~tryto industrialize.
                                                                     -------------- - -   -----
                                                                                                                                               --~ ___________________________ J,




                                                  ";;.:~::'
                                                  "
                                                                                  73. Discuss the combination of social, cultural, political, and economic factor that allowed Great Britain to be the first nation
                                                                                      to industrialize.

                                                                                  74. There were a number of factors that delayed the industrialization of Eastern Europe. Discuss them and compare them
                                                                                      with the factors that encouraged the earlier industrialization of We stem Europe.

                                                                                  75. Analyze the major sociaL political, and teclmological changes that took place in European warfare between 1789 and
                                                                                      1918.

                                                                                  76. Compare and contrast the extent to which Catherine the Great and Joseph Stalin were "Westemizers."

                                                                                  77. Compare and contrast the relationships between the great powers and Poland in the periods 1772-15 and 19181939.

                                                                                  78. Identify the major social groups in France on the eve of the 1789 Revolution. Assess the extent to which their aspirations
                                                                                      were achieved in this period from the meeting in the Estates- General (May 1789) to the declaration of the republic
                                                                                      (September 1792).

                                                                                  79. Analyze and discuss attitudes and reactions toward the participation of women in the sciences during the
                                                                                      seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

                                                                                   80. To what extent did the Enlightenment express optimism ideas in eighteenth-centuIy Europe? illustrate your answer
                                                                                       with references to specific individuals and their works.

                                                                                  81. Discuss three developments that enabled Great Britain to achieve a dominant economic position between 17001830.

                                                                                   1800's

                                                                                  82. Describe the ways in which conservative political and social views sh~ped the peace settlement of the Congress in
                                                                                      Vienna. Explain the consequences of the peace settlement for the period 1815 to 1848.

                                                                                  83. Compare and contrast the efforts to ensure European collective security that were made by the victorious powers between
                                                                                       1815 and 1830 (after Napoleonic Wars) with those made by the victorious powers between 1918 and 1933 (after the 1 sf
                                                                                       World War) ..

                                                                                  84. Analyze'and compare the effects of the nationalism on Italian andAustr~Hungarianpolicies between.1815 and 1914 ..

                                                                                  85. Discuss the extent to which nineteenth-centuIy romanticism was or was NOT a conservative cultural and
                                                                                      intellectual movement.

                                                                                 86. From 1830 to 1933 the lower classes have used a direct-action protest ranging from strikes and riots to revolution as a
                                                                                     means of effecting social and political change. Using specific examples from France and Germany, write an essay in
                                                                                     which you explain the effectiveness of such means in bringing about political changes.

                                                                                 87. Discuss the effects of the industrial economy on Western European peasant women and working class women from
                                                                                     1830 to 1914.

                                                                                 88. Evaluate the effectiveness of collective responses by workers to the industrialization Westem Europe during the course
                                                                                     of the nineteenth centuIy.

                                                                                89. Between 1815 and 1848 the condition of the laboring classes and the problem of political stability were critical issues
                                                                                    in England. Describe and analyze the reforms in social critics and politicians of this period proposed to resolve these
                                                                                    problems.

                                                                                 90. Describe the steps taken between 1832 and 1918 to extend the suffrage in England What groups and movements
                                                                                     contributed to the extension of the vote?




                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ----------                                                -           -----. -----




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ...L:.'~~ .
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         .:. i:




1_' __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _
91. In February 1848, the middle class workers in France joined to overthrow the government of Louis Phillippe. By June
    the two groups were at the odds in their political, economic, and social thinking. Analyze what transpired to divide the
    groups and describe the consequences.
92. What political and social changes in Western and Central Europe account for the virtual disappearance of
    revolutionary outbreaks in the half-century following l848?

93. Identify and explain the similarities and differences between socialism and liberalism in nineteenth centurY
       Europe.
 94. Describe and compare the differences among the Utopian socialists, Karl Marx, and the Revisionist socialists in their
     critiques of the nineteenth century European economy and society.
95. To what event did the emancipation of Russian serfs and other reforms in the nineteenth century contribute to the
    modernization of Russia before the 1 st World War?

96. Describe and analyze the long-term social and economic trends in the period 1860 to 1917 that prepared to groWld for
    revolution in Russia.

97. Analyze the policies ofthree European powers regarding Africa between 1871 and 1914.
98. Discuss the ways in which European Jews were affected by and responded to liberalism, nationalism, and ant-
    Semitism in the nineteenth century.

99. Analyze the key developments that characterized the European economy in the second half of the nineteenth
    century and analyze the social consequences of this transformation.
 100. Describe the physical transformation of European cities in the second half of the nineteenth century and analyze the
      social consequences of this transformation.
 101. Describe and analyze the views of those who were concerned about the problems of the political, economic, and social
      order in the German states before the revolution of 1848.

 102. Compare and contrast the roles of British working women in the preindustrial economy (before 1750) with their roles
      in the era 1850 to 1920.

103. Discuss some of the ways in which Romantic artists, musicians, and writers responded to political and
     socioeconomic conditions in the period 1800 to 1850. Document your response with specific examples from
     discussions of at least two of the three disciplines: visual arts, music, and literature.

104.                                     Man for the field and-woman for the hearth:
                                            Man for the sword and for the needle she:
                                         Man with the head and women froin the heart:
                                            Man to command woman to obey:

 105 How accurately do the lines of poetry above reflect gender roles for European men and women in the late
     nineteenth century?

 106 Evaluate how the ideas of Charles Darwin and Sigmund Freud challenged Enlightenment assumptions about human
      behavior and the role of reason.

 107. Compare and. contrast the foreign policy goals and achievements of Mettemich (1815-1848) and Bismarck (18621890).



 1900's

 108. Assess the extent to which the unification of Germany under Bismarck led to authorian government there between 1871
      and 1914 ..


                                                                                                                               .
                                                                                                                               ~
                                                                                                                                   ,
 109. How and in what ways were the economic and political factors responsible for intensifying European imperialism
      activity in Africa from the mid-nineteenth century to the beginning of the First W orld War?

 110. Assess the nature and importance of economic factors that helped determine the race for the empire among the
      European powers in the later nineteenth and earlier twentieth centuries.

 Ill. To what extent and in what ways did intellectual developments in Europe in the period 1880-1920 undermine
       confidence in human rationality and in a well-ordered, dependable universe?

 112. Describe and analyze the ways in which Marxism, Freudism, and the women's movement challenged traditional
      European beliefs before the First World War.

 113. To what extent and in what ways has the twentieth-century psychics challenged the Newtonian view of the
      universe and society?

 114. "By 1900 the artist had either to be a critic of the times or to develop anfor its own sake." Discuss.

 115. Contrast European diplomacy in the periods 1890 to 1910 and 1918 to 1939, respectively. Include your analysis
      gOal'.>, practices, and results.

 116. What policies of the Stalinist government perpetrated the essential features of the tsarist regime under Nicholas II
      (1894-1917)? .             -                                                  .

 117. "Every war creates illusions and is conducted in the name of unrealizable ideals." Evaluate this statement by comparing
      goals for which the First World War was fought to those for which the Second World War was fought.

 118. "1914-1918 marks a turning point in the intellectual and cultural history of Europe." Defend, refute, or modify this
      statement with reference to the gen~on before and the generation after the First World War.

 119. Analyze and assess the extent to which the First World War accelerated European social change in such are as work,
      sex roles, and government involvement in everyday life.

120. "The tsarist regime fell in 1917 because it had permitted tremendous change and progress in some areas while trying to
     maintain a political order that had outlived time .•• Assess the validity of this statement as an explanation of the
     abdication of Nicholas II.

121. What aspects of Russian society and institutions were most changed and what aspects least changed by the
     Bolshevik Revolution of1917? Limit your discussion to the first 10 years (1917-1927) ofte newreginie and account
     for the changes you note.

122. Experimentation and an interest in the irrational marked the culture of the ears between the two world Wars (19181939).
      Select any two European works of art or literature from this period and describe their significance.
                        ,
123. In what ways and Why did Lenin alter Marxism?

124. "Dictators in twentieth..,century Europe have had much greater control over cuhure and sodety that had divine right
     monarchs of earlier centuries. " Assess the validity of this statement, using specific examples from each era to support
     your position ..

125. Why did Germany's experiment with parliamentary democracy-between 1919 and 1933 fail?

126. Discuss and analyze the political and economic reasons for the failure of parliamentary democracy in Germany after
     the First World War.

127. Compare the rise to power of fascism in Italy and in Germany.

128. "Every age projects its own images into its art." Assess the validity of this statement with reference to two
     representatives twentieth-centuIy works in either the visual or the literary arts.

129. How and in wliat ways did European painting or literature reflect the disillusionment in society between 1919 and 1939?
     Support your answer with specific 8rtistic or literary examples.
                                                                                          ---- .. -.-.--- ... - ... -------------
                                                                                          I
130. Analyze criticisms of European presented by European authors in the period of 1940 to 1970. Be sure to discuss at least
     two works.

 131. Compare and contrast the Bolshevik seizure of power in Russia (March 1917- January 1917) with the Jacobin seizure
      of power in France (May 1789-October1792).

 132. Compare and contrast the methods used by Louis XIV and Adolph Hitler to enhance their images as leaders of their
      respective countries.

 133. "Historians tell us that great periods of intellectual activity are likely tofollow periods when there had occurred the
      discovery of new facts about the same nature of the world and a wide extension of a sense of personal liberty .•• In what
      ways do the ideas and times of either Locke or Marx support and illustrate this thesis?

 134. To what extent can Hitler's rise to power be attributed to the impact of the depression of 1929-1933?

 135. "One great mind can change the ways that man looks at himself and his world. •. Discuss with reference to
      EITHER Marx of Freud.

 136. Identify four specific changes in science and technology, and explain their effects on Western European family and
      private life between 1918 and 1970.

137. Compare and contrast the patronage of the arts by Italian Renaissance rulers with that by dictators of the 1930's.

138. Compare and contrast the women's suffrage movements to the late nineteenth and early twentieth century with the
     European feminist movements of the 1960's and 1970's.

 139. Account for the responses of the European democracies to the military aggression by Italy and Germany during the
      1930's.

140. How did new theories in physics and psychology in the period from 1900 to 1939 challenge existing ideas about the
     individual and society?

 141. Analyze the impact of the First World War on European culture and society in the interwar period (1919-1939).

1945-Present (post World War In
142. Describe and analyze the resistance to Soviet authority in the Eastern bloc from the end of the Second World War
     through 1989. Be sure to include examples from at least two Soviet satellite countries.

143. Using specific examples from Eastern and Western Europe, discuss economic development during the period 1945 to the
     present, focusing on ONE of the following:
                     Economic recovery and integration
                     ~elopment of the welfare state and its subsequent decline

144. Analyze the common political and economic problems facing Western European nations in the period 1945-1960 and
     discuss their responses to these problems.

145. Analyze the ways in which the Cold War affected the political development of European nations from the end of the
     Second World War in 1945 to the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961.

146. Describe and analyzt; the changing relationships between the Soviet Union and Eastern European countries from 1945 to
     1970. Analyze the ways in which technology was an issue in European social activism between 1945 and 1970. Be sure
     to include three of the following: environmenta1ism., peace movements, student protests, women's movements, and
     workers' movements ..

147. Compare and contrast the political and economic policies of Joseph Stalin in the period before the Second World War
     and those ofMikbail Gorbachev (1985-1991)

148. Compare and contrast the political and economic effects of the Cold War (1945-1991) on Western Europe with the effects
     on Eastern Europe.




                        ":"":;/
.'   'y




               149. Many historians have suggested that since 1945, nationalism has been on the dec1ineinEurope. Using both
                    political and economic examples from the period 1945 to 2000, evaluate the validity of this interpretation.

              Miscellaneous

               1 50. How did the disintegration of the medieval church and the coming of the Refonnation contribute to the
                    development of nation-states in WestemEurope between 1450 arid 1648?

              151. Compare the economic roles of the state under seventeenth-<:en.tury mercantilism and twentieth century communism.
                   I illustrate your answer with references to the economic system of during Louis XIV's reign under
                   Colbert and of the Soviet Union under Stalin.                 '.
              146 "Every successful revolution on in time the robes ofthe<tyrant it has deposed." Evaluate this statement with regard to the
              English Revolution (1640-1660), the French Revolution (1789-1815), and the Russian Revolution (1917-1930).


              147        Compare and contrast the attitudes toward science and technology held by Enlightenment thinkers with the
                         various attitudes held by European artists and intellectuals in the twentieth century.


               152. "Dictators in twentieth-century Europe have had much greater control over culture and society that had divine right
                    monarchs of earlier centuries." Assess the validity of this stateriient, uSing specific. examples from eaclieiil to support
                    your position.

              153. Compare and contrast the ways in \Vhich the statement of TWO of the following contributed to the development
                   of their respective states.
                                    Henry vm of England
                                    The Great Elector of Prussia
                                    Peter the Great of Russia


              154. It has been said that the cultural flowering occurs at times of relative economic stress, or distress. Test this theory
                   with reference to TWO of the following:
                                    Italy in the Age of Renaissance
                                    Spain from 1550 to 1650
                                   The Netherlands in the seventeenth-<:en.tury

              155. Compare and contrast the attitudes or actions of TWO of the following with respect to the role that government
                   should play in society:                          .
                                   Frederick the Great
                                   Adam Smith
                                   Robespierre

              156. Compare and contrast the policies of Alexander II and Joseph Stalin with respect t91WO of the folloWing:
                                 The peasantry and land reform'                                         .
                                 Relations with the rest of Europe
                                 Freedom of literacy and political expression

              157. Analyze and compare the criticisms of society contained in the 'Writings of1WO of the following:
                                 Erasmus
                                 Voltaire
                                 Marx

              158. Compare the treatment of the defeated states by the victors at the end of the Napoleonic W 81'S with the treatment of the
                   defeated states by the victors at the end of the First World War.

              159. How did each of the following strengthen or weaken the influence of churches in Western society?
                   Pick TWO to answer the question.                                       .
                                 The formation of the Society of Jesus
                                 The emergence of Deism
                                 The Kultmkampf

             160. How did TWO of the followm.g ~en affect the way of thmkmg dunng the century md1cated'!


          --~---_._------
          -
                    Descartes in the 17th centorv ,
                    Newton: in the 18th centurY -
                    Darwin in the 19111 cennu-;.
                    Freud and the 20111 centurY

 161. "The past has a remarkable power to assert itself Even the most determined breaks with it have often been followed
      by a compromise with tradition. " Discuss the validity of this statement with reference to ONE of the following. To
      what extent was each a compromise with tradition?
                      The English Reformation from 1534 to 1599
                      The France of Napoleon I
                     Stalinist Russia
                     Hitler's Germany

162. To what extent did TWO of the following believe the social improvement could be achieved through legislation?
                     Thomas Malthus
                     Karl Marx
                     Jeremy Bentham
                     Robert Owen

 163. "Great changes in history have come about as a result ofa combination of men and circumstances." Discuss with
      relation to ONE of each of the following pairs: .
                     Calvin and the Protestant Reformation
                     James II and the Glorious Revolution

                     Napoleon ill and the establishment of the 21ld empire
                     Bismarck and the mllfication of Germany

                     Lenin and the Russian Revolution
                     Mussolini and Fascism in Italy

164. To what extent did ONE of the following apply the ideas of the philosophers in the administration of the state? -
                     Catherine the II of Russia
                     Frederick the II ofPmssia
                     Joseph II of Austria


165. To what extent did the policies of the revolutionaries embody the ideals of the French Revolution, liberty,
     equality, fratemity-during ONE of the following periods:
                           1789-1792
                           1792-1794

166. Analyze the "conservatism" of TWO of the following:
                     M~ch
                     Nicholas I
                     Disraeli

167. Describe and analyze the economic, cultural, and social changes that led to and sustained Europe's rapid
     population growth in the period from approximately 1650 to 1800.

168. Compare and contrast the roles of British working women in the preindustrial economy (before 1750) with their roles
     in the era 1850 to 1920.

169. To what extent and in what ways did nationalist tensions in the Balkans between 1870 and 1914 contribute to the
     outbreak of the First World War.·                                                                               .

170. Compare and contrast the degree of success of treaties Iiegotiatedin Vienna ( 1814 -1815) and Versailles (1919 ) in
     achieving European stability .
                                                                    .               ..   ;.,


171. Compare and contrast the French Jacobins" use of state power to achieve revoluti~ goals during the Terror (1793-
     1794) WITH Stalin' suse of state p<?wer to achieve revolutionary goals in the Soviet Union during the period 1~28
     to 1939.' -

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Jun Wang Jun Wang Dr
About Some of Those documents come from internet for research purpose,if you have the copyrights of one of them,tell me by mail vixychina@gmail.com.Thank you!