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Integration of a wind farm into the utility grid

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					VERGNET S.A.
INTEGRATION OF A WIND FARM
INTO THE UTILITY GRID


        Eric ANDRIEU, Electrical Design Department Manager
        Pierre PESNEL, Export Manager
                                            18 – 20 October 2006
Thank you
for welcoming us
in Jamaica !
             What will we talk about?

 Who is VERGNET today ?

 Our experience in the Caribbeans

 Grid connection & Protection
  plan of wind farms

 Scada System
                                THE VERGNET GROUP
 Created in 1989

 100% private

 2 plants in France

 More than 90% of turnover abroad

 By history and culture, VERGNET’s
  focuses in cyclonic and isolated areas.

 A new product range, the GEV MP
  (275 kW)
                    Vergnet in the Caribbean
                      Guadeloupe :
                      • 17 people, dedicated to O&M
                      • 10 wind farms / 5 locations
                      • > 20 MW
                      • 50 GWh / year




Martinique
• 4 wind turbines
• 1,1 MW
Vergnet in Guadeloupe
    > 10 % of the island’s energy

    Electric solutions with EDF

    Maintenance « in the vicinity of the
     wind Farm »
                              Vergnet in the Pacific
                              New Caledonia :
                              15 people, dedicated to O&M
                              7 wind farms / 4 locations
                              More than 25 MW installed power
                              50 GWh / year produced




 Fidji Islands :
 1 wind farm under construction
 Commissionning: Q1/2007
 37 WTG, 10 MW, very cyclonic
  area
  In the Pacific :
 New projects in progress
The anti-cyclonic GEV MP – 275 kW
      Original technological solutions
                     GEV MP
A light original architecture
         55 m or 60 m hub height
         26 to 32 m Two-Blades rotors
         Pitch regulated
         Teetering Hub
         Down Wind
         Guyed Tilting Tower
        Very small foundations:
            15m3 concrete
            anchored on micro-piles
        Asynchronous generator, 2 speeds
        Flexible, then earthquake resistant
VERGNET GEV MP

Adaptation to Island’s contexts
Hurricane protection

   The WTG can be tilted down into
  protection position.

   Same position is used for
  assembly and maintenance.
Landscape integration
      Adapted Logistics
 The GEV MP is lighter than other
  turbines of the same size
 All parts fit in 20’ and 40’ containers
 Installed with usual trucks and 25
  tons cranes
 Nacelle with blades: 8.7 tons
  Tower : 12 tons
Very light Civil Work




       Per Wind Turbine :

        9 drillings, 6’’ diameter, for
         the anchorages

        Approx 15 m3 concrete
    Easy maintenance
 Maintenance performed from the
  ground

 Blade cleaning in the ground at each
  maintenance

 No need for a special crane to
  change heavy components
Simple electrical works
     Each WTG features a shelter, for
         WTG control
         LV/MV transformer
         Cos Phi control

     MV cables in trenches link the
      WTGs to the dist. substation

     An optic fibber links all WTGs to
      the control room and the Scada
Grid Connection & Protection plan
What is an efficient grid connection ?
     - Respect the power quality of the grid
     - Respect the grid protection plan
     - Allow control and clear monitoring



                              Grid Integration Analysis
  - To assess the impact of connecting the wind farm to
 the grid

 - To define the setting of the MV protection at the PCC
Preliminary datas
• From Utility
   - R = minimum network short-circuit resistance at the PCC
   - X = minimum short-circuit reactance at the PCC
   - Max permitted voltage fluctuation in steady state and switching
   operation
   - Max permitted frequency fluctuation
   - Max permitted flicker type 1 & 2

 • From Turbine Manufacturer :
     DEWI report (Compliance with the IEC 61 400-21)
     Flicker, Active and Reactive Power, Harmonics, etc…
Step 1
Check connection possibility at chosen location

      - Impact on grid Steady state voltage fluctuation
            - MV : +/- 7%
            - LV : + 6% / - 10%

      - Load flow analysis
            Max admitted current in the existing grid

From those data, EDF :
      - Request grid adaptation
      - Gives budget offer
Step 2
Detailed analysis

- Transient Voltage Fluctuation
     Drop voltage caused by the transformer connection
     When the Wind farm produces P 0,2 and Q 0,2

- Flicker in continuous operation (type 1) and switching
operation (type 2)

     - Type 1: Pst = Plt = c(fi,v) x Sn/Scc
     - Type 2:
            Pst = f (N10, Kf, Sn, Scc)
            Plt = g (N120, Kf, Sn, Scc)
Step 2
Protection plan
                                     Wind farm protection

                                            Isetting < 0,8 I_earth _fault (safety
  General electrical protection of          condition)
         the Wind farm
                                            Isetting > 5 to 8 Ib (to avoid untimely
                                            tripping)
  Electrical
 fault in the                               Isetting >1,3 Im (to avoid untimely
 wind farm                                  tripping)

                                            Isetting >1,2 I_short_circuit_tri_wtg
                                            (to avoid untimely tripping)
Step 2
Protection plan
                                    Grid protection


 General electrical protection of
        the Wind farm
                                         - To avoid islanding network
                                         (Umax-min, Fmax-min, Vo)

                                         - To avoid wind farm production in
 Electrical
                                         case of grid fault
fault on the                                    - via Vo for earth fault
public grid                                     - via Umin for short circuit
Electrical DESIGN
                    The conclusions of the grid
                    integration analysis allow us
                    to design the electrical part
                    of the Wind farm :


                    • MV substation
                    • WTG parameters
                    (PLC)
                    • SCADA system
MV SUBSTATION
sequential connection to avoid drop voltage
WTG parameters (PLC)

Programming of the PLC to reduce type 2 flicker :

               Pst = f (N10, Kf, Sn, Scc)
               Plt = f (N120, Kf, Sn, Scc)

 Parameters set according to EDF requirements.
SCADA
Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition


   • Adjustment of U max, P max, Q max at PCC to meet EDF
     requirements.
                                        Communication
Remote access SCADA
       Via the public phone line. The communication is based on remote
       access (Windows access Virtual Private Network) . The
       communication had been optimized to reduce the volume of data
       (25 kbyte/s is required)




Dispatch permanent communication
        Via permanent radio communication or equivalent.
        Full duplex transmission of key data (metering – setting) :
                -P, Q, U, CB position
Some SCADA screen shots
Park overview
Substation overview
Monitor (on line data of each GEV MP)
Metering GEV MP
Average power and wind speed report.
Daily energy report
Questions

  ?
Thank you for your attention

				
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posted:5/5/2011
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