Works for ARH Derek Deas 1. Manet, The Luncheon on the Grass, 1863. Oil on canvas. a. Caused lots of controversy because the nude figure was with clothed figures. They did this in renaissance paintings though! b. Brushwork of Manet – looks like a sketch; all blobby; flattens out the mans suit; no 3-D modeling. Lacks clarity of renaissance art. c. Woman in the work – not a sex toy; not idealized face and body; rolls of flab; controversial – woman is empowered through her glance. d. Established Manet as a radical artist – challenged academic conventions; this painting was featured in the Salon de Rejects, brought by Napoleon. 2. Monet, Rouen Cathedral: The Portal (in Sun), 1894. Oil on Canvas a. Paints it at lots of different times as the light changes – spontaneity – capturing things that change minute by minute. b. Not describing an object – rather showing us patches of light c. Dabbing patches of impasto show light; layers and layers of impasto involved; colors on top of network of other colors. d. Monet chose the subject primarily for its iconographic associations, for the building symbolizes the continuity of human institutions such as the church. 3. Cassatt – Maternal Caress, 1891. Drypoint, soft-ground etching and aquatint. a. See the Japanese influence the most here; Japs were brought in in 1853, forced to open to trade; jap art and culture came into the world. b. Flatness, broad areas of color, no western linear perspective c. Was a woman; realm was limited – depict house, domestic only. d. Created an amazing world of harmony/minds 4. Seurat, A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte,1884-86. Oil on canvas. a. Style developed in this work – divisionism – divided every color in the painting into pure color and set dots next to each other for them to react to each other. Dots are different sizes, different directions they run also. b. Shows us upper-class (with big butt), lower class, black hat, and tank top. Cross-section of class and age; following the dictum of Baudelaire , including everyday life in paintings c. Girls face – blue-like; blue just colors the flesh tone – suggests that she is in a shadow. Shadows made of cool blue’s and purple’s. woman with umbrella is in the light and dark. Sunlight stops – the line shows it; sauret loves to play with figures half in sunlight, half not; figures become flat when they are in the shadow. d. Seurat is breaking away from Monet because he has much more control in his work. 5. van Gogh, The Starry Night, 1889. Oil on Canvas a. Van Gogh painted while was in the Asylum; mentally ill – he was trying to reach out to people, plus sense of being lonely/cut-off led to this work. b. Sky is alive with swirls of brushstrokes – like the Japaneesse wave; nature becomes a living thing. c. Left hand side of painting dominated by trees. Undulating shape appealed to van gogh because of the sense of movement; tree’s a sign of life after death; van gogh must have sensed he was close to death. d. Impasto – moon – reaching out to you; gave the picture a greater sense of physical energy and a palpable surface texture. 6. Munch, The Scream, 1893. Tempera and casein on cardboard a. Expressionism – expressing the pain he felt (Munch); he had a tormented life; kind of a self-portrait; art becomes a form of healing, importance of the individual. b. The expressive abstraction of form and color in the painting reflects the influence of Gauguin and his Scandinavian followers. c. Merges Symbolist suggestiveness with expressionist intensity of feeling. d. The scream fills the landscape with clouds of “actual blood”. The overwhelming anxiety that sought release in this primal scream was chiefly a dread of death, as the sky and the figure’s skull-like head suggest, but the setting of the picture also suggests a fear of open spaces. 7. Cezanne, Still Life with Basket of Apples, 1890-94. Oil on canvas. a. Still life – arrangement of objects, often from everyday life, arranged to paint; that’s this type of painting. b. Errors in painting – table ledge’s do not connect; plate – circular did not foreshorten properly; bottle – sides do not match. He is deliberately distorting the objects. See the world as a sequence of observations that get put together in our mind. Moving towards abstraction – lines, forms, colors, not objects/people. c. Cezanne trying to create a structure for modern painting; gives you a structure of lines (black, colored) and forms a network = architectural structure. d. Alternation of cool (table cloth) with warm colors (apples); battle of colors; foreground vs. background; subject matter becomes an excuse. 8. Picasso, Study for Les Demoiselles d/Avignon, 1907. Pastel on paper. a. Men are included, brown – student, blue - sailor b. Women are displaying themselves to the males c. While the women in the sketch are conventionally rendered in soft curves, those in the painting are flattened and fractured into sharp curves and angles. d. Women, Picasso suggests, are not the gentle, passive creatures that men would like them to be. With this viewpoint he contradicts practically the entire tradition of erotic imagery since the Renaissance. 9. Picasso, Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, 1907. Oil on Canvas a. voyeuristic poses – makes the viewer feel guilty and awkard = makes you feel implicated b. women’s masks are from African tribal art c. introduction of cubism with flat figures (2D) d. Title suggests importance of subject matter – because play on words (double meaning) title is a euphemism (demoissles = young ladies) for prostitues; Avignon = bordello in Barcelona 10. Braque, Violin and Palette, 1909-10. Oil on Canvas. a. Reduces all objects to geometric forms = birth of Cubism; First Cubist still life b. Nail that holds the palette – casts a shadow – Renaissance type lighting – poking fun at that renaissance. c. creates image reflective of a collage – idea from impressionism d. Forms lose spatial relations and identities to facilitate integration as a whole 11. Pablo Picasso, Glass and Bottle of Suze, 1912. Pasted paper, gouache, and charcoal. a. Collage using real-life objects, bottle lable and newpaper clippings; breakdown of art and real life; breakdown of Renaissance everything b. Elements of collage evoke idea of place and action; viewer with a newspaper enjoying a drink c. Impressionist idea of flat forms d. A synthetic cubist piece – no particular form is centralized or focused on. 12. Henri Matisse, The Woman with the Hat, 1905. Oil on Canvas. a. Rejection of academy art in that 3D is no longer a concern b. Presents the woman as a human being with real feelings and value, not a sex object. c. Sketchy brushwork and arbitrary colors create a harsh and dissonant effect; phofizm wild and intense colors d. Sparks controversy with academy art; new style of rich colors and speedy brushwork. 13. Kadinsky, Imporvisation No. 30, 1913. Oil on canvas. a. Painting using bright colors and warlike images to reflect fear about coming war or spiritual references b. artist intends to awaken spirituality and the viewers with intense force of color c. reflects belief that art could purify the viewer still; artist is like a musician; can create an altered state of sould = create a better person d. influenced by folklore; art of Russian artistry + modernism = make it new = looking forward. 14. Gropius, Bauhaus Buildling, Dessau, 1925-26. Architecture. a. Ideas of still art can create spirituality in the viewer; Gropius – great prophet for this internation styel. Purification of form = purification of soul’s people; b. Letters on the building instill the architecture with ideas of modernism c. Conveys dynamic quality of modern life through use of three cubical and structural elements d. Honest attitude towards materials ties into expressionism – balance of harmony 15. Hoch, Dada Dance, 1922. Photomontage. a. Distortion of images shows rejection of reason b. Criticizes contemporary societies expectations of women; takes images from fashion mags to critique something in society. c. Meaning of work is complex – power as social commentary is limited d. Shows European culture is not superior by using the head of an African tribal woman 16. Heartfield, Have No Fear – He’s a Vegetarian, 1936. Photomontage. a. Plays with idea that viewers accept photography as reality b. Uses works as propaganda against Hitler and Nazi’s in WWII c. Supporter of Dada and objection to rationality d. Rooster is symbolic of liberty and freedom in France before WWII. 17. Dali, The Persistence of memory, 1931. Oil on Canvas. a. Mental illness associated with artistic genius; what’s the term, self induced mental illness b. Plays 3D on flatness to emphasize symbolism of figures c. Poetic title is what serves recollection of childhood; evokes unconcious d. Iterates fear of masturbation, which he thought would destroy his sexuality and fear that he would get caught; ants – anxiety about his impotence e. Light and shade make figures that are only figments of the mind appear to be realistic 18. Oppenheim, Object (Luncheon in Fur), 1936. Fur-covered cup. a. plays on human disgust of tasting hair/ idea of surrealist b. plays with taboo to stimulate the bizarre and emotions – change to surrealism; unconventional art form to shock middle class; bring out unconscious thought c. depiction of assemblage – combines real world “found” objects – unexpected juxtapositions; real world object, Chinese gazelle d. object inspired by café conversation with Picasso when talking about how fur can cover anything 19. Bravo, Laughing Mannequins, 1930. Photograph. a. Photograph to capture ideas of surrealism; attempt to find surreal in everyday life b. Create strange ideas; new emotion by photographing unexpected juxtapositions - surrealist c. Animate/inanimate manics seem strangely more alive than people at the market d. Seen in Mexican market of everyday life; 3D people interact with 2D moronic smiling figures. 20. Kahlo, The Two Fridas, 1939. Oil on Canvas. a. picture of two fridas connected by an artery shows the two parts of herself – Hispanic and European – and her personal pain; colored sky and two figures create dreamlike state of surrealism. b. the Hispanic frida holding a picture of diego represents how he loves only part of her ethnic descent c. The roots – soil in this painting show the embrace of humanity – and what it means to be a woman of Mexican heritage d. Blood does not flow freely among both figures – part of herself is cutoff 21. Duchamp, Fountain, 1917. Porcelain plumbing fixture and enamel paint. a. material choice shows rejection of traditional art mediums; duchamp – questioned need for rules in society. b. challenges the viewer to look at an everyday object in a new way; artistic – look at curves c. use of a readymade – challenges artistic expression d. Believes art occurs in the selection process – means to an end. 22. Duchamp, Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even (The Large Glass), 1915-23. Oil and lead wire on glass. a. Introduces element of chance into art as depicted by dust. Let dust collect on part of it and it stayed there. Dust – art material. b. Alludes to sexual ideas. Bride inaccessible to bachelors; bachelors = different profession, can’t reach bride, imposing and foreign c. Focuses on technique and process over finished product. d. Art forms show a rejection of traditionary materials – uses glass/lead. 23. Pollock, Autumn Rhythm, 1950. Oil on canvas. a. work influenced by Navajo painters b. worked with canvas on the floor – ability to inspire movement all around the work; action painting; definite left (started) and right (follow black follow him in and out) c. viewer’s can interpret their own image and meaning; autumn-like colors, layering effect of color/ color create depth d. automatism – letting chance enter the painting 24. Rothko, Brown, Blue, Brown on Blue, 1953. Oil on canvas. a. example of the newness of modern art, shows rejection of need for subject b. three blocks of color emphasize artistic freedom; thin transparent washes – seem to float. c. abstract expressionism and color used to evoke emotional states d. Rich colors represent the emotional and instinctual e. Composition shows rational and disciplined tendencies 25. Kaprow, The Courtyard, Happening, 1963. a. A happening – a performance as an art b. completely open to element of chance as viewers interact with the art c. young woman on top of mattress, known as dream girl, is symbolic of nature goddess. d. Actions inspire meaning in the work. 26. Rauschenberg, Canyon, 1959. Combine painting. a. reflects Rauschenberg’s idea that painting reflects both art and life b. rich disorder challenges viewer to create his own meaning c. iconographic work – in which artists accepts chaos of urban experience; combine – combined on canvas with stuffed eagle objects from home. d. statue of liberty symbolizes freedom of artistic expression 27. Warhol, Marilyn Diptych, 1962. Oil, acrylic and silk screen on enamel on canvas. a. Change from conventional painting to assembly with a technique of silk screen photoimages on the canvas (critique of soceity’s desire to mass produce) b. fast method – produce many versions of one subject called pop art – roots back to Baudelaire – impressionists “embrace everyday life” c. face of Monroe is not as a person, but as a star – interested in her public mask d. diptych format – sheds light on fascination; shows people in two commodities with fame 28. Judd, Untitled. Anodized aluminum and blue Plexiglas, 1969. a. Desires to get away from expressionism; change to post- modernism b. Art is all about forms – lost inferences to meaning and images in mythology c. Art is not representation of an idea- it is what it is – Plexiglas squares; boxes represent nothing; they just are. d. Embraces idea that art is an experience of an object 29. Kosuth, One and Three Chairs, Wood folding chair, photograph of chair, and photographic enlargement of dictionary definition of chair, 1965. a. consists of chair, chair photo, definition of a chair; supposed to approach the chair as a thing. b. introduces idea of creating meaning in art through experience of it c. exemplifies idea – post-modernism idea that art is about representation d. three depictions of the chair challenge the viewer to assign individual meaning 30. Beuys, Coyote: I like America and America Likes Me, Weeklong action, 1974. a. Living art work embodies philosophy that “life can be art” b. Shows relationship between mankind and nature c. Beuys interaction with coyote displays special connection to native Americans. Native amr’s = nature + humans. d. Irony exists because interaction with nature is in a gallery in manhattan 31. Christo and Jeanne-Claude, Running Fence, Nylon fence (Sonoma and Marin Counties, California), 1972-76. a. Shows harmony between man and nature b. Light plays over it and catches along the nylon – interacts with nature and becomes a part of it. c. Statement of how nature can appreciate art through elation with it d. Make money for the projects by selling prepatory drawings of the works – maintains creative autonomy 32. Kruger, We Won’t Play Nature to Your Culture, Photostat, 1983. a. post-modernist, feminist artist concerned with making art accessible to everyone b. critiques ideas of modern culture that women are inferior to men; title – we will not be made to be biological c. articulates that women are not nature, but that they are an active part of American culture d. shows how cultural ideas blind humanity by leaves on a woman’s eyes. 33. Ofili, The Holy Virgin Mary, Paper collage, oil paint, glitter, polyester resin, map pins, and elephant dung on linen, 1996. a. show in NY museum was called sensation; many audiences considered the portrayal of the virgin mary as an insult to the catholic religion b. Genitals – putting aournd Mary, just like older paintings (Renaissance, surrounded by putti). c. African elephant dung and materials used resonate with Nigerian culture to emphasize multiculturalism. Dung = fertility in Ofili’s culture. d. Ideas go beyond traditional European religion and embraces all cultures – about pluralism and equality.