Document Sample
    A Note on the downloadable PDF version of the
Milford Astor Guide to Hot Stamping and Foil Selection.

This version of the foil catalogue does not include any foil or colour
swatches as colours and finishes can not be replicated on a computer
screen. If you are interested in getting samples of the foils mentioned in
this catalogue please contact your Milford Astor Sales Representative
or email us:
                               Milford Astor Printing Systems
                                  Milford Astor Foilmakers
                                                       Milford Astor Pty Ltd
                                                                 ABN 70 004 321 322

                         2 Rothschild Avenue ROSEBERY NSW 2018 AUSTRALIA
                          21 Temple Drive THOMASTOWN VIC 3074 AUSTRALIA

                                                           complies with the requirements of

                                                     AS/NZS ISO 9001:2000
                                        Quality management systems                      Requirements

                                                              for the following capability
The registration covers the Quality Management System for the manufacture, procurement, warehousing, slitting and
distribution of pigmented and metallised hot stampig foil; procurement, warehousing, slitting and distribution of thermal
transfer ribbon, the purchase and distribution of machines for marking, coding and product embellishment and
associated equipment and supplies; the servicing and technical support of supplied machines; the production of
artwork, manufacture and supply of printing elements.

                                                                    Registered by:
     SAI Global Certification Services Pty Ltd (ACN 108 716 669) 286 Sussex Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia with SAI Global Limited
  (”SAI Global”) and subject to the SAI Global Terms and Conditions for Certification. While all due care and skill was exercised in carrying out
this assessment, SAI Global accepts responsibility only for proven negligence. This certificate remains the property os SAI Global and must be
                                                     returned to SAI Global upon request.

                                     Originally certified to AS/NZS ISO 9002 on 20 August 1993

                       Certificate No.: QEC2098                                      Certified Date:                       09 February 2004
                       Issue Date:      11 November 2005                             Expiry Date:                          24 November 2006

Alex Ezrakhovich
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        MKP 142.02 CDAN 05/225 HMABLAZE 112557

General Manager Certification
for and on behalf of
SAI Global Limited                                                                                        Authorised Local Signatory, SAI Global

                                                                        assurance                                                             R OF
                                                                                                                                         BE                       RA
                                                                        innovation                                               E


                Assurance Services

                                              ACCREDITED                                                                     E

                Assurance Services

                                                                                                                                 C                                        E
                                                                                                                                     OG                               M
                                                                                                                                          NIT                    GE           THE INTERNATIONAL CERTIFICATION NETWORK
                                                                                                                                                IO N   A RR AN

                                                                                           Milford Foilmakers
                                                                                     Milford Astor Astor

                                                                                                                            . 4
         Basic Hot Stamping Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 .-1- 4

         Hot Stamping History, Manufacture & Stamping Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. - 88
                                                              .                                     . 5-

         Foil & Shade Selection Guides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99-- 17

                    Metallic Foils for Graphics, Plastics, Leather & Fabrics . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .99-- 11

                    Matt Pigment Foils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12- 19

                                                                                                                          21 14
                    Gloss & Semi-Gloss Foils for Plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13- -23

                    Pearl Foils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15- 27

                    Metallic Foils for Rotary & Cylinder Presses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 29

                    Specialty Foils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 . 31

         Quick Application Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18. 32

                                                                                                                                33 20
         Hot Stamping Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19- -34

                                                                                                                        35 25
         Bottle Stamping & Roll-on Stamping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21- -39

                                                                                                                               40 27
         Hot Stamping Substrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 --41

                                                                                                                                       42 31
         Stamping Dies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28- -45

                                                                                                                   46 33
         Make-Ready Materials & General Supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32- -47

         Tips to Save Pains & Strains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 48

         Weights & Measurements of Master Rolls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 49

         Foil Requirements Calculator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 50

         Table of Cuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 37. 51

         Common Problems and Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37. 51

         Glossary of Hot Stamping Terms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 - 40
                                                                                                                           . 52-54

Milford Astor
MELBOURNE                                                SYDNEY                                                         ADELAIDE
21 Temple Drive                                   2 Rothschild Avenue                                    1A West Thebarton Road
Thomastown VIC 3074                               Rosebery NSW 2018                                          Thebarton SA 5031
Ph: (03) 9465 0166                                 Ph: (02) 9663 3911                                         Ph: (08) 8234 5466
Fax: (03) 9464 1024                                Fax: (02) 9662 1020                                        Fax: (08) 8352 3712

                                                                       Milford Astor

Basic Hot Stamping Information
           This catalogue has been published to illustrate and describe our hot stamping foils available for
           marking and decorating a wide variety of materials. It includes essential product specifications
           to guide and assist in the selection and application of foils.

           Milford Astor offers the widest selection of grades, colours and finishes, and maintain the industry's
           largest stock in strategically located warehouses to ensure prompt delivery. Recommendations for
           usage are to help in selecting the correct foil to meet a particular application.

           Please request samples for testing and evaluation in your own plant.              When requesting
           samples, please specify or submit materials to be stamped.

           Our foil testing facilities together with technical sales people are at your service for consultation
           and assistance.

Selection of Foils
           The following pages are designed to assist in the selection of foils for particular applications.
           However, the information given is intended purely as a guide.

           In many cases more than one grade of foil has been recommended for a particular application.
           This is because of the wide range of hot stamping machines in use and the variations
           encountered in substrates and print requirements. For these reasons it is essential that
           customers carry out their own tests to ascertain the most suitable grade for their application.

Metallic Shades
           Shade references should be checked against the colour cards before ordering. However, owing
           to variations in formulas from one grade to another, each has its own distinctive characteristics,
           giving a slightly different appearance between shades with the same reference numbers.

Pigment Shades
           The colour charts show shades obtained when a solid area is stamped onto a white gloss card.
           NOTE: Some pigments such as red and maroon can smudge if rubbed. It is the responsibility
           of the customer to test for abrasion and smudge resistance.

           Shades may appear slightly darker if stamped:
             a) at too high a temperature
             b) with too much pressure
             c) with too much dwell
             d) in fine detail work
             e) on a very dark or contrasting background

           They may appear slightly lighter if stamped:
             a) at too low a temperature
             b) with too little pressure
             c) with a rubber die
             d) with insufficient dwell
             e) on a similar coloured background
             f) onto clear plastic

                                                                            Milford Astor

             If required, we can supply foils that are non-toxic according to standards laid down by health
             authorities. Our technical staff will assist you in making your choice.

Metal Corrosion
             When metallised foils are stamped onto ink, plastic surfaces, or materials that contain certain
             chemicals, there is a possibility that the metallic layer may be attacked. This possibility is even
             more likely if the substrate is moist at the time of stamping, e.g., from a gluing operation, or if
             stored after blocking in an atmosphere of high humidity.

             It is essential that before any stamping programme is carried out on such substrates, test
             stampings are made and prints subjected to high humidity for a period of two or three days.

Migration (Plasticisers)
             When foils are stamped onto soft flexible plastics, such as PVC, there is a possibility that the
             plasticisers used in such substrates will migrate into the foiled area. The surface of this area
             may become 'tacky' or smudge and in the case of coloured metallic and gold foils the colour will
             gradually fade. This may occur after blocking where work is stacked. In our range there are
             foils designed to reduce this possibility. However, because circumstances at the time of
             blocking are beyond our control, we cannot assume any liability and would stress that tests for
             plasticiser migration be carried out before any blocking is attempted on such substrates, and
             test prints be subjected to heat and pressure for a period of two or three days.

             Some metallic foils and imitation bronze powder foils when blocked onto natural leathers may
             eventually be affected by oxidation. They can also corrode when in contact with any acidity on
             the substrate. Imitation bronze foils may also have a tendency to smear slightly.

Foil Storage Conditions
             Most standard foils can be stored safely under normal conditions, i.e., at temperatures between
             5 degrees C (40 degrees F) and 20 degrees C (68 degrees F) and a relative humidity of between
             30% and 70%. Care should be taken to avoid storage close to heating pipes and radiators, or in
             direct sunlight.

             Special care should be taken when storing low temperature grades. Rolls should not be
             subjected to high temperature, or pressure, which could result in delamination. Rolls should be
             stood on end, avoid stacking rolls horizontally.

Core Sizes
             Foil is normally wound onto a 25mm (1") internal diameter cardboard core. Foils can be
             supplied on 17mm (5/8"), 40mm (1.57"), 76mm (3") and 152mm (6") cores on special request.

Roll Widths and Lengths
             Standard widths are 610mm, 640mm (depending on grade) and 1280mm. Standard lengths are
             61m, 122m, 244m and 305m. Other lengths are available on request such as 183m, 500m,
             1000m, 1500m and 2000m.

                                                                          Milford Astor

Foiling Ultra Violet Cured Varnishes
           Ultra Violet (UV) cured varnishes are varnishes from the acrylate resin family that include a
           photo-initiator. This reacts with the light from UV lamps, triggering a reaction which causes the
           varnish to cure and dry instantaneously.

           UV varnishes give a high gloss, abrasion-resistant finish.      The instant drying also reduces
           process time and makes coating much more compact.

           For foil blockers, however, UV cured surfaces present particular problems owing to their
           relatively low surface energy. Also, there is a tendency to include additives such as waxes and
           silicones to increase the gloss or to act as a slip aid. Such additives can further reduce the
           surface energy below that level necessary for successful foil blocking.

           Another related problem is that of differential curing over coloured inks. Lighter coloured inks
           will reflect back more UV light than dark ones, with the effect that the coating over a lighter
           printed area cures faster. On a sheet with, for example, black ink and white areas, the varnish
           can be properly cured over the white area and under cured on the black.

           It is usually easy to get an indication of the degree of cure of a UV varnish. Simply wipe a
           cotton wool swab moistened with an aggressive solvent such as MEK over the lacquer surface
           and note the number of wipes taken to break through the lacquer. A properly cured varnish
           should resist 10 double wipes.

           A useful field method is to fold a piece of UV coated card in two and rub the surfaces together.
           If they slip over each other without friction or resistance, it is likely that the surfaces are too
           glossy for foil blocking. If there is some sticking or friction, the surface should be reasonably
           foil-receptive, although other factors can, of course, prevent successful blocking.

Under Cured Varnishes
           Blockers need to ensure that UV surfaces are properly cured. A UV varnish that is normally
           blockable can give problems if it is under cured. In extreme cases, the varnish will be tacky, or
           will smell strongly. In less obvious situations the foil will give poor adhesion or will blister,
           known as "gassing".

           Under curing can result from:
             * inadequate level of photo-initiators in the varnish. (They are expensive and economies
                 may have been attempted by the coater.)
             * excessive web speed, giving too little curing time.
             * too few or dirty UV lamps, providing insufficient light for curing.
             * too high a coating weight of varnish being applied.

Recommendations for Successful Foil Blocking
           Where difficulties are encountered, we suggest:

              * turning the sheet over and printing on the reverse. If the foil prints well, it confirms that
                the UV surface is the problem.
              * turning the sheet through 180 and print again to show up any differential curing and to
                check if the problem lies with the dies or the press.
              * putting the sheet through the curing process again - this could well correct any fault due
                to under curing.

                                                                      Milford Astor

             * resisting the urge to increase blocking temperature as this usually exacerbates
               the problem.
             * that, if problems persist, samples are submitted to MILFORD ASTOR for evaluation.

Corona Treatment
          Hitherto unprintable surfaces can be made blockable by Corona discharge treatment. However,
          on UV surfaces, the effects of this treatment dissipate very quickly and the sheets should be
          blocked within 12 hours at the most.

Over Varnishing / Printing
          With the increased use of foils for such applications as magazine covers, foil stampers should
          be aware that not all foils will accept after varnishing be they conventional or UV. It is always
          wise to test.

Venting of Dies
          A common problem associated with the flat stamping die is flashing. Flashing occurs as a
          natural process when all elements come together and causes the foil to transfer in unwanted
          areas of your image. A common spot is the middle of an O or trapped area forming a
          compressed air pocket.

          When the flat stamping die is etched to its common depth of 0.889mm, the inside of type may
          be as shallow as 0.127mm. When air is heated and trapped, it will transfer one ton of pressure
          per square inch, and transfer foil in undesirable locations.

          Venting these areas by drilling a hole will let the heated air escape into the honeycomb.

How to Order Foils
          Having selected the colour of your choice, refer to the industry application section for the grade
          most suitable for your application.

          The information in this catalogue is based on our experience and research as well as that of our
          customers and is correct to the best of our knowledge. However, as we have no control over
          user conditions, we cannot accept liability. You are advised to carry out your own testing.

                                                                   Milford Astor

Hot Stamping History,                                         Manufacture                           &
Stamping Equipment

                   Hot stamping is the method of transferring a metallic or pigment finish from a
                   carrier strip, known as a foil, onto a substrate using heat, pressure and time.

                   Described here is the history of this process, the types of hot stamping foils
                   available today, the method of manufacture and other important factors to be
                   considered when foiling a product.


                   On July 24th, 1892, Dr Ernest Oeser first patented the production of both gold and
                   coloured stamping foils using 23 carat gold or bronze (copper and zinc) powder with
                   a dye to obtain the necessary colour. Both these foils were supported by a glassine
                   (paper) carrier strip.

                   This process had some limitations. Real gold was too expensive, being approx-
                   imately eight to ten times more costly than the vacuum metallised type foils used
                   today; and also bronze powder foils tarnished. Tarnishing is caused by the copper
                   oxidising, also the dyes available at that time were not completely light stable and
                   so the foils faded.

                   Other alternatives were considered and in the early 1950's vacuum metallised foils,
                   using aluminium were developed. This method is still used today and there is no
                   foreseeable change.

Foils Available Today

                   The range today includes genuine gold (23 carat), bronze powder, imitation golds
                   and metallic colours (vacuum metallised) pigments (flat, semi-gloss and gloss)
                   psychedelic, multi-colour, woodgrain and marble effects, brushed finishes,
                   chrome, leather look, clear, pearlescents and holographic.

Foil Selection

                   In hot stamping, a pigmented or metallised coated foil is transferred from a carrier,
                   usually polyester film, and fused to a substrate. Therefore, it is essential that the
                   pigmented or metallised coat be compatible with the material to be stamped. For
                   this reason, hot stamping foils are manufactured in various formulations designed
                   to give quality prints on a specific material. Also incorporated in the foils are
                   qualities such as abrasion resistance, oil and grease resistance, and chemical
                   resistance. Gloss, semi-gloss and matt finishes are available in a wide range of

                   Where formulation or colour is not satisfactory, custom made foils are obtainable.

Method of Manufacture

                   Vacuum metallised foils are commonly used today. A production roll of polyester

                                                                     Milford Astor
     coating machine to have the wax release coating applied. This is then dried by radiant
     heat before the film continues to the next coating to have the colour lacquer applied, after
     which it is re-rolled and then placed into a continuous vacuum metallising machine. It
     then goes to the third coating machine to have the adhesive coat applied. The foil is
     inspected for pin holes and defects and is re-rolled into the length required by the end
     user, normally 122m or 305m rolls.

     The only difference between the manufacture of metallised and pigment foil is that
     pigment foils do not have a vacuum metallised coating. Instead of the lacquer used for
     gold and other metallic finishes a pigmented coating similar to ink is used.

     From the diagram it may be seen that a foil comprises up to five layers and in each case
     these may be varied to achieve the optimum result for different applications. Refer to
     Diagram A below.

     Carrier Film: There are basically six types, namely paper, cellulose, polypropylene,
     acetate, polythene and polyester film. These vary in thickness from 12 micron (most
     commonly used today) up to 50 micron. Most popular is 12 micron polyester. The heavier
     carrier is used for stamping complicated plastic parts where a thin carrier tends to tear or
     distort. Heavy carriers are also used when stamping large areas as this enables the foil to
     lay flat on the job, thus facilitating the operation.

     Release Coating: This is generally a wax which, as the heat is applied to the carrier, melts
     and releases the other layers from the carrier. Many wax releases are available, ranging
     from very easy to very tight. This can mean the difference between coverage on large
     areas and obtaining fine detail.

     Colour Coating: This varies in thickness. For fine definition a thin colour coat is
     necessary; for large areas and where opaqueness is required a thick colour coat is used.

     Vacuum Metallised Coating: Generally this does not vary, although in extreme cases a
     heavier coating may be required.

     Adhesive or Size Coating: This is probably the most important layer in the manufacture
     of foil as it varies according to the substrate being stamped. For example, the adhesive
     required for stamping paper is completely different from that needed when stamping
     plastic bottles.

     It is obvious that one foil cannot be selected to do all jobs. There is no universal foil that
     will stamp all substrates. All the above details should be taken into consideration if the
     best results are to be obtained.

Diagram A
 PIGMENT FOIL                                VACUUM METALLISED FOIL
                       HOT STAMPING DIE                               HOT STAMPING DIE

                       CARRIER FILM                                   CARRIER FILM
                       RELEASE COATING                                RELEASE COATING
                       COLOUR COATING                                 COLOUR COATING
                       SIZE COATING                                   METALLISED COATING
                                                                      SIZE COATING
                       MATERIAL TO BE
                       HOT STAMPED                                    MATERIAL TO BE
                                                                      HOT STAMPED

                                                               Milford Astor

      Equipment Selection: Equipment selection will be determined by the design of
      the article to be stamped, and production rate required.

      Hand fed presses hot stamp up to 1200 parts per hour. Production from 1200 to
      3000 parts per hour can be expected from a turntable equipped press, and even
      greater output is possible from a clam action press, cylinder or roll-on press. The
      basic types of presses are shown in Diagram C on page 8.   39.

 1.         Vertical air-operated presses with a capacity of 0.25 to 6.0 tonnes. These are
            mainly used for light duty stamping with metal dies or silicone pads. Vertical
            presses compensate for variations in part thickness as they do not have a
            fixed stop or mechanical linkage, the head of the press continues to travel
            until it reaches the stamping surface and then builds up pressure to transfer
            the foil to the part.

 2.         Air toggle presses with a capacity of 3 to 16 tonnes. The primary purpose of the
            air cylinder on these presses is to actuate a mechanical linkage which exerts
            greater pressure. Toggle action presses are capable of stamping parts up to
            1200mm long x 600mm wide and have become popular owing to their capacity
            and versatility. Another advantage of these presses is that with a fully opened
            toggle, the head always descends to a pre-set position for uniform stamping.
            This is dependent on a uniform wall thickness of the part.

 3.         Roll-on presses make possible a partial or complete stamping of the periphery
            of cylindrical objects and also large flat contoured areas. These presses are air-
            operated and incorporate a mechanical adjustment for die pressure. Air
            ejection is available as optional equipment. Output of 800 to 2000 parts per
            hour can be expected. Multiple colour stampings can be achieved on this
            equipment providing the colours are on separate lines and a separation of 1.5
            3mm is maintained between colours. This type of equipment is recommended
            for hot stamping odometer and counter wheels, lipstick tubes, knobs,
            television escutcheons, auto dash panels, plastic bottles and air conditioning

 4.         Clam shell mechanically operated presses with automatic feeding and
            restacking of the product. These presses are used for such products as
            greeting cards, letterheads and cartons.

 5.         Cylinder presses, based on the cylinder letterpress machine where the hot
            plate is mounted to the moving bed usually have autofeed and restacking
            facilities. These presses are used for foiling large sheets of paper and board.

 6.         Rotary letterpress machines, used for reel to reel pressure sensitive label
            making are capable of running up to speeds of 300 meters per minute.

                                                            Milford Astor

Diagram C


                      FOILING SECTION
                      OF ROTARY LABEL

                                                      ROLL-ON PRESS FOR PLASTICS & MDF

                                                   DIRECT ACTION
                                                AIR OPERATED PRESS

                      CYLINDER HOT FOIL PRESS
                          WITH AUTO FEED

                                                                                  Milford Astor
Foil Selection Guide

Metallic Foils - For Graphics
It is always advisable to check availability of stock

Grade EDJ                                 Easy Release Foil
Available in shades 000, 001, 027, 029    Suitable for coated and uncoated papers and boards, acetate, blockable UV
                                          inks and varnishes on platen and cylinder machines.
                                          Temperature range 100 - 120 degrees C.
Grade EFA                                 Tight Release Foil
Available in shades 001, 002, 006, 013,   Fine detail foil for smooth and coated paper stocks, leather and wood.
017, 027, 028, 029                        Temperature range 110 - 140 degrees C.
Grade EFE                                 Easy Release Foil
Available in shades 000, 001, 003, 006,   General purpose foil for large areas, suitable for dry and smooth papers and
013, 017, 025, 027, 029, 036, 091, 095,   boards. Ideal for fast running machines such as Bobst, Gietz and Heidelberg
097, 266                                  cylinder machines.
                                          Temperature range 80 - 130 degrees C.
Grade EFF                                 Medium Release Foil
Available in shades 000, 001, 006, 017,   Fine detail to medium solid work on plain papers and boards. Also suitable for
027, 029, 036, 241, 257, 260, 261, 262,   blockable UV inks and varnishes.
266, 267, 268, 269, 299, 308              Temperature range 110 - 125 degrees C.
Grade 537                                 Easy Release Foil
Available in shades 002, 008, 029,        General purpose foil for large areas, suitable for dry and smooth surfaces.
And others on request.                    Ideal for fast running machines such as, Bobst, Gietz and Heidelberg cylinder
                                          Temperature range 80 - 130 degrees C.
Grade GP                                  Medium Release Foil
Available in shades 385, 428, SM, SBR     Versatile foil offering medium release whilst producing fine clean
                                          impressions. Suitable for coated and uncoated stocks, most inks, lacquers
                                          and OPP laminates.
                                          Suitable for rotary, cylinder and platen machines.
                                          Temperature range 110 - 180 degrees C.
Grade UNC                                 Easy Release Foil (Overstampable)
Available in shades 385, 425, 428, SM,    Versatile foil offering easy release, produces clean, sharp impressions.
SBR                                       Suitable for coated stock and very suitable for uncoated stocks. Overstamps
                                          most coatings, inks and UV varnishes.
                                          Suitable for rotary, cylinder and platen machines.
                                          Temperature range 110 - 200 degrees C.
Grade OVP                                 Medium Release Foil (Overprintable)
Available in shades 385, SBR              Versatile foil offering easy release, produces clean, sharp impressions.
                                          Suitable for coated and uncoated stocks. Overstamps most coatings, inks
                                          and UV varnishes.
                                          Suitable for rotary, cylinder and platen machines.
                                          Temperature range 110 - 180 degrees C.
Grade LCF                                 Cold Foil (Free Radical Type)
Available in shades 000, 385              Fast release up to 300m/minute. Requires special “adhesive” which is readily

                                                                                    Milford Astor
Metallic Foils - For Graphics
Grade 700 Series                          Medium Release Foil
Available in shades 385, SBR              Suitable for many types of papers and boards. Will print on most inks,
                                          lacquers and blockable UV varnishes.
                                          Suitable for use on platen and cylinder machines.
                                          Temperature range 120 - 160 degrees C.
Grade 045                                 Medium Release Foil
Available in shades 10, 23, 33, 46, 64,   Suitable for all types of smooth papers and boards. Will print on most inks
70                                        and UV varnishes, for fine to medium print definition.
                                          Temperature range 110 - 150 degrees C,
Grade 100                                 Medium Release Foil
Available in shade 000                    General purpose foil for most types of stocks including plastic coated, Cello-
Grade 101                                 glazed varnished & UV varnished papers and boards. General purpose foil for
Available in shade 001                                              ,
                                          most plastics including PP PE and ABS.
                                          Temperature range 110 - 130 degrees C.
Grade 140 000                             Easy Release Foil
Available in shade 000                    Suitable for parchment, leather, nylon polymer, satin acetate, all types of
Grade 140 300                             papers and boards for medium to large detail.
Available in a shade similar to 001       Temperature range 100 - 130 degrees C.
Grade 030                                 Medium Release Foil
Available in shades 10, 14, 23, 26, 33,   Suitable for credit card tipping. General purpose, will suit most stocks.
60, 62, 64                                Temperature range 110 - 140 degrees C.
Grade GFE                                 Easy Release Foil
Available in shades 095, 098, 107, 108,   General purpose foil for large areas, suitable for dry and smooth papers and
123, 127, 241, 257, 260, 261, 262, 267,   boards. Developed for scuff resistance of embossed image areas. Ideal
268, 269, 277, 299, 308                   for fast running machines such as Bobst, Gietz, and Heidelberg cylinder
                                          Temperature range 80 - 120 degrees C.

                                                                                     Milford Astor
Metallic Foils - For Plastics, Leathers & Fabrics
It is always advisable to check availability of stock
Grade EFF                                 Medium to Tight Release Foil
Available in shades 000, 001, 006, 017,   Suitable for ‘tipping’ conventional plastics such as styrene and PVC.
029, 036, 241, 257, 260, 261, 262, 266,   Temperature range 110 - 130 degrees C.
267, 268, 269, 299, 308
Grade 591                                 Medium Release Foil
Available in shades 000, 001              Suitable for PVC, leather and some fabrics.
                                          Temperature range 110 - 125 degrees C.
Grade 595                                 Easy Release Foil
Available in shades 000, 001, 011         Suitable for PVC, leather and some fabrics.
                                          Temperature range 110 - 125 degrees C.
Grade 100                                 Medium Release Foil
Available in shade 000                    An extremely flexible foil suitable for most plastics including polypropylene,
Grade 101                                 polyethylene, ABS and styrene. Excellent high temperature performance.
Available in shade 001                    Temperature range 130 - 150 degrees C.
Grade 140 000                             Easy Release Foil
Available in shade 000                    Suitable for parchment, leather, nylon polymer, grained book cloth, satin
Grade 140 300                             ribbons and all types of papers and boards for medium to large detail.
Available in a shade similar to 001       Temperature range 100 - 130 degrees C.
Grade M 160 Series                        Medium Release Foil
Available in shade 000 and a shade        Very flexible foil for rigid plastics such as ABS and styrene, but especially for
similar to 029                            polypropylene and polyethylene. High resistance to diluted acids. Fine to
                                          medium coverages, metal die.
                                          Temperature range 120 - 200 degrees C.
Grade YS                                  Medium Release Foil
Available in shades 000, 001              Suitable for some PVC and polyolefins.
                                          Temperature range 110 - 130 degrees C.
Grade PS GG2                              Medium Release Foil
Available in a shade similar to 001       Very universal quality for the plastics industry. Suitable for use on PS, PVC,
                                          ABS, SAN and PET. Excellent for ‘tipping’ eg. Shampoo bottles.
                                          Temperature range 110 - 200 degrees C.
Grade PT SLI                              Tight Release Foil
Available in shade 000                    Suitable for roll on application using metal or rubber dies for blown bottles, PE
                                          and PP.
                                          Temperature range 120 - 200 degrees C.

                                                                                   Milford Astor
Matt Pigment Foils
It is always advisable to check availability of stock

    Grade CDF                                 Date Coding Foil
    Available in shades 1, 3, 4, 6, 9         Versatile product. Applications include packaging films such as polyethylene,
                                              cellophane, right through to some label stocks.
    Grade CDF A Series                        Date Coding Foil
    Available in shades 1, 9                  Specially formulated, gives extra adhesion for foil tablet packs, foiled Easter
                                              egg packs, for use when other coding foils scratch off.
    Grade CDF P Series                        Date Coding Foil
    Available in shades 1, 6, 9               High speed application ideally suited to low melt packaging films.
                                              Polyethylene, vinyl and frozen food bags.
    Grade CDF 4 Series                        Date Coding Foil
    Available in shades 1, 6, 9               Fine detail, suitable for varnished pharmaceutical labels, cheese packs and
                                              other vacuum packed foods.
    Grade CDF 5 Series                        Medium Release Foil
    Available in shades 1, 6, 9               Suitable for large area prints, gives this series a wide scope of applications,
                                              including date coding.
    Grade CDF PH Series                       Cold Stamping Foil
    Available in shades 6, 9                  Used by bakeries to mark styrene bread bag seals.
    Grade DAG                                 Scratch Off Foil
    Available in shades 023, 024              Suitable for gloss boards, inks, UV varnishes, plastics such as credit cards,
                                              phone cards and game cards. Temperature range 110 - 130 degrees C.
    Grade DAH                                 Medium to Soft Release Foil
    Available in shade 023                    Bronze foil that can be overprinted. Resistant to smudge. Suitable for a very
                                              wide range of substrates. Temperature range 110 - 150 degrees C.
    Grade DBA                                 Tight Release, Fine to Medium Detail
    Available in shades 001, 016, 017, 018,   Suitable for most coated or smooth papers and boards. Also suitable for
    021, 025                                  nylon, styrene and PVC.
                                              Temperature range 110 - 150 degrees C.
    Grade DBF                                 Tight Release Foil
    Available in shade 021                    Extra fine detail foil. Ideal for coated papers and boards.
                                              Temperature range 110 -150 degrees C.
    Grade DBJ                                 Medium to Soft Release Foil
    Available in shades 023, 024              Bronze powder type. Suitable for a very wide range of substrates, including
                                              polyurethane and polypropylene. Take care, this foil could corrode and rub off
                                              if in contact with carbon and acidic substrates.
                                              Temperature range 110 - 130 degrees C.
    Grade DCB                                 Easy Release Foil
    Available in shades 001, 005, 010, 012,   Suitable for a large range of substrates including coated and uncoated stocks,
    018, 021, 025, 031, 073, 171, 178, 180,   ABS, acetate, acrylic, cellophane and styrene.
    184, 205, 206, 625, 626, 632              Temperature range 100 - 150 degrees C.
    Grade DHE                                 Easy Release Foil
    Available in shades 001, 012, 018, 021    Suitable for a large range of substrates including coated and uncoated
                                              papers, boards and plastic films. Temperature range 100 - 150 degrees C.
    Grade LT                                  Easy Release Foil
    Available in shades 1, 3, 4, 6, 9         Suitable for a large range of substrates, including coated and uncoated
                                              Temperature range 100 - 130 degrees C.

                                                                                Milford Astor
Gloss Pigment Foils For Plastics
It is always advisable to check availability of stock
Grade A Series                         Medium Release Foil
Available in B12A White, B10A Black,   Suitable for polyethylene, PVC, acrylic, ABS, acetate, polypropylene, metal or
B24A Yellow                            rubber dies.
Grade B Series                         Fine Release Foil
Available in B233PR Black              Designed for polypropylene and polyethylene, metal dies.
Grade DFJ                              Tight Release Foil
Available in shade 021 Black           Suitable for ABS, styrene, acetate, nylon and PVC.
                                       Temperature range 110 -130 degrees C.
Grade PP1                              Medium Release Foil
Available in shades                    Suitable for polyethylene, polypropylene, vertical and roll on presses.
1016 White                             Temperature range 120 -155 degrees C.
4728 Dark Red
6721 Dark Blue
7028 Dark Green
9110 Black
Grade PS1                              Medium Release Foil
Available in shades                    Suitable for acrylic, styrene and ABS.
1041 White                             Temperature range 135 -155 degrees C.
4088 Dark Red
6061 Light Blue
6237 Dark Blue
9001 Black
Grade Y Series                         Tight Release Foil
Available in shades                    Designed for polypropylene and polyethylene but also suitable for styrene,
064 White                              ABS, metal dies.
93 Black                               Temperature range 110 - 150 degrees C.
Grade SV Series                        Quick Release Foil
Available in shades                    Designed for stamping onto soft vinyl, such as IV bags and blood bags.
59724 Black
56759 Blue
54757 Red

For Shades Available Request Samples

                                                                                    Milford Astor
Semi-Gloss Pigment Foils For Plastics
It is always advisable to check availability of stock

Grade Semi-Gloss                          Easy Release General Purpose Foil
Available in shades                       This low temperature foil shows excellent results on soft PVC and
SI9 230 White                             polypropylene but is also suitable for most other plastics using metal dies.
SH9 231 Black                             Rubber dies can be used when required. This grade is ideal for a second
SA 9232 Red                               surface on clear plastic. Also suitable on some leathers.
SC9 234 Yellow                            Temperature range 110 - 200 degrees C, depending on the type of plastic
SB9 237 Orange                            being stamped.
SD9 238 Dark Green
SD9 233 Light Green
SE9 239 Dark Blue
SE9 240 Light Blue
SG9 241 Brown

For Shades Available Request Samples

Gloss Pigment Foils (for a variety of applications)
It is always advisable to check availability of stock

Grade DFJ                                 Easy Release Foil
Available in shade 021                    Suitable for coated and uncoated papers, credit card tipping, styrene and
                                          ABS. Not suitable for plasticised surfaces. Can be used as an alternative to
                                          DFD. Temperature range 110 - 130 degrees C.
Grade DFD                                 Medium Release Foil
Available in shades 021, 094, 096, 191,   Transparent gloss foil, excellent fine detail and large area properties on gloss
192, 193, 194, 226, 227, 228, 479         white paper and acetates. Substrate colours cause colour change owing to
                                          transparent nature of foil, therefore it is suggested for use on gloss white
                                          substrates only. Can be used with other colours to give special effects.
                                          Temperature range 110 -130 degrees C.
Grade FFF                                 Medium Release Foil
Available in shade 000 (clear)            Used to increase gloss level on printed surface, for highlighting.
                                          Temperature range 110 - 130 degrees C.

 Grade CC                                  Tight Release Foil
 Available in shade 021                    Suitable for credit card tipping.
                                           Temperature range 110 - 130 degrees C.

                                                                                Milford Astor

Pearl Foils
It is always advisable to check availability of stock

Grade DFE                                 Medium Release Foil
Available in shades 109, 111, 112, 113,   Suitable for coated and uncoated papers and boards.
114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 125,   Temperature range 110 -120 degrees C.
214, 220, 471, 472, 474, 475, 621, 622
Grade DFF                                 Easy Release Foil
Available in shades 125, 214, 474, 475,   Suitable for coated and uncoated papers and boards.
621                                       Temperature range 110 -120 degrees C.

                                                                                 Milford Astor

Metallic Foils for Rotary & Cylinder Presses
It is always advisable to check availability of stock

Grade GP                                 Medium Release Foil
Available in shades 385, 428, SM, SBR    Versatile foil offering medium release while producing fine clean impressions.
                                         Suitable for coated and uncoated stocks, most inks, lacquers and OPP
                                         Suitable for rotary, cylinder and platen machines.
                                         Temperature range 110 - 180 degrees C.
Grade UNC                                Easy Release Foil (Overstampable)
Available in shades 385, 425, 428, SM,   Versatile foil offering easy release, produces clean, sharp impressions.
SBR                                      Suitable for coated stock and very suitable for uncoated stocks. Overstamps
                                         most coatings, inks and UV varnishes.
                                         Suitable for rotary, cylinder and platen machines.
                                         Temperature range 110 - 200 degrees C.
Grade OVP                                Medium Release Foil (Overstampable)
Available in shades 385, SBR             Versatile foil offering easy release, produces clean sharp impressions.
                                         Suitable for coated and uncoated stocks. Overstamps most coatings, inks
                                         and UV varnishes.
                                         Suitable for rotary, cylinder and platen machines.
                                         Temperature range 110 - 180 degrees C.

        We have a seperate article written on “Rotary Hot Stamp Process”.
                            It is available on request.

                                                                              Milford Astor

Specialty Foils

Security - Holographic

                         We are specialist suppliers of optical variable devices (OVD’s) for brand authentication
                         and security applications. Bank note and high security markets include passports, ID
                         systems, government documents, stamps, travellers’ cheques, gift vouchers, travel
                         tickets, event tickets and cheques. Brand protection markets include licensed
                         merchandise, pharmaceuticals, automotive parts, fashion industry and software
                         Products include holograms-2D, 3-D, transfer foils and labels, tamper evident
                         holographic labels, holographic tear tapes, holographic hot stamp foils and holographic

Packaging - Holographic

                         Holographic film, laminates and papers find applications in label manufacture,
                         packaging, confectionery, snackfood, detergent, health care, cosmetics, wine and
                         spirits, display, point of sale and publishing.

Foils for Timber / Medium Density Fibreboard

                         Specialty foils for timber products such as picture frames, trophies, furniture, kitchen
                         cabinets, etc, are available in a range of patterns and colours including solid colours,
                         woodgrains, marbles and special effects. Pattern and colour matching service is also

Washable Foils for Textiles and Apparel

                         For the textile and apparel industries, there is a range of washable hot stamp foils for
                         garment care labels.
                         A range of fabrics for garment care labels is also available. These include white, pearl
                         and black nylon, pearl and matt white non-woven polyester.

Cold Foil

                         This series of metallic foils requires no heated die. Requires application in conjunction
                         with a free-radical cold foiling adhesive which is UV activated. Generally used on web
                         fed machinery such as Gallus, Nilpeter, or any UV curing printing machine.

                        We have separate article on “Cold Foil Foil Application”.
             We have a seperateaarticle writtenwritten on “Cold Application”.
                               It is available on request.
                                         It is available on request.















     CDF 5
     CDF 4

     CDF P
     CDF A

     PT SLI
     PS 220
     140 300
     140 000



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                                                            Milford Astor

Hot Stamping Operation

         The hot stamping operation is a function of four variables: die temperature, dwell time,
         pressure and stripping time. (Stripping time is not so important in graphic arts

         Die Temperature is generally controlled by a thermostat or temperature controller,
         which is capable of maintaining head heat under normal cycle speeds in a range of 100
         - 170 degrees C. Fluctuations from the set temperature should not exceed plus or
         minus 5 degrees C.

         The temperature control should be set only high enough to bring the foil and the part to
         a plastic state. Excessive heat will cause decomposition of the resin used in the foil
         and prevent its adhesion to the part. Other indications of excessive heat are flaking
         where the foil bridges between borders (or leaves fuzzy edges which flake off when
         rubbed), discolouration, and dullness of the stamping. Since the correct plastic
         temperatures of resins are a known factor, charts have been compiled giving the
         proper temperature settings for the various foil formulations and plastic materials to be
         stamped. These charts should be used in setting temperatures on new jobs.
         Normally, only minor adjustments from these temperatures will be necessary on a
         specific job. Experience gained with these settings will indicate that slight variations
         from the standard settings can be controlled by the dwell timer rather than by changing
         the temperature control.

         Care should be taken to ensure good contact between the die and the head of the
         press to prevent heat loss and maintain adequate heat flow. Use of higher
         temperatures to increase the depth of penetration of the die, to complete transfer
         on an uneven or improperly supported part, or to increase wear resistance should be
         avoided. Depth of penetration should be a function of pressure, not heat.

         Dwell Time is the second variable. To determine the proper dwell setting, start with
         the shortest dwell and increase the time in small increments until a full transfer is
         achieved. The shortest dwell should be measured from the time the die comes in
         contact with the part and not from the zero reading on the timer, since the timer starts
         when the head begins its downward stroke. In recording dwell time for future use, the
         dwell time should be measured from initial contact, since head speeds vary from press
         to press.

         As dwell time is a factor in determining the rate of production, it is obvious that the
         fastest dwell setting is desirable. To accomplish this, heat should be raised by
         increments of 5 - 10 degrees C. Once the heat has stabilised at the new setting,
         reduce the dwell time to just above the point of incomplete transfer.

         Pressure determines the depth of penetration of the stamp below the surface of the
         part. Of equal importance is the matter of head velocity which controls die impact.
         Also to be considered is a mechanical depth stop control.

         On toggle presses the depth of penetration is set by raising or lowering the work-
         table. When the toggle is closed, the head will always stop at the same point.

                                                        Milford Astor

On direct-acting air presses, the depth of penetration is set by raising or lowering the
work table (on some presses of this type, the entire head of the press can be lowered
to achieve the same effect).

With metal dies, use of low head pressure to control depth of penetration results in
changing dwell times and erratic transfer. To obtain a mechanical stop and minimise
head speed variations, which affect dwell time, close to the maximum recommended
air pressure should be used. This is normally 80 - 100 p.s.i. and in most cases never
below 50 p.s.i. Note that air pressure at the press should be set approximately 10
p.s.i. below line pressure to eliminate fluctuations due to the on-off cycle of the
compressor. Such fluctuations would result in erratic timing. Speed applications
should be set high enough to achieve the penetration and slow enough to prevent
damage to the part and die.

Rules for tipping raised areas with silicone rubber pads are different to those for
metal dies because the head velocity must be reduced to give a light 'kiss'
impression. Head stop control also is extremely important since excessive repetitive
compression of the silicone pad at high velocities will result in poorer quality
stamping and more rapid breakdown of the silicone pad. Use of make-ready to build
up areas of no transfer once the head stop control has been set, enabling the silicone
pads to just contact the part, is preferable to a pressure increase. This is extremely
important with plated metallic foils since excessive pressure will result in a dull finish.

Stripping Time is the fourth variable. After the hot die has lifted off the part,
sufficient time must be allowed for the transferred material to cool and harden on the
part. The carrier is now stripped from the part and the transfer is complete.
Obviously, stripping the carrier while the resin is still in the plastic state will result in
incomplete transfer or pulling the pigment and even some resin away. Proper
adjustment of the foil stripper bars can assist this situation.

In the case of a travelling foil feed, as the die starts its downward motion, the stripper
bars push the foil ahead of the die onto the part. As the die continues downward, the
stripper bars hold the foil onto the part until the head returns. As the compressed
springs are released, the stripper bars rise, separating the foil from the part. Most
machines now have foil feed delay timers fitted.

If longer cooling time is required, the foil feed delay time should be increased. On
machines without foil feed delay timers, the stripper bars must be set lower. The
proper cycle should be set by laying the foil onto the part by hand. Then, the foil
should be threaded through the press with the stripper bars adjusted so that the foil
passes 12mm below the die. After making a test stamping, the stripper bars should
be lowered until transfer is complete. In extreme cases where stripper bars cannot
be lowered sufficiently, the foil feed should be slowed down.

Conclusion: The hot stamping process is ideally suited to the decoration of many
products. Being a dry printing process, parts can be packed immediately at the
machine. Stampings are permanent and inexpensive. As it is a simple process,
Operator training is minimised. By following the procedures outlined in this
catalogue, trouble-free hot stamping can be achieved.

                                                                     Milford Astor

Bottle Stamping & Roll-on Stamping
The technology matches the workpiece

                The mechanics of the stamping process vary depending on the type and shape of the
                workpiece to be enhanced. The most important difference between the various
                design principles is the method by which the pressure is transferred from the
                stamping tool to the workpiece. On this basis the various methods are vertical
                stamping, circumferential marking, inflation stamping for bottles and similar hollow
                bodies and roll-on stamping.

!               1.    Vertical Stamping

                      The presses for this process, in which the stamping tool moves vertically up and
                      down at each stroke, are generally termed “vertical presses” in enhancement of
                      plastics. Depending on the system used to generate the pressure they are
                      divided into mechanically, pneumatically and electromagnetically operating
                      vertical presses.

                      In the pure vertical stamping process
                      flat parts can be stamped using a
                      flat tool, convex parts using a
                      corresponding shaped concave tool
                      and concave parts using a convex tool
                      to match the workpiece.            With
                      curvatures, the stamping angle should
                      not exceed 90o. Up to 25% of the
                      circumference of a cylindrical part
                      can be enhanced using vertical
                      stamping provided the tools match the
                      workpieces.      These are maximum
                      figures which only apply if the radii are
                      sufficiently large.

!               2.    Circumferential Marking

                      Hot stamping can be performed “all around the workpiece” on presses which
                      are similar in their basic design to vertical presses. Special holding fixtures,
                      rotating supports and horizontal guides for the workpiece complete the
                      stamping presses for circumferential marking. The special feature of this
                      process is that a cylindrical workpiece (can, sleeve, tube, screw cap) is rolled
                      under a flat stamping tool and the foil is stationary.

                      The back pressure is produced by two support rollers on which the cylindrical
                      workpiece rotates. The support rollers and the workpiece holding fixture
                      (location pin) together form the rolling device and are carried forwards
                      horizontally by means of a drive system (support).            The forward

                                                       Milford Astor

drive is controlled pneumatically or electrically while the roll-on movement is
usually mechanically controlled.

Numbering wheels, too, are normally stamped by this method. Special
equipment allows extremely accurate automatic positioning of the injection
moulded part.

Using this process it is also easy to stamp
slight conical parts, the die being shifted
somewhat on the workpiece to even out
the difference in the roll-on speed of the
large and small diameters.

Parts with a conical angle of over 1o to 2o
must be positioned on a special roll-on
device, which permits the workpiece to
rotate around the imagined apex of the
cone. Parts which are strongly conical
cause difficulties for circum-ference
m a r k i n g, b e c a u s e t h e d i f f e r e n t
circumferential speeds of the large and
small diameters make it almost
impossible to foil.

In circumferential marking the location of
the stamping die must always be in
register with the hartline of the moulding.

The lowest temperature for the platen and stamping tool during the working
stroke is accurately determined by the depth stop. This device restricts the
downward motion of the pump rod in pneumatic systems when pressure builds
up in the cylinder by means of a mechanical stop.

In circumferential marking the roll-on device is moved from one end setting to the
other end setting. The roll-on speed is controlled and the distance rolled by a
time switch or limit switch. The stamping process begins, as soon as the front
edge of the heated tool comes into contact with the circumference of the
workpiece. It continues until the rear end of the stamping tool is reached.

When the workpiece makes initial contact or leaves the stamping tool,
excessively deep or insufficiently deep stamping may occur, depending on the
stamped image. This can be counteracted by attaching a front or end piece
made from thermally insulating material (laminated plastic) at the beginning and
end of the stamping tool. A corresponding lateral mask of insulating material
helps to support the stamping die on the workpiece and also prevents the tool
sinking too deeply into the surface of the workpiece.

Parts which need to have the stamped image matched precisely with a functional
edge or another printed image, are rolled under positive drive. For this a pinion is
attached on the axle of the workpiece holding fixture. The diameter of the
pitched circle of this pinion coincides with the diameter

                                                      Milford Astor

     under the stamped image. When
     the roller device is moved forward
     the pinion meshes in a gear rack
     and drives the workpiece.

     With positive drive as with rolling
     under friction, the line connecting
     the axes of the supporting rollers
     should form an angle of approx 90o
     with the axis of the workpiece.

3.   Bottle Stamping

     This variation of hot stamping was
     developed for hollow bodies, in
     which the back pressure required
     for hot stamping cannot be
     produced by mechanical means
     because of their shape and elasticity.

     Hot stamping is carried out in this case in a two part mould, which fits exactly
     round the external contours of the plastic bottle. The bottle is laid in the lower
     half of the open mould. The upper half of the mould contains the stamping tool,
     which must also be matched exactly to the contours of the bottle, and the guides
     for the stamping foil.

     The hot stamping process is as follows: the two halves of the shroud are closed,
     and the bottle is inflated through a mouthpiece via a control valve using
     compressed air at approx. 8 to 10 bar. The expansion of the bottle causes the
     wall of the bottle to be pressed against the stamping foil and the stamping tool
     located above the bottle. The internal pressure in the bottle thus generates the
     printing pressure for the hot stamping. The contact is ended by letting out the
     compressed air. The shroud can now be opened and the hollow body removed.

4.   Roll-on Stamping

     In this process a stamping tool in the form of a (normally externally) heated
     silicone rubber roller is rolled over a workpiece on which stamp foil has been laid;
     in this way lines, letters and decoration, which are embossed on the moulded
     parts (relief injection moulded parts) can be coated with stamping foil as also can
     flat surfaces and continuous sections.

     A typical example of the roll-on method is the rotation of a round roller over a flat
     surface, in which only a narrow continually moving zone is in contact (“line
     contact”). The contact time is usually very short and has to be compensated for
     by higher operating temperatures, and by the use of particularly easily releasing
     stamping foils.

     The workpieces are placed on a moving table or on a conveyor belt and are
     moved forward at constant velocity under the stamping roller or stamping wheel.

                                            Milford Astor

The roll-on method is not limited, however, to flat objects. This process is
suitable, in principle, for any workpieces on which a stamping foil can lie
without creasing. This includes, for example, cylindrical, oval, square edged
and other convex bodies with parallel side lines running in the direction of the
stamping roller axis.

Using appropriately fitted stamping roller or wheels, even grooved profile
strips or external radii can be continuously stamped by the roll-on method. In
such cases excessive differences in the diameters in stamping wheels
should be avoided, since large differences in the circumferential speeds
cause folding in the stamping foil. With workpieces of this kind it is
recommended that very deep and raised parts of the cross section be
enhanced in separate operations. The same applies for very pronounced
curvatures, where a stamping angle of 120o would be obtained, for example,
by using two stamping wheels in series each at 65o. The applicability of this
technique depends naturally on the
decoration of the stamping foil

Typical examples of the use of the
roll-on process are housings for
sound and television equipment,
frames and furniture strips,
windscreens for motor vehicles and
other similar parts. In other words,
workpieces which are not suitable
for vertical stamping because of
their shape or for which the
necessary printing pressure cannot
be economically achieved in vertical
printing presses because of their
large surface area.

In this variation of the hot stamping
process the design of the workpiece
holding fixture requires much care.
much care.

                                   Workpiece holding fixture for the roll-on
                                   stamping of the front panel of an
                                   instrument with windows: 1 – front
                                   piece, 2 – core pieces, 3 – end piece,
                                   each at the height of the workpiece, set
                                   2mm away from the workpiece.

                                                              Milford Astor
            Thus, for example, front pieces must be positioned in front of the tool so that
            the stamping roller is set down on a connected surface and not on the edge of
            the workpiece. In this way a clear imprint is obtained and the silicone
            stamping tool is protected. Front pieces also result in the longitudinal folds in
            the stamping foil, which form when the stamping roller descends, being first
            rolled flat. End pieces behind the workpiece have the effect of shifting the
            problem zone when the stamping roller is lifted from the workpiece. Front and
            end pieces must be at the exact height of the workpiece, as must the so-called
            core pieces in the workpiece holding fixture which are used to fill large cutouts
            (“Windows”) in the workpieces. Core pieces also help to prevent folds
            forming in the stamping foil.

            A particular variation of this process is roll-on stamping using a cylindrical
            stamping tool, the circumference of which is covered with characters,
            symbols, numbers, etc. This is used in particular for marking cables, plastic
            pipes, for hot stamping continuously running packaging sheets, or for
            decorative purposes.

Diagram B

TOOLING                                                                         Mandrell
                                       Top surfaces
 1                                     horizontal

                    Top Shroud

 Air                                                                                   Part


2                                      5


                                                                        Milford Astor

Hot Stamping Substrates
                  Printing techniques concern the reproduction of written, pictorial and ornamental
                  images on paper, cardboard and similar materials. But hot stamping however is an
                  application well outside this definition. All wettable materials paper and board,
                  thermoplastics and duroplastics, leather and textiles, wood and many other materials
                  can be printed, stamped, coated, or refined with hot stamping foils: In brief, they can
                  be finished to a specification.

Cast Coated and Machine Coated Papers and Boards
                  These are among the least troublesome of print carriers and do not restrict the choice
                  of stamping foil. With cast coated types, pressure and temperature activate
                  adhesion of the surface coating, which benefits hot stamping. This intrinsic adhesive
                  action only has an undesirable effect in types coated both sides by causing the
                  printing sheet to stick to the packing. In such cases, easy release stamping foils,
                  which permit low stamping temperature, must be used in order not to activate the
                  intrinsic adhesive effect of the material. The make-ready should be covered, if it
                  consists of a plastic material such as Makrolon, etc., with a protective sheet. Easy
                  release types of stamping foil have proved more suitable for stamping solid areas
                  since compression force applied to the cardboard coating can be reduced. It can be
                  observed that the coating is pressure sensitive particularly in the case of cast coated
                  types with a relatively high unit weight, which can produce poor results in stamping
                  solid areas due to the formulation of shadows and small blemishes.

Papers and Boards with Smooth or Rough Surfaces
                  Untreated papers and boards are suitable for hot stamping as long as they are not
                  synthetic papers. A smooth surface structure permits great latitude in the use of
                  tight release or easy release stamping foils. The rougher the surface, the less the
                  latitude with the tight release types and the greater the latitude with the easy release
                  types of stamping foils. Easy release types of stamping foil come away from the
                  carrier under relatively slight temperature changes. Their adhesive layer is in most
                  cases formulated to produce a high bonding effect. Of the easy release types of
                  stamping foil, those with a thick, elastic coating, such as grade EFE and 140 should
                  be selected, to cover rough surfaces well. The degree of fineness of hot stampings
                  can suffer from rough surfaces, and the easy release types are necessary for this

Lacquered, Coated or Foil-laminated Papers and Boards
                  Papers and boards with metallic plastic coatings, particularly involving the use of
                  polyolefins such as polyethylene, accept stamping foil only with great difficulty.
                  Particularly high demands are placed on the adhesion of the stamping foil by boards
                  that have been foil-laminated or specially coated with polypropylene, particularly with
                  areas of solid print or similar decoration. However, other surface coatings, such as,
                  eg. Chromolux Metallic or Chromolux Colour, also limit the use of hot stamping. Such
                  Chromolux Metallic or Chromolux Colour, also limit the use of hot stamping. Such
                  print carriers tend to gas quickly. Solid areas stamping should therefore be applied
                  print carriers tend to gas quickly. Solid areas stamping should therefore be applied
                  preferably with rotary or cylinder stamping machines.
                  preferably with rotary or cylinder stamping machines.

                  However, on all these print carriers hot stamping in the form of lettering, lines and
                                               generally be
                  small ornamental areas can be generally done without trouble using any machine.

                                                                       Milford Astor

                   It should also be borne in mind that subsequent damage from plasticisers can occur
                   not only with soft PVC foils, but also with PVC coated self-adhesive papers (plasticiser-
                   resistant stamping foils).

Leather Fibrous Substrates, Soft PVC Foils

                   Leather fibrous substances are normally less problematic printing materials. The
                   fineness of the hot stamping that can be executed is largely governed by the grain of
                   the surface. A rough surface of coarse grain refracts light, which can make fine
                   lettering illegible (“filling”). It should also be remembered that a good surface
                   covering is extremely difficult to obtain on coarse-grained materials since the grain
                   cannot be smoothly printed in the normal stamping procedure. Although very fine
                   lettering can be produced with tighter release stamping foils, it should not be done
                   below a certain limit. Soft PVC can also be hot stamped without much difficulty with
                   selected foils. With the normal stamping method the same restrictions apply as in the
                   case of leather, fibrous substances and grained, nitrocoated papers. For grained PVC
                   materials embossing is by high-frequency stamping methods, in which the area is
                   previously smoothed by high frequency embossing.

Creasing of Hot Stamped Impressions

                   If a crease or fold extending over the hot stamping impression is to be made in the
                   substrate, eg. in the production of folding boxes, it is absolutely essential to check
                   the “creasability” of the applied stamping foil in each case. It is not sufficient to
                   test the creasing behaviour of the “cardboard or paper” base material on principle.
                   All further finishings, such as offset printing, lacquering or foil lamination, affect the
                   creasability of a material. The same comments also apply to the “hot stamping”
                   finishing stage. We recommend that you check the creasability of the hot stamped
                   impression and substrate, at the beginning and during the production run. An
                   optical evaluation is not enough to ensure quality given the extreme stresses to
                   which a surface is subjected during folding and creasing, and in the carton gluing
                   machine after treatment. For this reason creasability must be supplemented by
                   passing the specimen through a gluing machine. Hot stamping near an area which
                   has to be later folded or creased must be subjected to the most thorough care and
                   quality checks.

                                                                 Milford Astor

Stamping Dies
                 The collective term is used to cover all functional parts which transfer heat and
                 compressive force to the stamping foil and the workpiece during the hot stamping
                 process and whose surface layout determines the stamping image. In the wider
                 sense this also includes die plates, stamping rollers and wheels for large area transfer.
                 In the narrow sense we mean by stamping tools (so-called stamping dies), plates with
                 a surface design in three dimensions, the raised parts of which transfer the active
                 layers of stamping foil on to the surface of the workpiece.

                 Depending on the type of hot stamping process used (vertical stamping,
                 circumferential marking, bottle stamping, roll-on stamping) and the surface design of
                 the workpiece (plain, convex, concave), the stamping components on the stamping
                 die can lie on a flat, convex or concave plane. The difficulties in manufacturing curved
                 stamping tools do indeed have an effect on the price, but the basic demands placed
                 by hot stamping on the tools are much the same for all the different types.

                 Depending on the material used, the tools are divided into metal stamping dies and
                 silicone stamping dies.

Metal Stamping Dies

                 There are two different basic
                 manufacturing methods: etching
                 and engraving of stamping tools.

                 The materials suited for the
                 manufacture of etched stamping
                 tools are copper, magnesium, brass
                 and steel. The particular advantage
                 of etched stamping tools is that
                 the manufacturing method is
                 inexpensive, based on etching from
                 a photographically reproduced
                 original. Since the costs are based on
                 the size of the surface area of the
                 tool, it is an inexpensive method for                Magnesium Die
                                                                 Etched Magnesium Die.
                 producing difficult motifs, eg.
                                                 of text.
                 ornaments, lines, large blocks of text.
                 Subsequent engraving work is
                 sometimes necessary.

                                                             Etched Copper Die.
                                                              Etched Coper Die

                                                                  Milford Astor

Engraved Metal Stamping Tools

                                 Engraved steel stamping die matched
                                Engraved steel stamping die matched toto
                                       the workpiece on two planes
                                     the workplace on two planes.

                 Stamping tools on which are placed strict requirements for accuracy and stability
                 are manufactured by precision engraving from brass or steel.

                 The hardness of brass is sufficient to make this material suitable for hot stamping
                 even in large runs. On the other hand brass is not as hard as steel and can be
                 worked more easily and is therefore also suitable for tools where a lot of material
                 has to be cut away from the blank, because of the design, eg. stamping tools for
                 vertical stamping and convex and concave parts and for bottle stamping.

                 Steel is becoming increasingly popular as a material for engraved stamping tools.
                 Steel stamping tools should be made from low distortion tool steel so that they
                 remain true to size even after hardening.

                 A hardened steel stamping die shows hardly any wear under normal load and is
                 therefore suitable for large runs. Since steel can be worked with particular
                 precision, special stamping tools for geometrical instruments, rulers and number
                 wheels should also be made in steel, as should stamping equipment with
                 interchangeable parts, such as type brackets.

                 Any slight damage on metal stamping tools, eg. caused by foreign bodies, can be
                 repaired by the specialist.

                 Where dies are purchased, the die vendor should be supplied with a sample, a print
                 or drawing of the part, and black and white artwork of the impression. The print
                 should be used for reference only and the part for matching. Artwork should be
                 drawn 1:1 for large dies and 2:1 for smaller dies. Photographic positive can be
                 substituted for black and white artwork. It should be noted that the sharper the
                 artwork, the sharper the die.

                                                                           Milford Astor
Silicone Rubber Pads

                  Silicone Rubber Pads are used to hot stamp onto raised surfaces of plastic
                  mouldings, this process is called “tipping”. Silicone rubber is used because it can
                  withstand heat, and being elastic it will compensate for variations in the height of the
                  moulding. The raised surface may be a logo, lettering or a surround of a panel.
                  These are formed by engraving the plastic moulding die and should allow the raised
                  surface to be a minimum of 1.5mm high. Silicone rubber is available in thicknesses
                  from 1/32 to 1/4 inch bonded to either steel or aluminium of 1/32 or 1/8 inch
                  thickness. The thickness of the silicone selected will depend on the amount and
                  height of the raised area and the degree of distortion of the part. The following guide
                  to maximum desirable penetration by the part is suggested.

                  Rubber Thickness                                Penetration

                  0.794mm (1/32 inch)                             0.254 - 0.397mm (1/100 - 1/64 inch)
                  1.588mm (1/16 inch)                             0.397 - 0.794mm (1/64 - 1/32 inch)
                  3.175mm (1/8 inch)                              0.794 - 1.588mm (1/32 - 1/16 inch)

                  The deeper the penetration, the shorter the life of the silicone rubber. Sharp edges
                  on the plastic part should be avoided as they will cut into the pad and reduce its life.
                  Die temperatures of 150 - 200 degrees C (thermostat setting 200 - 250 degrees C) are
                  necessary. It should be noted that excess heat will cause delamination of the rubber
                  from its aluminium base and mechanical abuse will quickly damage the rubber face.
                  Correct usage of silicone rubber will result in a life of up to 20,000 - 30,000
                  impressions, increased brilliance of gold and silver foils, improved adhesion and
                  surface hardness, lower rejects, increased production and more uniform and
                  attractive prints.

                  Note that rubber pads should not be used carelessly to overcome poor alignment
                  between die and fixture bed; or to compensate for excessive sinks and distortions
                  caused by poor design and moulding techniques.

Moulded Silicone Rubber Dies

                  Moulded Silicone Rubber Dies are also used for first and second surface stamping of
                  plastic items, which are unusual in design, and where a 'laid on' foil effect rather than
                  an 'embossed' effect is required. They can also compensate, to a degree, for
                  irregularities in the part being stamped.

Tooling                                                                                see

                  Three basic materials are used for fixtures: epoxy, aluminium and steel (not
                  hardened). Fixtures serve two purposes. The first is to position the part
                  accurately under the stamping die. The second is to support the part properly
                  when pressure is applied by the die. Lack of proper support will allow the part to
                  shift out of position, causing stamping of uneven depth and missing prints. Poor
                  support may also result in cracking or crazing of the plastic and / or foil
                  See diagram C on page 39.
                  diagram B on page

                                                  Milford Astor

Epoxy Fixtures are used mostly by stampers who must contend with short runs or
complex shapes. These fixtures usually are cast directly from the part to be stamped
and the back is either sanded or milled flat. They are also used to match irregular
surfaces or contours. Epoxy fixtures require continuous 'make-ready' throughout the
production run because they continually flatten due to the pressure and heat exerted
by the die. The term 'make-ready' refers to the use of tape, cork, rubber or other
materials to build up depressed areas of the fixture to properly support the part when
die pressure is exerted. See Make-ready, page 32.

Aluminium Fixtures are often used in the industry because of their ease of
workability, and because of reduced machining cost when compared to steel. One
disadvantage of aluminium is that the steel die will make an imprint on the fixture if
the operator lowers the head without placing a part on the fixture. In this case, the
fixture must be reworked to properly support the part.

Steel Fixtures offer the best results in quality stamping and provide protection
against damage due to accidental operation of the press. Steel fixtures can be silver
soldered or welded and hand filed to match the contour of the part. All fixtures must
match the contour of the part and support the stamping area. Proper selection and
use of fixtures will reduce downtime and rejects, resulting in increased production.

Make-Ready is the term used to ensure that the product to be stamped and the
stamping die are exactly in contact to ensure a perfect result. To help correct these
irregularities, various materials such as cardboard, rubber or a mixture of cork and
rubber supplied in sheet form are available. In the graphic arts area, where an
embossed or raised effect is required, specialty products such as pour-a-counter are
available. See page 32.

                                                                      Milford Astor

Make-Ready Materials and General Supplies
                    Milford Astor has developed a comprehensive range of made-ready materials. These
                    have been selected to enable the user to achieve a high consistency in quality print
                    performance with increased productivity. The following information details each
                    product and its uses.

Black Printing Underlay

                    This product is used extensively throughout the foiling industry for flat stamping,
                    suitable for most platen presses. Quite resilient and yet soft enough to compensate
                    for minor variations. Supplied in sheets.

Die Mounting Tape

                    A heat activated tape for adhering dies to the press. Also used for adhering foam
                    support on cylinder presses. Currently stocked in: 38mm x 50m (1.5” x 150'), 310mm
                    x 50m (12” x 150'), 75mm x 50m (3” x 150').

Epoxy Glassboard

                    For flat stamping and foil embossing. Extremely strong and durable make-ready base
                    providing very clean and sharp prints. Can be used with other make-readies, such as
                    Coverboard and Pragotherm. Epoxy Glassboard is very flat giving correct pressure
                    across the make-ready.

                    Recommended for all type of work from fine detail to solid areas and can be used on
                    both Platen and Cylinder presses.

                    Epoxy Glass is very resilient and the fact that it is extremely difficult to dent makes it
                    ideal for very long production runs so reducing make-ready times. Epoxy Glass has
                    also been designed for repeated use on different jobs without any detrimental effect
                    on quality. Main advantages, very strong, even thickness across the board, cost
                    effective, availability. Available in: 914mm x 1220mm, 25mm x 55m, 100mm x 55m,
                    .5mm (.020”), .8mm (.031”), 1.0mm (.040”), 1.6mm (.062”), 2.4mm (.093”).


                    For flat stamping and flat embossing. When flat stamping, is extremely good for fine
                    detail printing, giving crisp, clean prints. Pertoid is recommended for Geitz and
                    Bobsts presses. It is extremely durable, allowing longer press runs without stopping.
                    Designed for repeated use. Currently stocked in 610mm x 610mm.

Polyurethane Sheets

                    For flat stamping. It is recommended for use as a unique make-ready board for flat
                    stamping large, solid areas. Despite its flexibility, it is hard enough to resist
                    indentation on large stampings. Its soft cushioning effect prevents bruising, even on
                    thin, foil edged paper labels. It can be used repeatedly, by simply replacing the

                                                                        Milford Astor

                   polyurethane tape with which it is adhered to the platen. It springs back to its original
                   shape after stamping. Acts as a self levelling board, therefore minimising spot make-
                   ready. Suitable for Geitz and other large platen presses. Limitations: needs special
                   tape to adhere to machine bed. Not for use when doing fine detail work. Not for use on
                   Heidelberg presses. Currently stocked in 610mm x 610mm sheets.

Pour-A-Counter Liquid and Powder

                   For combination foiling and embossing. This is a two part mix system for making a
                   counter for the female embossing die. Shelf life of the product is 24 - 30 months.
                   Benefits to the Printer: Pour-a-Counter is very durable and good for use with deep
                   sculptured dies. Limitations: can be slightly messy.


                   Foil flat stamping. A good standard make-ready base board with a smooth surface.
                   Excellent for short to medium runs. Currently stocked in 1000mm x 1067mm.

Printing Base Self Adhesive

                   This product is used extensively throughout the foiling industry for flat stamping,
                   suitable for most platen presses. Quite resilient and yet soft enough to compensate for
                   minor variations and has the convenience of pressure sensitive application. Supplied
                   in sheets 690mm x 1020mm.

Yellow Cover Board
                  Used for blind embossing. It provides a quick, clean and very effective method for
                  forming a male counter for blind embossing. It can also be used on top of a Liquid and
                  Powder formed counter to give extra depth and aid in smoothing out stock. The board is
                  fixed to the machine bed and moistened with a damp cloth, or spray. A few impressions
                  are made and the coverboard conforms precisely to the die producing a durable blind
                  embossing counter. Coverboard can significantly reduce make-ready time over powder
                  techniques which involve prolonged drying time. Currently stocked in 61cm x 48cm

                                                             Milford Astor

Tips to Save Pains and Strains
!         Check the realistic registration tolerances of your printer and stamper to decrease
          rejects and ensure a quality piece.

!         If designing large solid areas and fine intricate areas in the same design, expect to foil
          stamp it with two passes.

!         Have your printer and foil stamper talk before beginning the job. COMMUNICATION

!         Ink must be wax free and not rubber-based if you are foil stamping over an inked area.

!         Be careful to try to avoid wet trapping your inked area by varnishing before these areas
          are dry.

!         Stamping over UV coatings on some applications can present a challenge. Therefore,
          try to use an aqueous coating or wax free varnish whenever possible, or stamp prior to
          UV coating. If you must stamp over UV varnish ask Milford Astor to advise the
          appropriate UV varnish.

!         Check with your printer to help determine the dyne count (surface tension) of a
          laminated sheet. The dyne count should be higher than 40 for the sheet to be foil

!         Keep within your customer's budget. Foil is a very economical addition when planned
          correctly. You may be able to save an entire run through the press with one slight
          adjustment of your design.

!         Call Milford Astor to check if the foil shade you have chosen is available in the correct
          grade for your stock you are using and the coverage you are trying to achieve.

!         Many pigment and pearl foils are translucent. This can drastically change the
          appearance on coloured stocks. Check the opacity of your chosen foil before

!         When stamping dry, textured stocks, be sure to specify the correct foil to prevent

!         When designing foil for letterheads to be used through laser printers, it is essential to
          have your customers test a stamped sample through their laser printer before running
          the entire job.

!         For a quality stamp of areas designed with intricate detail, be sure the space between

          the lines in the design is no less than half the thickness of the stock you are using.

!         As a general rule with hard plastics, it takes one tonne per 25mm x 25mm of stamped
          area. Choice of stock, die construction and make-ready can decrease tonnage
          needed. Check with your stamper for his equipment capabilities regarding your
          particular design.

                                                                          Milford Astor

Weights and Measurements of Master Rolls
Approximate weights and measurements (diameter) of Master Rolls 61cm (24”) wide on standard 25mm
(1”) diameter cores on 12 micron polyester.

                                          Length                   Diameter                  Weight

                                  metres           feet      mm          inches        kg             lbs

 Metallics                           61             200       51           2           .90            2.00
 Golds, Silvers & Colours           122             400       57          2 1/4       1.72            3.80
                                    183             600       70          2 3/4       2.35            5.20
                                    305            1000       89          3 1/ 2      3.06            6.70

                                     61             200       57          2 1/4       1.27         2.80
                                    122             400       76           3          2.54         5.60
                                    183             600      82.5         3 1/4       2.90         6.40
                                    305            1000      105          4 1/4       5.17        11.40

 On 16mm CORES Polyester
                                     61            200       41.5         1 5/8       .90             2.00

Stamping Temperatures

                       The printing temperature range of Milford Astor Foilmakers foils is approx 100 - 170
                       degrees C. It is not possible to recommend a given temperature for any particular
                       surface to be stamped because of the varying production conditions that are
                       encountered. The controlling factors are as follows:

                       1.     Characteristics of the foil.
                       2.     Type of machine in use (hand, mechanical or air-operated and whether
                              semi or fully automatic).
                       3.     Action of machine - time in contact with blocking surface, i.e., dwell.
                       4.     Surface to be blocked - receptive or non receptive.
                       5.     Type of die to be used and total area of print.
                       6.     Heat source.
                       7.     Variation between heater block and die face temperatures.
                       8.     Ambient conditions.

                       The ideal foiling temperature for metallics is the lowest possible temperature
                       at which maximum coverage, adhesion and cleanliness is obtained.

                                                                                        Milford Astor

 Foil Requirements Calculator - Metric                            Foil Requirements Calculator - Imperial
Pull length                                                       Pull length   Roll 200   Roll 400   Roll 600   Roll 1000
              Roll 61m   Roll 122m   Roll 183m   Roll 305m
  in mm                                                            in inches      feet       feet       feet       feet

    10         6100       12200       18300       30500               3/         5486      10971      16457       27429
    12         5083       10167       15250       25417               1/         4800       9600      14400       24000
    14         4357        8714       13071       21786              9/16        4267       8533      12800       21333
    16         3813        7625       11438       19063              5 /8        3840       7680      11520       19200
    18         3389        6778       10167       16944
                                                                     11/16       3491       6982      10473       17455
    20         3050        6100       9150        15250
                                                                      3/4        3200       6400       9600       16000
                                                                      /8         2743       5486       8229       13714
    25         2440        4880        7320       12200              15/16       2560       5120       7680       12800
    30         2033        4067        6100       10167
    35         1743        3486        5229        8714                1         2400       4800       7200       12000
    40         1525        3050        4575        7625              11/ 8       2133       4267       6400       10667
    45         1356        2711        4067        6778              1 1/ 4      1920       3840       5760        9600
    50         1220        2440        3660        6100              13/ 8       1745       3491       5236        8727
                                                                     11 2
                                                                        /        1600       3200       4800        8000
    55         1109        2218        3327        5545              15/ 8       1477       2954       4431        7385
    60         1017        2033        3050        5083              1 3/ 4      1371       2743       4114        6857
    65          938        1877        2815        4692              17 8
                                                                        /        1280       2560       3840        6400
    70          871        1743        2614        4357
    75          813        1624        2440        4067               2          1200       2400       3600        6000
                                                                     21/ 8       1129       2259       3388        5647
                                                                     2 1/ 4      1067       2133       3200        5333
    80          763        1525        2288        3813              23/ 8       1011       2021       3032        5053
    85          718        1435        2153        3588              21 2
                                                                        /         960       1920       2880        4800
    90          678        1356        2033        3389              25/ 8        914       1829       2743        4571
    95          642        1284        1926        3211              2 3/ 4       873       1745       2618        4364
   100          610        1220        1830        3050              27 8
                                                                        /         835       1670       2504        4174

   110          555        1109        1664        2773               3           800       1600       2400        4000
   120          508        1017        1525        2542              31 8
                                                                        /         768       1536       2304        3840
   130          469        938         1408        2346              31 4
                                                                        /         738       1477       2215        3692
   140          436        871         1307        2179              33/ 8        711       1422       2133        3556
   150          407        813         1220        2033              31 2
                                                                        /         686       1371       2057        3429
                                                                     35/ 8        662       1324       1986        3310
                                                                     3 3/ 4       640       1280       1920        3200
   160          381        763         1144        1906              37 8
                                                                        /         619       1239       1858        3097
   170          359        718         1076        1794
   180          339        678         1017        1694               4           600       1200       1800        3000
   190          321        641          963        1605              4 1/ 4       565       1129       1694        2824
   200          305        610          915        1525              412/         533       1067       1600        2667
                                                                     4 3/ 4       505       1011       1516        2526
   210          290        581         871         1452
                                                                      5           480        960       1440        2400
   220          277        555         832         1386
                                                                     5 1/ 4       457        914       1371        2286
   230          265        530         796         1326
                                                                     5 1/ 2       436        873       1309        2182
   240          254        508         763         1271
                                                                     5 3/ 4       417        835       1252        2087
   250          244        488         732         1220
                                                                      6           400        800       1200        2000
                                                                     61 4
                                                                        /         384        768       1152        1920
                                                                     61 2
                                                                        /         369        738       1108        1846
                                                                     6 3/ 4       356        711       1067        1778

                                                                      7           343        686       1029        1714
                                                                     7 1/4        331        662        993        1655
                                                                     71 2
                                                                        /         320        640        960        1600
                                                                     7 3/4        310        619        929        1545
                                                                      8           300        600        900        1500

                                                                              Milford Astor

Table of cuts (from a 610mm wide roll)

Widths          No.     Offcut        Widths          No.     Offcut           Widths          No.     Offcut
       Inches                                Inches                                   Inches
 mm             cuts   mm inches       mm             cuts   mm inches          mm             cuts   mm inches

 10    0.38     64       0     0.00    54    2.13     11     16   0.63         114    4.49      5       7   0.25
 11    0.43     54      10     0.38    57    2.24     10     38   1.50         121    4.76      4     102   4.00
 13    0.51     48       0     0.00    60    2.36     10      6   1.25         133    5.24      4      76   3.00
 16    0.63     38       6     0.25    64    2.52      9     38   1.50         140    5.51      4      51   2.00
 17    0.67     34      10     0.38    67    2.64      9     10   0.38         146    5.75      4      25   1.00
 19    0.75     28       0     0.00    70    2.76      8     51   2.00         152    5.98      4       0   0.00
 21    0.83     29      11     0.44    73    2.87      8     25   1.00         159    6.26      3     133   5.25
 22    0.87     27      10     0.38    76    2.99      8      0   0.00         165    6.50      3     114   4.50
 25    0.98     24       0     0.00    79    3.11      7     54   2.13         171    6.75      3      95   3.75

 27    1.06     22      16     0.63    83    3.27      7     32   26.0         189    7.01      3     76    3.00
 29    1.14     21      10     0.38    86    3.39      7     10     0          184    7.24      3     57    2.25
 32    1.26     19       6     0.25    89    3.50      6     76   0.38         191    7.52      3     38    1.50
 35    1.38     17      16     0.63    92    3.62      6     57   3.00
 38    1.50     16       0     0.00    95    3.74      6     38   2.25         197    7.76      3     76    3.00
 41    1.61     14      32     1.25    98    3.86      6     19   1.50         203    7.99      3      0    0.00
 44    1.73     13      32     1.25   102    4.02      6      0   0.75
 48    1.89     12      38     1.50   102    4.02      5      7   0.00
 51    2.01     12       0     0.00   108    4.25      5     38   2.75

Common Problems and Solutions

                     Problem                                              Solution

1. Bridging                                 Reduce temperature and dwell.

2. Bad coverage                             Insufficient heat or dwell.

3. Foil carrier sticks to product being     Position foil guide bars in feed side down just above the
   stamped                                  stamping surface and outfeed a little higher. This gives a
                                            peeling action rather than a snatch. Use foil with a softer
                                            release. Reduce temperature and / or dwell.

4. Foil pre-heated by die or platen         This causes bridging. Set foil by die guide bars so that foil is
                                            not touching heated area.

5. Static electricity                       On high speed machines this can cause foil feeding problems.
                                            It can sometimes be reduced by placing a copper strip from
                                            foil bars to earth.

6. Foil rainbows                            Reduce heat or dwell.

7. Blushing on polystyrene                  This is caused by excessive pressure. Increase temperature
                                            and / or dwell and reduce pressure.

8. Tipping raised letter or surfaces in     Silicone rubber bonded to aluminium. In plastics higher
   plastics                                 than normal temperature should be used as rubber is not a
                                            good conductor of heat.

9. Lines appear on printed product          Check to ensure foil is not creased. Reduce foil tension on foil
                                            off-take roll. On cylindrical machines, use sponge rubber.

                                                                 Milford Astor

Glossary of Hot Stamping Terms

         Air Press:           A pneumatic cylinder applies the force.

         Brass Die:          A st amping die made from brass. Better and longer-lasting than
                             mag die (q.v.), but more expensive.

         Blocking :           Another word used to describe ‘Stamping’.

         Blushing:            See 'Clouding'

         Bridging:           See 'Filming'

         Carrier:             The film or paper on which foil is carried in roll leaf hot stamping.

         Clouding:           A milky or cloudy appearance of stamped areas. Sometimes
                             called blushing.

         Cold Foil:           A stamping foil that gives a similar result as hot stamping foil but
                              the foil does not incorporate an adhesive coat. The foil is laid
                              down onto a special adhesive, before UV curing and peeling off.

         Copper Die:         A stamping die etched in copper, very hard, good for long runs in

         Cork Rubber:         An adhesive-backed cork sheet used as make-ready.

         Corona Treatment: A method of changing the surface molecular tension of plastic
                           films to accept inks and varnishes.

         Detail Foil:        Foil best suited for stamping fine detail, such as small lettering.

         Dwell Time:         Length of time the heated die is allowed to remain in contact with
                             t he piece being stamped.

         Fibre Board:        Stiff paper board used as make-ready.

         Filming:            Excess particles of leaf around the edge of a stamped area. Also
                             called bridging or flooding.

         First-Surface Impressions:
                               The stamping of foil on the top surface of a plastic part. See
                              'Second Surface Impression'.

         Flashing:            See ‘Filming’.

         Flooding:            See 'Filming'.

         Gassing:            Caused by heated inks when stamping large areas, causing pin
                             holes in foil, as well as entrapment of air.

                                                         Milford Astor

Glassine:          A brittle, high-finish fibrous paper sometimes used as a carrier for an
                   imitation gold foil.

Hand Press:        Pressure applied by hand to a mechanical lever.

Imitation Leaf:    The dull golds and silvers made by dusting metal powders. Also
                   known as 'bronze powder', 'dusted leaf'.

Foil:              The coating which is transferred from the carrier to the hot-stamped
                   item by a heated die. Sometimes also called 'roll leaf'. The term
                   derives from the original gold leaf, which was beaten into thin sheets
                   (leaves) by hand. Actually, leaf today is a coating or dispersion that is
                   applied to a carrier film.

Mag. Die:          A stamping die etched in magnesium. Usually inexpensive but does
                   not wear well. Suitable only for relatively short runs on hard plastics
                   and longer runs on plasterboard.

Make-Ready:        Material placed beneath the object to be stamped, usually to help in
                   correcting irregularities in either the piece itself or the stamping die.
                   Serves also as a counter for dies that are raised or embossed.

Moulded Silicone Dies:
                    A die moulded from silicone rubber. Used mostly for stamping
                    plastic objects of unusual design or material.

Oil Resistance:    The ability of a stamped impression to withstand attack from any
                   aliphatic and most aromatic-based liquids, i.e., motor oil, benzene,
                   naphthalene, toluene, etc.

Opaque:            A foil that permits no light to pass through the stamped impression.

Overprintable:     A stamping foil once applied which allows over printing with ink.

Overstamp:         A second stamping sometimes applied when the first is slightly

Panel Foil:         Foil that is best suited for stamping broad areas.

Picking:            The effect of missing pieces of leaf from a stamped area.

Pigment Foil:       Solid-colour roll foil made with organic and inorganic pigment.

Plated Foil:        See 'Simulated Foil'.

Polyester:          A strong, stable plastic film used as a carrier for foil.

Printability:      a) The ability of a foil to be overprinted with ink,
                   b) As well as the ability of foil to over-stamp an ink surface.

Rainbowing:        An iridescent effect in a stamped area. Usually caused by too much
                   heat in stamping metallic foils.

                                                       Milford Astor

Rotary Press:         The die is round, and foil is applied as the die rotates, or a flat die
                      and foil are applied by a rotating pressure roll which forces the
                      paper onto a heated die.

Second-Surface Impression:
                   The stamping of foil on the underside of a transparent part so that
                   the co l our of the leaf shows through. Used as distinct from 'First-
                   Surface Impression'.

Silicone Rubber:      A sheet of silicone rubber backed with steel or aluminium and
                     used as a hot-stamping die for raised and flat surfaces on plastics.
                      Made with various thicknesses of both face and backing. See
                     ' Tipping'.

Simulated Foils:     Foil of bright gold, silver and metallic colours manufactured by the
                     vacuum plating process.

Solids:               Large or broad areas.

Stamping Press:       Clamshell: A press that stamps foil with clamshell type of action,
                     ie. a Kluge, Thompson Heidelberg, etc.
                      Cylinder: A press which uses a flat die passing under an
                      impression cylinder.
                     Roll-On: A press that applies foil with a rolling action.
                     Rotary: A press where the die is round.
                     Vertical: A press that stamps with a straight up and down stroke.

Tipping:             To hot stamp a raised plastic surface with silicone rubber.

Toggle Press:        A pneumatic cylinder applies the force, which is multiplied by
                     toggle mechanism.

Top Rub:             The resistance of a foil to sustained rubbing. Foil with poor top rub
                     will smear or break down rather easily.

Translucent:         Foil stamping that allows a partial passage of light. Sometimes
                     used to colour a transparent plastic.

Woodgrain Foil:      Foil with a woodgrain pattern.


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