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					                                                                      Toefl Preparation Module


                                              ENGLISH PARTS OF SPEECH
                                            (KELAS KATA BAHASA INGGRIS)

Kelas kata bahasa Inggris terdiri dari 8 jenis:
1. Noun (Kata benda)                            Contoh: book, box, lady, orange, English, dll
2. Pronoun (Kata Ganti Benda)                   Contoh: I, they, them, her, us, dll
3. Adjective (Kata Sifat)                       Contoh: clever, diligent, clean, cold, hot, dll
4. Adverb (Kata Keterangan)                     Contoh: slowly, diligently, fast, well, dll
5. Verb (Kata Kerja)                            Contoh: cook, study, run, sleep, read, dll
6. Preposition (Kata Depan)                     Contoh: from, above, at, into, dll
7. Conjunction (Kata Penghubung)                Contoh: and, but, or, neither….. nor, dll
8. Determiner                                   Contoh: the, a, one, two, three, dll


1.   Noun (Kata Benda/Nomina)
     Kata benda dalam suatu kalimat bisa berfungsi sebagai subjek, objek ataupun kata keterangan.

     Menurut bentuknya kata benda dapat dibagi dua yaitu:
     a. Kata benda Tunggal
     b. Kata benda Jamak

     Di dalam Bahasa Inggris kata benda jamak dibentuk dengan beberapa cara:

     a.   Menambah akhiran -s pada akhir kata benda tersebut.
          Contoh: book   ------- books         toy toys
                  chair ------- chairs
                  orange ------- oranges

     b.   Bila kata benda tersebut diakhiri dengan huruf y dan didahului oleh huruf konsonan maka huruf y tersebut
          diganti dengan huruf i kemudian ditambah es
          Contoh: lady     ------- ladies
                   lily    ------- lilies

     c.   Bila kata benda tersebut diakhiri huruf x, s, sh, ch, o, untuk membentuk jamaknya ditambah huruf es.
          Contoh: box       ------- boxes
                   watch ------- watches

     d.   Bila kata benda diakhiri dengan huruf f atau fe, maka huruf f atau fe tersebut diganti dengan huruf v kemudian
          ditambah es.
          Contoh: knife    ------- knives
                   wife    ------- wives

     e.   Ada beberapa kata benda yang bentuk jamaknya tidak menggunakan s/es. Ini biasanya disebut kata benda
          jamak tidak beraturan.
          Contoh: ox        ------- oxen
                   tooth    ------- teeth
                   goose ------- geese

     f.   Ada juga kata benda yang bentuk jamaknya sama dengan bentuk tungggalnya.
          Contoh; fish     ------- fish
                  sheep ------- sheep
                  deer     ------- deer

2.   Pronoun (kata ganti benda)
       Subjective    Objective          Possessive       Possessive
                                                                          Reflexive Pronoun
        pronoun       pronoun           Adjective         Pronoun
            I            Me                My              Mine                Myself
          You           You               Your             Yours         Yourself/Yourselves
           We            Us                Our             Ours              Ourselves
          They         Them               Their            Theirs           Themselves
           He           Him                His              His               Himself
          She           Her                Her              Hers              Herself
           It             It               Its

3.   Adjective (kata Sifat)
     Kata sifat berfungsi menerangkan kata benda, seperti:
     clever boy;           clever  boy
     expensive car;        expensive  car
     young lady;           young  lady

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4.    Adverb (Kata Keterangan)

5.    Verb (Kata Kerja)
      Menurut bentuknya dibagi dua yaitu:
      1) Kata kerja beraturan
      2) Kata kerja tidak beraturan
      a. Secara umum perubahan kata kerja beraturan ditambah akhiran ed
         cook              cooked         cooked
         watch             watched        watched

      b.    Jika kata kerja berakhiran dengan huruf y namun didahului oleh huruf konsonan maka huruf y tersebut diubah
            menjadi i kemudia ditambah ed.
            study             studied          studied
            cry               cried            cried

      c.    Perubahan kata kerja dapat juga tidak beraturan seperti:
            run              ran                run
            eat              ate                eaten
            swim             swam               sum

Noun Phrase (Prasa Kata Benda)
Prasa Kata Benda terbentuk bila kata benda tersebut terdiri dari

Modifier (yang menerangkan + KATA BENDA)
Contoh; my book, a good house, a very beautiful lake, dsb.

Preposition (Preposisi = Kata Depan)

Preposisi sifatnya tidak bisa berdiri sendiri. Preposisi biasanya diikuti kata benda, kata ganti benda atau prasa kata benda
sehingga terbentuklah Prepositional Phrase (Prasa kata depan) yang berfungsi bisa sebagai kata keterangan tempat,
waktu, sifat, tujuan dsb.

Contoh; at home (tempat), in several weeks (waktu), the room of this house (menerangkan), for you (tujuan).

Di dalam kalimat, prasa kata depan TIDAK BISA sebagai SUBJEK atau sebagai OBJEK. Preposisi terkadang mengikuti
mengikuti beberapa kata kerja (look at, agree with, listen to, turn on, dsb). Berikut ini daftar kata preposisi.
        about, above, across, after, against, along, among, around, as, at, behind,
            below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, by, despite, down, during,
           except, for, from, in, inside, into, like, near, of, off, on, onto, outside,
                 over, past, since, through, throughout, to, toward, under,
             underneath, unlike, until, up, upon, versus, with, within, without

Mempelajari preposisi kadang kadang tidaklah mudah (tidak boleh sembarangan) kecuali kita tahu letak atau posisi kata
benda tersebut.

Misalnya sebuah bola apakah over, on, under, near the table, harus melihat posisi bola tersebut terhadap meja tersebut.


To BE adalah kata kerja dan juga berfungsi sebagai kata bantu. Dia berfungsi sebagai kata kerja bila diikuti kata
sifat, atau kata benda.

They are students. (students = kata benda)
The students were happy yesterday. (happy = kata sifat)

Kata kerja Be akan berubah menjadi

           Present                     Past                       Past Participle
           IS                          WAS                        BEEN
           AM                          WAS                        BEEN
           ARE                         WERE                       BEEN


                                 SUBJECTS AND VERBS
             A sentence in English must have at least one subject and one verb.
     (Setiap Kalimat harus mempunyai paling sedikit satu subjek dan satu kata kerja)

EXERCISE 1: Underline the subjects once and the verbs twice in each of the following sentences. Then, indicate if the
sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

___I __1. Last week went fishing for trout at the nearby mountain like.

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___C__2.   A schedule of the day‟s events can be obtained at the front desk.
______3.   A job on the day shift or the night shift at the plant available.
______4.   The new computer program has provided a variety of helpful applications.
______5.   The box can be opened only with a special screwdriver.
______6.   The assigned text (for history class) it contains more than twenty chapters.
______7.   The papers (in the wastebasket) should be emptied into the trash can outside.
______8.   Departure (before dawn) (on a boat) (in the middle) (of the harbor).
______9.   Yesterday found an interesting article on pollution.
_____10.   The new machine is processes 50 percent more than the previous machine.


                            OBJECTS OF PREPOSITIONS
       A preposition is followed by a noun or pronoun that is called an object of
    preposition. If a word is an object of preposition, it is not the subject and NOT an
 NOTE: A lengthy list prepositions and practice in recognizing prepositions can be found
 in Appendix D at the back of the text. You may want to complete these exercises before
 continuing with Exercise 2.

EXERCISE 2: Each of the following sentences contains one or more prepositional phrases. Underline the subjects once
and the verbs twice. Circle the prepositional phrases that come before the verb. Then, indicate if the sentences are
correct (C) or incorrect (I)..

_____1.    The interviews by radio broadcasters were carried live by the station.
_____2.    In the last possible moment before takeoff took his seat in the airplane.
_____3.    At the neighborhood flower shop, flowers in quantities of a dozen or a half dozen can be delivered for free.
_____4.    The progressive reading methods at this school are given credit for the improved test scores.
_____5.    For the last three years at various hospitals in the country has been practicing medicine.
_____6.    In the past a career in politics was not considered acceptable in some circles.
_____7.    Shopping in the downtown area of the city it has improved a lot in recent years.
_____8.    At the building site the carpenters with the most experience were given the most intricate work.
_____9.    For the fever and headache took two aspirin tablets.
_____10.   The report with complete documentation was delivered at the conference.


   An appositive is a noun that comes before or after another noun and is generally
  set off from the noun with commas. If a word is an appositive, it is not the subject.
            The following appositive structures are both possible in English:
                    S,             APP,              V
                  Tom, a really good mechanic, is fixing the car.
                               APP,         S           V
                   A really good mechanic, Tom         is fixing the car.

EXERCISE 3: Each of the following sentences contains an appositive. Underline the subjects once and the verbs twice.
Circle the appositive phrases. Then, indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

_____1.  The son of the previous owner, the new owner is undertaking some fairly broad changes in management
_____2. Last semester, a friend, graduated cum laude from the university.
_____3. Valentine‟s Day, February 14, is a special holiday for sweethearts.
_____4. At long last, the chief executive officer has decided to step down.
_____5. Tonight‟s supper, leftovers from last night, did not taste any better tonight than last night.
_____6. The only entrance to the closet, the door was kept locked at all times.
_____7. In the cold of winter, a wall heating unit, would not turn on.
_____8. The new tile pattern, yellow flowers on a white background, really brightens up the room.
_____9. The high-powered computer, the most powerful machine of its type, was finally readied for use.
_____10. A long time friend and confident, the psychologist was often invited over for Sunday dinner.


                               PRESENT PARTICIPLES
 A present participle is the –ing form of the verb. The present participle can be (1)
 part of the verb or (2) an adjective. It is part of the verb when it is accompanied by
 some form of the verb be, It is an adjective when it is not accompanied by some form of
 the verb be.
          1. The boy is standing in the corner.
          2. The boy standing in the corner was naughty.

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EXERCISE 4: Each of the following sentences contains one or more present participles. Underline the subjects once
and the verbs twice. Circle the present participles and label them as adjectives or verbs. Then, indicate if the sentences
or correct (C) or incorrect (I).

_____1.    The companies offering the lowest prices will have the most customers.
_____2.    Those travelers are completing their trip on Delta should report to Gate Three.
_____3.    The artisans were demonstrating various handicrafts at booths throughout the fair.
_____4.    The fraternities are giving the wildest parties attract the most new pledges.
_____5.    The first team winning four games is awarded the championship.
_____6.    The speaker was trying to make his point was often interrupted vociferously.
_____7.    The fruits were rotting because of the moisture in the crates carrying them to market.
_____8.    Any students desiring official transcripts should complete the appropriate form.
_____9.    The advertisements were announcing the half-day sale received a lot of attention.
_____10.   The spices flavoring the meal were quite distinctive.


                                   PAST PARTICIPLES
 A past participle often ends in –ed, but there are also many irregular past
 participles. For many verbs, including –ed verbs, the simple past and the past
 participle are the same and can be easily confused. The –ed form of the verb can be
 (1) the simple past, (2) the past participle of a verb, or (3) an adjective.
           She painted this picture.
           1. She has painted this picture.
           2. This picture painted by Karen is now in a museum.

EXERCISE 5: Each of the following sentences contains one or more past participles. Underline the subjects once and
the verbs twice. Circle the past participles and label them as adjectives or verbs. Then, indicate if the sentences are
correct (C) or incorrect (I).

_____1.    The money was offered by the client was not accepted.
_____2.    The car listed in the advertisement had already stalled.
_____3.    The chapters were taught by the professor this morning will be on next week‟s exam.
_____4.    The loaves of bread were baked in a brick oven at a low temperature for many hours.
_____5.    The ports were reached by the sailors were under the control of a foreign nation.
_____6.    Those suspected in the string of robberies were arrested by the police.
_____7.    The pizza is served in this restaurant is the tastiest in the country.
_____8.    The courses are listed on the second page of the brochure have several prerequisites.
_____9.    All the tenants were invited to the Independence Day barbecue at the apartment complex.
_____10.   Any bills paid by the first of the month will be credited to your account by the next day.

EXERCISE (Skills 1-5): Underline the subjects once and the verbs twice in each of the following sentences. Then,
indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).
_____1. For three weeks at the beginning of the semester students with fewer than the maximum number of units can
             add additional courses.
_____2. On her lunch hour went to a nearby department store to purchase a wedding gift.
_____3. The fir trees were grown for the holiday season were harvested in November.
_____4. In the grove the overripe oranges were falling on the ground.
_____5. The papers being delivered at 4:00 will contain the announcement of the president‟s resignation.
_____6. A specialty shop with various blends from around the world in the shopping mall.
_____7. The portraits exhibited in the Houston Museum last month are now on display in Dallas.
_____8. With a sudden jerk of his hand threw the ball across the field to one of the other players.
_____9. Construction of the housing development it will be underway by the first of the month.
_____10. Those applicants returning their completed forms at the earliest date have the highest priority.
TOEFL EXERCISE (Skills 1-5): Choose the letter of the word or group of words that best completes the sentence.
1. The North Platte River _____ from Wyoming into Nebraska.
     (A) it flowed           (B) flows          (C) flowing           (D) with flowing water
2. _____ Biloxi received its name from a Sioux word meaning “first people.”
     (A) The city of
     (B) Located in
     (C) It is in
     (D) The tour included

3.   A pride of lions _____ up to forty lions, including one to three males, several females, and cubs.
     (A) can contain
     (B) it contains
     (C) contain
     (D) containing
4.   _____tea plants are small and white.
     (A) The
     (B) On the
     (C) Having flowers the
     (D) The flowers of the

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5.  The tetracyclines, _____ antibiotics, are used to treat infections.
    (A) are a family of
    (B) being a family
    (C) a family of
    (D) their family is
6. Any possible academic assistance from taking stimulants _____ marginal at best.
    (A) it is
    (B) there is
    (C) is
    (D) are
7. Henry Adams, born in Boston, _____ famous as a historian and novelist.
    (A) became
    (B) and became
    (C) he was
    (D) and he became
8. The major cause _____ the full of the Moon on the Earth.
    (A) the ocean tides are
    (B) of ocean tides is
    (C) of the tides in the ocean
    (D) the ocean‟s tides
9. Still a novelty in the late nineteenth century, _____ limited to the rich.
    (A) was
    (B) was photography
    (C) it was photography
    (D) photography was
10. A computerized map of the freeways using information gathered by sensors embedded in the pavement
    _____ on a local cable channel during rush hours.
    (A) airs      (B) airing         (C) air            (D) to air

                      COORDINATE CONNECTORS
                     and  but  or    so   yet
                             coordinate connector
        S     V,                                          S    V
        She laughed,                but                  she wanted to cry.

EXERCISE 6: Each of the following sentences contains more than one clause. Underline the subjects once and the
verbs twice. Circle the connectors. Then, indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).
_____ 1. The software should be used on an IMB computer, and this computer is an IMB.
_____ 2. The rain clouds can be seen in the distance, but no has fallen.
_____ 3. They are trying to sell their house, it has been on the market for two months.
_____ 4. So the quality of the print was not good, I changed the typewriter ribbon.
_____ 5. The lifeguard will warn you about the riptides, or she may require you to get out of the water.
_____ 6. You should have finished to work yesterday, yet is not close to being finished today.
_____ 7. The phone rang again and again, so the receptionist was not able to get much work done.
_____ 8. The missing wallet was found, but the cash and credit cards had been removed.
_____ 9. Or you can drive your car for another 2. 000 miles, you can get it fixed.
_____ 10. The chemist was awarded the Novel Prize, he flew to Europe to accept it.

                          TIME                         CAUSE
 after        as soon as    once   when        as      now that
 as           before        since  whenever    because
 as long as   by the time   until  while       since   inasmuch as

                                          adverb connector
        S        V                                                S V
        Teresa went inside                     because           it was raining.

        adverb connector            S    V,              S       V
            Because                 it was raining,      Teresa went inside.

EXERCISE 7: Each of the following sentences contains more than one clause. Underline the subjects once and the
verbs twice. Circle the connectors. Then, indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).
___ _ 1. Since the bank closes in less than an hour, the deposits need to be tallied immediately.
_____ 2. Their backgrounds are thoroughly investigated before are admitted to the organization.
_____ 3. The citizens are becoming more and more incensed about traffic accidents whenever the accidents occur at
           that intersection.
_____ 4. The ground had been prepared, the seedlings were carefully planted.
_____ 5. We can start the conference now that all the participants have arrived.
_____ 6. The building quite vulnerable to damage until the storm windows are installed.
_____ 7. Once the address label for the package is typed, can be sent to the mail room.

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_____ 8. Because the resent change in work shifts was not posted, several workers missed their shifts.
_____ 9. The mother is going to be quite upset with her son as long he misbehaves so much.
_____ 10. Inasmuch as all the votes have not yet been counted the outcome of the election cannot be announced.

                     OTHER ADVERB CONNECTORS
     CONDITION        CONTRAST      MANNER                                    PLACE
     if               although      as                                        Where
     in case          even though   in that                                   wherever
     provided         though
     providing        while
     unless           whereas

            S    V,                       adverb connector             S V
             Bob went to school              even though                 he felt sick..
              adverb connector   S    V,                    S V
             Even though          Bob felt sick,             he went to school.
     NOTE: A comma is often used in the middle of the sentence with a contrast

     The Smith family arrived at 2:00, while the Jones family arrived an hour later.

EXERCISE 8: Each of the following sentences contains more than one clause. Underline the subjects once and the
verbs twice. Circle the connectors. Then, indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

_____ 1.    It is impossible to enter that program if you lack experience as a teacher.
_____ 2.    The commandant left strict orders about the passes, several soldiers left the post anyway.
_____ 3.    No one is admitted to the academy unless he or she education requirements.
_____ 4.    While most students turned the assignment in on time, a few asked for an extension.
_____ 5.    I will take you wherever need to go to complete the registration procedures.
_____ 6.    I will wait here in the airport with you whether the plane leaves on time or not.
_____ 7.    Providing the envelope is postmarked by this Friday, your application still acceptable.
_____ 8.    As the nurse already explained, all visitors must leave the hospital room now.
_____ 9.    This exam will be more difficult than usual in that it covers two chapters instead of one.
_____ 10.   Though snow had been falling all day long, everyone got to the church on time for the wedding.

EXERCISE (Skill 6 – 8): Underline the subjects once and the verbs twice in each of the following sentences. Circle the
connectors. Then, indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).
_____ 1. Until the registrar makes a decision about your status, you must stay in an unclassified category.
_____ 2. Or the bill can be paid by mail by the first of the month.
_____ 3. The parents left a phone number with the baby-sitter in case a problem with the children.
_____ 4. The furniture will be delivered as soon it is paid for.
_____ 5. Whenever you want to hold the meeting, we will schedule it.
_____ 6. The government was overthrown in a revolution, the king has not returned to his homeland.
_____ 7. Whereas most of the documents are complete, this form still needs to be notarized.
_____ 8. Trash will be collected in the morning, so you should put the trash cans out tonight.
_____ 9. It is impossible for the airplane to take off while is snowing so hard.
_____ 10. We did not go out to dinner tonight even though I would have preferred not to cook.

TOEFL EXERCISE (Skill 6 – 8): Choose the letter of the word or group of words that best completes the sentence.

1.   The president of the U.S. appoints the cabinet members, ____ appointments are subject to Senate approval.
     (A) their               (B) with their           (C) because their            (D) but their
2.   The prisoners were prevented from speaking to reporters because ______
     (A) not wanting the story in the papers          (B) the story in the papers the superintendent did not want
     (C) the public to hear the story                 (D) the superintendent did not want the story in the papers.
3.   Like Thomas Berger‟s fictional character Little Big Man, Lauderdale managed to find himself where ____ of
     important events took place.
     (A) it was an extraordinary number               (B) there was an extraordinary number
     (C) an extraordinary number                      (D) an extraordinary number existed

4.   ____ sucked groundwater from below, some parts of the city have begun to sink as much as ten inches annually.
     (A) Pumps have                                  (B) As pumps have
     (C) So pumps have                               (D) With pumps
5.   Case studies are the target of much skepticism in the scientific community, ____ used extensively by numerous
     (A) they are          (B) are                   (C) yet they              (D) yet they are
6.   According to the hypothesis in the study, the monarchs pick up the magnetic field of the ____ migrate by following
     magnetic fields.
     (A) target monarchs                             (B) target since monarchs
     (C) target since monarchs are                   (D) target

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7.  ____ show the relations among neurons, they do not preclude the possibility that other aspects are important.
    (A) Neural theories                              (B) A neural theory
    (C) Although neural theories                     (D)However neural theories
8. ____ or refinanced, the lender will generally require setting up an escrow account to ensure the payment of property
    taxes and home owner‟s insurance.
    (A) A home is          (B) A home is bought      (C) When a home            (D) When a home is bought
9. If ultraviolet radiation enters the Earth‟s atmosphere, ____ generally blocked by the ozone concentrated in the
    (A) it                 (B) it is                 (C) so it is               (D) then it
10. Among human chromosomes, the Y chromosome is unusual ____ most of the chromosome does not participate in
    meiotic recombination.
    (A) in                 (B) so                    (C) and                    (D) in that

TOEFL REVIEW EXERCISE (Skills 1-8): Choose the letter of the word or group of words that best completes the sentence.
1. The three basic chords in functional harmony____ the tonic, the dominant, and the subdominant.
    (A) functional harmony                              (B) functional harmony is
    (C) functional harmony are                          (D) functional harmony they are
2. ____ Hale Telescope, at the Palomar Observatory in southern California, scientist can photograph objects several
    billion light years away.
    (A) The                (B) With the                 (C) They use the           (D) It is the
3. Without the proper card installed inside the computer, _____ impossible to run a graphical program.
    (A) is definitely      (B) because of               (C) it is                  (D) is
4. The charter for the Louisiana lottery was coming up for renewal, ____ spared no expense in the fight to win
    (A) the lottery committee                           (B) so the lottery committee and
    (C) so the lottery committee                        (D) the lottery committee made
5. While in reality Alpha Centauri is a triple star, ____ to the naked eye to be a single star.
    (A) it appears         (B) but it appears           (C) appears                (D) despite it
6. The Sun‟s gravity severely distorted the path of the comet ____ entered its wildly erratic orbit around Jupiter.
    (A) it                 (B) when                     (C) after the comet came into it      (D) once the comet
7. Each object ____ Jupiter‟s magnetic field is deluged with electrical charges
    (A) enters             (B) it enters                (C) entering                          (D) enter
8. As its name suggests, the Prairie Wetlands Resource Center ____ the protection of wetlands on the prairies of the
    Dakotas, Montana, Minnesota, and Nebraska.
    (A) it focuses         (B) focuses on               (C) focusing               (D) to focus on
9. One (of the largest and most powerful birds) (of prey) (in the world), ____ a six-foot wingspan and legs and talons
    roughly the size of a man‟s arms and legs.
    (A) so the harpy has (B) the harpy having           (C) with the harpy having (D) the harpy has
10. ____ creation of such a community was a desirable step, the requisite political upheaval had to be accepted.
    (A) Since the          (B) The                      (C) Later, the             (D) It was the


                           NOUN CLAUSE CONNECTORS
                                            whatever, whenever
                  what, when, where, why, how
                             whether, if      that
                                               NOUN CLAUSE AS OBJECT

                                            noun connector     S     V
                         S V
                        I know                 what           you did
                       NOUN CLAUSE AS OBJECT

                      noun connector       S     V       V

                          What         you did          was wrong.

EXERCISE 9: Each of the following sentences contains more than one clause. Underline the subjects once and the
verbs twice. Circle the connectors. Put boxes around the noun clauses. Then, indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or
incorrect (I).
______ 1. When the season starts is determined by the weather.
______ 2. The manual how the device should be built.
______ 3. The schedule indicated if the teams would be playing in the final game.
______ 4. He refused to enter a plea could not be determined by the lawyer.
______ 5. Talked about where we should go for lunch.
______ 6. Why the condition of the patient deteriorated so rapidly it was not explained.
______ 7. Whether or not the new office would be built was to be determined at the meeting.
______ 8. That the professor has not yet decided when the paper is due.
______ 9. The contract will be awarded is the question to be answered at the meeting.
_____ 10. He always talked will whomever he pleased and did whatever he wanted.


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                        NOUN CLAUSE CONNECTOR/SUBJECTS
                          who        what       which
                         whoever    whatever   whichever
                                                         NOUN CLAUSE AS OBJECT

                   S            V                 noun connector/subject
                                                       S V                                V

                       I know                      what                   happened.
                                      NOUN CLAUSE AS SUBJECT

                                noun connector/subject    V           V           V

                         What                  happened               was great.

EXERCISE 10: Each of the following sentences contains more than one clause. Underline the subjects once and the
verbs twice. Circle the connectors. Put boxes around the noun clauses. Then, indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or
incorrect (I).

______ 1.   The game show contestant was able to respond to whatever was asked.
______ 2.   You should find out which the best physics department.
______ 3.   The employee was unhappy about what was added to his job description.
______ 4.   Whoever wants to take the desert tour during spring break signing up at the office.
______ 5.   The motorist was unable to discover who he had struck his car.
______ 6.   The voters should elect whichever of the candidates seems best to them.
______ 7.   It was difficult to distinguish what was on sale and what merely on display.
______ 8.   You should buy whatever the cheapest and most durable.
______ 9.   What was written in the letter angered him beyond belief.
_____ 10.   You can spend your time with whoever important to you.


                          ADJECTIVE CLAUSE CONNECTORS
            Whom                                  which                                that
         (for people)                          (for things)                   (for people or things)

                    S V                         adjective connector           S       V

                    I liked the book                     which                 you recommended.

            S               adjective connector               S   V                       V

            The book                which                     you recommended             was interesting.

EXERCISE 11: Each of the following sentences contains more than one clause. Underline the subjects once and the
verbs twice. Circle the connectors. Put boxes around the noun clauses. Then, indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or
incorrect (I).

______ 1.   It is important to fill out the form in the way that you have been instructed.
______ 2.   The car which I have been driving for five years for sale at a really good price.
______ 3.   I just finished reading the novel whom the professor suggested for my book report.
______ 4.   The plane that he was scheduled to take to Hawaii was delayed.
______ 5.   The movie which we watched on cable last night it was really frightening.
______ 6.   I made an appointment with the doctor whom you recommended.
______ 7.   The enthusiasm with which he greeted me made me feel welcome.
______ 8.   The story that you told me about Bob.
______ 9.   The men with whom were having the discussion did not seem very friendly.
_____ 10.   I‟m not really sure about taking part in the plans tat we made last night.


             who                   which                 that
         (for people)           (for things)    (for people or things)

                    S      V                               adjective connector/subject           V

                    She needs a secretary                         who                         types fast.

                                                                          Toefl Preparation Module


                S             adjective connector/subject    V        V

            A secretary                    who              types fast is invaluable.

EXERCISE 12: Each of the following sentences contains more than one clause. Underline the subjects once and the
verbs twice. Circle the connectors. Put boxes around the adjective clause. Then, indicate if the sentences are correct (C)
or incorrect (I)

______ 1.   The ice cream [ that is served in the restaurant] has a smooth, creamy texture.
______ 2.   The cars trying to enter the freeway system are lined up for blocks.
______ 3.   I have great respect for everyone who on the Dean‟s List.
______ 4.   It is going to be very difficult to work with the man which just began working here.
______ 5.   The door that leads to the vault it was tightly locked.
______ 6.   The neighbors reported the man who was trying to break into the car to the police.
______ 7.   These plants can only survive in an environment is extremely humid.
______ 8.   The boss meets with any production workers who they have surpassed their quotas.
______ 9.   The salesclerk ran after the woman who had left her credit card in the store.
_____ 10.   The shoes which matched the dress that was on sale.

EXERCISE (Skill 9 – 12): Each of the following sentences contains more than one clause. Underline the subjects
once and the verbs twice. Circle the connectors. Put boxes around the clauses. Then, indicate if the sentences are
correct (C) or incorrect (I).
______ 1. No one explained to me whether was coming or not.
______ 2. The part of the structure that has already been built needs to be torn down.
______ 3. The girl who she just joined the softball team is great shortstop.
______ 4. I have no idea about when the meeting is supposed to start.
______ 5. We have been told that we can leave whenever want.
______ 6. The racquet with whom I was playing was too big and too heavy for me.
______ 7. I will never understand that he did.
______ 8. He was still sick was obvious to the entire medical staff.
______ 9. What is most important in this situation it is to finish on time.
_____ 10. The newspapers that were piled up on the front porch were an indication that the residents had not been home
            in some time.

TOEFL EXERCISE (Skill 9-12): Choose the letter of the word or group of words that best completes the sentence.
1. Dolphins form extremely complicated allegiances and ___ continually change.
    (A) enmities that      (B) that are enmities      (C) enmities that are         (D) that enmities
2. Scientists are now beginning to conduct experiments on ___ trigger different sorts of health risks.
    (A) noise pollution can                           (C) that noise pollution
    (B) how noise pollution                           (D) how noise pollution can
3. The Apollo 11 astronauts ___ of the Earth‟s inhabitants witnessed on the famous first moon walked on July 20,
    1966, were Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin.
    (A) whom               (B) whom millions          (C) were some                 (D) whom some were
4. At the end of the nineteenth century, Alfred Binet developed a test for measuring intelligence ___ served as the
    basis of modern IQ test.
    (A) Has                (B) it has                 (C) and                       (D) which has
5. ___ have as least four hours of hazardous materials response training is mandated by federal law.
    (A) All police officers                           (C) All police officers must
    (B) That all police officers                      (D) For all police officers
6. A cloud‟s reservoir of negative charge extends upward from the altitude at ___ the freezing point.
    (A) temperatures hit                              (B) hit temperatures
    (C) which temperatures hit                        (D) which hit temperatures
7. In a 1988 advanced officers‟ training program, Sampson developed a plan to incorporate police in enforcing
    environmental protection laws whenever ___ feasible.
8. ___ will be carried in the next space shuttle payload has not yet been announced to the public.
    (A) It                 (B) What                   (C) When                      (D) That
9. During free fall, ___ up to a full minute, a skydiver will fall at a constant speed of 120 m.p.h.
    (A) it is              (B) which is               (C) being                     (D) is
10. The fact ___ the most important ratings period is about to begin has caused all three networks to shore up their
    (A) is that            (B) of                     (C) that                      (D) what


                                                                  Toefl Preparation Module


                                 REDUCED ADJECTIVE CLAUSES
 with a be-verb in the           (ADJECTIVE CONNECTOR/SUBJECT)                         (BE)
 adjective clause                             (who which that)
 with no be-verb in the          ( ADJECTIVE CONNECTOR/SUBJECT}                        (VERB + ING)
 adjective clause                              (who which that)
 *   To reduce an adjective clause, omit the adjective clause connector/subject and the be-verb.
 *   If there is no be-verb, omit the connector/subject and change the main verb to the-ing form.
 *   Only reduce an adjective clause if the connector/subject is directly followed by the verb.
 *   If an adjective clause is set off with commas, the reduced clause can be moved to the front of the

EXERCISE 13: Each of the following sentences contains an adjective clause, in a complete or reduced form. Underline
the adjective clause. Then, indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

______1. We will have to return the merchandise purchased yesterday at the Broadway.
______2. The children sat in the fancy restaurant found it difficult to behave.
______3. Serving a term of four years, the mayor of the town will face reelection next year.
______4. The brand new Cadillac, purchasing less than two weeks ago, was destroyed in the accident.
______5. The fans who supporting their team always come out to the games in large numbers.
______6. The suspect can be seen in the photographs were just released by the police.
______7. The food placing on the picnic table attracted a large number of flies.
______8. Impressed with everything she had heard about the course, Marie signed her children up for it.
______9. The passengers in the airport waiting room, heard the announcement of the canceled flight, groaned audibly.
______10. Dissatisfied with the service at the restaurant, the meal really was not enjoyable.


                               REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSES
 with a be-verb in the      (ADVERB CONNECTOR)  (SUBJECT)                  (BE)
 adverb clause
 with no be-verb in the     ( ADVERB CONNECTOR)            (SUBJECT)     (VERB + ING)
 adverb clause
                           Time         Condition     Contrast       Place         Manner
                           before       If
 Reduce in ACTIVE          since        Unless
                           while        Whether
                           until                      Although       Where
 Reduce in PASSIVE                      Unless                                     as
                           when                       though         wherever
   To reduce an adverb clause, omit the subject and the be-verb from the adverb clause.
  * If there is no be-verb, then omit the subject and change the verb to the –ing form.

EXERCISE 14: Each of the following sentences contains reduced adverb clause. Circle the adverb connectors.
Underline the reduced clauses. Then, indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).
______1. If not completely satisfied, you can return the product to the manufacturer.
______2. Steve has had to learn how to cook and clean since she left home.
______3. The ointment can be applied where needed.
______4. Tom began to look for a job after completing his master‟s degree in engineering.
______5. Although not selecting for the team, he attends all of the games as fan.
______6. When purchased at this store, the buyer gets a guarantee on all items.
______7. The medicine is not effective unless taken as directed.
______8. You should negotiate a lot before buy a new car.
______9. Once purchased, the swimsuits cannot be returned.
______10. Though located near the coast, the town does not get much of an ocean breeze.

EXERCISE (skills 13-14): Each of the following sentences contains a reduced clause. Underline the reduced clauses.
Then, indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).
______1. Though was surprised at the results, she was pleased with what she had done.
______2. Wearing only a light sweater, she stepped out into the pouring rain.
______3. The family stopped to visit many relatives while driving across the country.
______4. The company president, needed a vacation, boarded a plane for the Bahamas.
______5. When applying for the job, you should bring your letters of reference.
______6. She looked up into the dreary sky was filled with dark thunderclouds.
______7. Feeling weak after a long illness, Sally wanted to try to get back to work.
______8. Before decided to have surgery, you should get a second opinion.
______9. The construction material, a rather grainy type of wood, gave the room a rustic feeling.
______10. The application will at least be reviewed if submitted by the fifteenth of the month.

TOEFL EXERCISE (Skills 13-14): Choose the letter of the word or group of words that best completes the sentence.

                                                                         Toefl Preparation Module

1.  When _____ nests during spring nesting season, Canadian geese are fiercely territorial.
    (A) building             (B) are building            (C) built                 (D) are built
2. In 187-, Calvin, along with Adirondack hunter Alvah Dunning, made the first know ascent of Seward Mountain,
    _____ far from roads or trails.
    (A) a remote peak        (B) it is a remote peak    (C) a remote peak is        (D) which a remote peak
3. Kokanee salmon begin to deteriorate and die soon _____ at the age of four.
    (A) they spawn           (B) after spawning          (C) spawn                 (D) spawned the salmon
4. _____ behind government secrecy for nearly half a century, the Hanford plant in central Washington produced
    plutonium for the nuclear weapons of the Cold War.
    (A) It is hidden          (B) Hidden                 (C) Which is hidden       (D) The plant is hiding
5. Until _____ incorrect, astronomers had assumed that the insides of white dwarfs were uniform.
    (A) they                                             (B) their proof
    (C) the astronomers recently proven                  (D) recently proven
6. _____ artifacts from the early Chinese dynasties, numerous archeologists have explored the southern Silk Roads.
    (A) They were searching for                          (B) It was a search for
    (B) Searched for                                     (D) Searching for
7. In Hailey, the best-known lecturer was women‟s rights activist Abigail Scott Duniway of Portland, Oregon, who
    could usually be persuaded to speak _____ town visiting her son.
    (A) she was in           (B) while in                (C) while she was         (D) was in
8. The National Restaurant _____ Washington, says that federal efforts to regulate workplace smoking would limit
    restaurants‟ ability to respond to the desires of their patrons.
    (A) Association in                                   (B) Association is in
    (C) Association which is in                          (D) Association, based in
9. _____ in North American waterways less than a decade ago, zebra mussels have already earned a nasty reputation
    for their expensive habit of clogging water pipes in the Great Lakes area.
10. Small companies may take their goods abroad for trade shows without paying foreign value-added taxes by
    acquiring _____ an ATA carnet.
Time: While he was eating, the man choked on a small bone.
Cause: Because he is seriously injured, the dog may die.

1.  While she was playing outside, the child hurt herself.
2. Because he had broken his leg, he was taken to the emergency room.
3. After he had developed a new drug, the doctor was invited to give a speech.
4. Because it has a lot of oil, Saudi Arabia is a rich country.
5. After    it      has    arrived     at    the     factory,     raw     silk    is    carefully    washed     and    dried.
6. Because       it     is   easy     to     mine      and      refine,    silver    was     worked      by    early    man.
7. When       it     is    threatened,      a     skunk       sprays     an      offensive    liquid     on    its   enemy.
8. Before he planted the seeds, he tilled the soil carefully.
9. After      it      had       been      installed,      the       new       equipment       was      thoroughly     tested.
10. Since   they      have     a    high      protein    content,     soybeans      are    a    popular    meat    substitute.

Objective: To determine whether the implied subject of a verbal phrase is the same as the stated
subject of the main clause.
Wrong: Walking home, a noise frightened the girl.
Correct: Walking home, the girl was frightened by a noise.
_____1. (A) When applying for a parking sticker, the campus police require students to have proper identification.
        (B) When applying for a parking sticker, students must show campus police proper identification.
_____2. (A) Sleeping in the corner of an old shed, the kittens were not bothered by neighborhood dogs.
        (B) Sleeping in the corner of an old shed, the neighborhood dogs did not bother the kittens.
_____3. (A) While using the microwave oven for the first tie, the roast was burned so badly that the chef couldn‟t serve it to the
        (B) While using the microwave oven for the first time, the chef burned the roast so badly that the he couldn‟t serve it to the
_____4. (A) Increasing from 2.5 billion in 1950, the late 1970‟s saw the world‟s population reach 4.25 billion.
            (B) Increasing from 2.5 billion in 1950, the population of the would reached 4.25 billion in the late 1970‟s.

_____5. (A) Hoping to save taxpayers money, biologists are experimenting with a weed-eating fish that can clean
        (B) Hoping to save taxpayers‟ money, a weed-eating first that can clean canals is being studied by biologists.
_____6. (A) Borrowing from nature‟s designs, new oil tankers designed by bio-medical engineers will be stable and
        (B) Borrowing from nature‟s designs, engineers are designing stable and fuel efficient oil tankers.
_____7. (A) When renting an apartment, a lease is signed by the tenant.
        (B) When renting an apartment, the tenant is asked to sign a lease.

                                                                           Toefl Preparation Module

_____8. (A) After passing through a pleasant first stage, most foreign visitors find the second stage of cultural
            adaptation difficult and depressing.
        (B) After passing through a pleasant first stage, the second stage of cultural adaptation is difficult and
            depressing for most foreign visitors.
_____9. (A) After twice losing Congressional campaigns, Abraham Lincoln‟s presidential campaign in 1860 was
        (B) After twice losing Congressional campaigns, Abraham Lincoln was successful in his 1860 presidential
____10. (A) Challenging established hypotheses about the origin of modern man, very old Ethiopian fossils have led to
            new questions.
        (B) Challenging established hypotheses about origin of modern man, archeologists have begun asking new
            questions based on data from some very old Ethiopian fossils.

TOEFL REVIEW EXERCISE (Skills 1-14): Choose the letter of the word or group of words that best completes the

1.  In the United States _______ approximately four million miles of roads, streets, and highways.
    (A) there               (B) is                   (C) they                    (D) there are
2. ______ twelve million immigrants entered the U.S. via Ellis Island.
    (A) More than           (B) There were more than (C) Of more than            (D) The report of
3. The television, __________ so long been a part of our culture, has an enormous influence.
    (A) has                 (B) it has               (C) which                   (D) which has
4. Psychologists have traditionally maintained that infants cannot formulate long-term memories until ______ the age
    of eight or nine months.
    (A) they                (B) they reach           (C) to reach                (D) reach
5. ________ a cheese shop has since grown into a small conglomerate consisting of a catering business and two retail
    (A) In the beginning of                          (B) It began as
    (C) Its beginning which was                      (D) What began as
6. Primarily a government contractor, _______ preferential treatment from government agencies as both a minority-
    group member and a woman.
    (A) receives Weber                               (B) Weber receives
    (C) the reception of Weber                       (D) according to Weber‟s reception
7. Because the project depends on ________ at the federal level, the city and country may have to wait until the budget
    cutting ends.
    (A) it happens          (B) which happening      (C) what happens            (D) that it happens
8. ________ definitive study of a western hard-rock mining community cemetery appears to have been done is in
    Silver City, Nevada.
    (A) Most                (B) The most             (C) Where most              (D) Where the most
9. One of the areas of multimedia that is growing quickly ________ is sound.
    (A) yet is easily overlooked                     (B) is easily overlooked
    (C) it is easily overlooked                      (D) that is easily overlooked
10. ______, early approaches for coping with workplace stress dealt with the problem only after its symptoms had
    (A) Although well attending                      (B) Although it is a good intention
    (C) Although a good intention                    (D) Although well intended


                      who       what       when      where      why       how
       When the question word introduces a question, the subject and verb are inverted.

                                    question word     V         S?
                                   What               are      they?
     When the question word connects two clauses, the subject and verb that follow are
     not inverted.
                           S        V            question word           S       V.
                           I       know               what              they     are.

EXERCISE 15: Each of the following sentences contains a question word. Circle the question words. Underline the subjects once
                 and the verbs twice. Then, indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

______ 1.   The phone company is not certain when will the new directories be ready.
______ 2.   The professor does not understand why so many students did poorly on the exam.
______ 3.   How new students can get information about parking?
______ 4.   Where is it cheapest to get typeset copies printed?
______ 5.   Only the pilot can tell you how far can the plane go on one tank of fuel.
______ 6.   What type of security does he prefer for his investments?
______ 7.   Not even the bank president knows when the vault will be opened.
______ 8.   How long it has been since you arrived in the United States?
______ 9.   The jury doubts what the witness said under cross-examination.
_____ 10.   Do you know why he wants to take an extended leave of absence?

                                                                           Toefl Preparation Module



         When a place expression at the front of the sentence is necessary to complete the
         sentence, the subject and verb that follow are inverted.
                        PLACE (necessary)           V                   S
                         In the classroom          were some old      desks.
         When a place expression at the front of the sentence contains extra information
         that is not needed to complete the sentence, the subject and verb that follow are
         not inverted.

                           PLACE (extra)           S V
                        In the classroom,          I studied very hard.

EXERCISE 16: Each of the following sentences contains an expression of place at the beginning of the sentence. Circle
the expressions of place. Look at the clauses that immediately follow the place expression and underline the subjects
once and the verbs twice. Then, indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).
______ 1. In front of the house were some giant trees.
______ 2. There a big house is on the corner.
______ 3. In the cave was a vast treasure of gems and jewels.
______ 4. To the north the stream is that the settlers will have to cross.
______ 5. Around the corner are the offices that you are trying to find.
______ 6. At the Italian restaurant was the food too spicy for may taste.
______ 7. Nowhere in the world farmers can grow such delicious food.
______ 8. In the backyard the two trees are that need to be pruned.
______ 9. Around the recreation hall and down the path are the tents where we will be staying this week.
_____10. In the apartment next to mine a man and a woman were having a heated discussion.


  no            not           never          neither       nor             barely
  hardly        only          rarely         scarcely      seldom         little
  When a negative expression appears in front of a subject and verb (at the beginning of a
  sentence or in the middle of a sentence) the subject and verb are inverted.

                          negative expression       V     S
                               Rarely              were they so happy.

EXERCISE 17: Each of the following sentences contains a negative or „almost negative‟ expression. Circle the
negative expressions. Look at the clauses that follow and underline the subjects once and the verbs twice. Then, indicate
if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).
______ 1. Never the boy wrote to his sisters.
______ 2. One no occasion did they say that to me.
______ 3. Stave did not win the prize nor did he expect to do so.
______ 4. Only once in my life gone I have to New York City.
______ 5. Did he go out of the house at no time.
______ 6. Seldom their secretary has made such mistakes.
______ 7. No sooner had she hung up the phone than it rang again.
______ 8. Sheila did not arrive late for work, nor she left early.
______ 9. Barely had he finished the exam when the graduate assistant collected the papers.
_____ 10. The police did not arrive in time to save the girl, and neither did the paramedics


                          had                should          were
         When the verb in the conditional clause is had, should, or were, it is possible to
         omit if and invert the subject and verb.

         (omitted if)            V S
                               Were he           here, he would help.
         It is also possible to keep if. Then the subject and verb are not inverted.

         if        S V
         If        he were                 here, he would help.

EXERCISE 18: Each of the following sentences contains a conditional (with a stated or implied if). Circle the
conditionals, or put an asterisk (*) where if has been omitted. Look at the clauses that follow and underline the subjects
once and the verbs twice. Then, indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

                                                                       Toefl Preparation Module


______ 1.   Were our neighbors a bit more friendly, it would be somewhat easier to get to know them.
______ 2.   There are plenty of blankets in the closet if should you get cold during the night.
______ 3.   Has he enough vacation days left this year, he will take two full weeks off in December.
______ 4.   Had we been informed of the decision, we might have had something to say about it.
______ 5.   I would like to know could you help me pack these boxes.
______ 6.   He would have been in big trouble had not he remembered the assignment at the last minute.
______ 7.   If your friends come to visit, will they stay in a hotel or at your house?
______ 8.   He might be a little more successful today was he a little more willing to do some hard work.
______ 9.   Should you ever visit this town again, I would be delighted to show you around.
_____ 10.   Do you think that she would give the speech were she asked to do so?


         The subject and verb may invert after a comparison. The following structures are
         both possible.

         S           V             comparison                            S            V
         We         were     more prepared than          the other performers         were

         S           V             comparison             V                         S
         We         were     more prepared than          were        the other performers.

EXERCISE 19: Each of the following sentences contains a comparison. Circle the comparison. Look at the clauses that
follow and underline the subjects once and the verbs twice. Then, indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect

______ 1.   This candidate has received more votes than has any other candidate in previous years.
______ 2.   Obviously we were much more impressed with the performance than did the other members of the audience.
______ 3.   The film that we saw last night at the festival was far better than any of the other film.
______ 4.   The vegetables at the market this morning were far fresher than were those at the market yesterday.
______ 5.   I am afraid that is the condition of these tires as bad as the condition of the others.
______ 6.   We firmly believed that our team could achieve a much faster time than any of the others.
______ 7.   This apple pie is not as good as the last one that you made.
______ 8.   On the fishing trip, Bobby caught twice as many fish as anyone else did.
______ 9.   The final speaker gave us more details than had any of the previous speakers.
_____ 10.   Do you know why does he need to sleep so many more hours than do the others?

EXERCISE (Skills 15 – 19): each of these sentences contains a structure that could require an inverted subject and
verb. Circle the structures that may require inverted subjects and verbs. Underline the subjects once and the verbs twice.
Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

______ 1. The town council is not sure why have the land developers changed their plans.

______ 2. Never in the world I believed this would happen.

______ 3. The day might have been a little more enjoyable had the sun been out a little more.

______ 4. Only once did the judge take the defense lawyer‟s suggestion.

______ 5. Down the hall to the left the offices are that need to be painted.

______ 6. Did the scientist explain what he put in beaker?

______ 7. Hardly ever it snows in this section of the country.

______ 8. Elijah scored more points in yesterday‟s basketball final than had any other player in history.

______ 9. In the state of California, earthquakes occur regularly.

______10. He should ever call again, please tell him that I am not home.

TOEFL EXERCISE (Skills 15 – 19): Choose the letter of the word or group of words that best completes the sentence.

1.   Rarely _____ located near city lights or at lower elevations.
     (A) observatories are
     (B) are
     (C) in the observatories
     (D) are observatories

2.    There are geographic, economic, and cultural reasons why ______ around the world.
     (A) diets differ

                                                                    Toefl Preparation Module

     (B) do diets differ
     (C) are diets differ
     (D) to differ a diet

3.    Were ______ millions of dollars each year replenishing eroding beaches, the coastline would be changing even
     more rapidly.
     (A) the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers not spending
     (B) the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers not spend
     (C) the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers does not spend
     (D) not spending the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

4.    Nowhere _______ more skewed than in the auto industry.
     (A) that a retail trade figures
     (B) retail trade figures
     (C) are retail trade figures
     (D) retail trade figures

5.    New York City‟s Central Park is nearly twice as large ______ second smallest country.
     (A) as
     (B) is the
     (C) as is
     (D) as is the

6.    Potassium has a valence of positive one because it usually loses one electron when ______ with other elements.
     (A) does it combine
     (B) it combines
     (C) in combining
     (D) combination

7.   The economic background of the labor legislation will not be mentioned in this course, ______ be treated.
     (A) trade unionism will not
     (B) nor trade unionism will
     (C) nor will trade union will
     (D) neither trade unionism will

8.     ______ test positive for antibiotics when tanker trucks arrive at a milk processing plant, according to the federal
     law, the entire truckload must be discarded.
     (A) Should milk
     (B) If milk
     (C) If milk is
     (D) Milk should

9.   Located behind ______ the two lacrimal glands.
     (A) each eyelid
     (B) is each eyelid
     (C) each eyelids are
     (D) each eyelid which is

10. Only for a short period of time ______ run at top speed.
    (A) cheetahs
    (B) do cheetahs
    (C) that a cheetah can
    (D) can

TOEFL REVIEW EXERCISE (Skills 15 – 19): Choose the letter of the word or group of words that best completes
the sentence.

1.   ______ variety of flowers in the show, from simple carnation to the most exquisite roses.
     (A) A wide
     (B) There was a wide
     (C) Was there
     (D) Many

2    The wedges ______ dartboard are worth from one to twenty points each.
     (A) they are on a
     (B) are on a
     (C) are they on a
     (D) on a

3.   ______ producing many new movies for release after the new season begins.
     (A) His company is
     (B) His companies
     (C) The company
     (D) Why the company is

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4.   ______ that Emily Dickinson wrote, 24 were given titles and 7 were published during her lifetime.
     (A) Of the 1,800 poems
     (B) There were 1,800 poems
     (C) Because the 1,l800 poems
     (D) The 1,800 poems

5. Since an immediate change was needed on an emergency basis, ______ by the governor to curtail railway
    (A) so it was proposed
    (B) was proposed
    (C) because of the proposal
    (D) it was proposed

6.   In the Morgan Library in New York City _____ of medieval and renaissance manuscripts
     (A) a collection is
     (B) in a collection
     (C) is a collection
     (D) which is a collection

7.   Some fishing fleets might not have been so inefficient in limiting their catch to target species ______ more strict in
     enforcing penalties.
     (A) the government had been
     (B) if the government had
     (C) had the government been
     (D) if the government

8. The Dewey decimal system, currently used in library throughout the world, ______ all written works into ten classes
   according to subject.
   (A) dividing
   (B) divides
   (C) it would divide
   (D) was divided

9.   Individual differences in brain-wave activity may shed light on why some people are more prone to emotional stress
     disorders ______
     (A) that others are
     (B) and others are
     (C) others are
     (D) than others are

10. ______ squeezed, the orange juice in one-cup serving provide twice the minimum daily requirement for vitamin C.
    (A) It is freshly
    (B) If freshly
    (C) You freshly
    (D) If it freshly


                             S        (prepositional phrase)          V
         When a prepositional phrase comes between the subject and the verb, be sure
         that the verb agrees with the subject.

EXERCISE 20: Each of the following sentences has one or more prepositional phrases between the subject and verb.
Circle the prepositional phrases. Underline the subjects once and the verbs twice. Then, indicate if the sentences are
correct (C) or incorrect (I).

______ 1.   The climbers on the sheer face of the mountain need to be rescued.
______ 2.   The interrogation, conducted by three police office, have lasted for several hours.
______ 3.   The tenants in the apartment next to mine is giving a party this evening.
______ 4.   The president, surrounded by secret service agents, is trying to make his way to the podium.
______ 5.   The buildings destroyed during the fire are being rebuilt at he taxpayers‟ expense.

______ 6. Because the seriousness of the company‟s financial problems, the board of directors have called an
           emergency meeting.
______ 7. Manufacture of the items that you requested have been discontinued because of lack of profit on those items.
______ 8. Further development of any new ideas for future products has to be approved in advance.
______ 9. The scheduled departure time of the trams, posted on panels throughout the terminal buildings, are going to
           be updated.
_____ 10. Any houses built in that development before 1970 have to be upgraded to meet current standards.

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                    most       OF THE (OBJECT)   V

         When an expression of quantity is the subject, the verb agrees with the object.

EXERCISE 21: Each of the following sentences has a quantity expression as the subject. Underline the subjects once
and the verb twice. Circle the subjects that the verbs agree with. Then, indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or
incorrect (I).

______ 1.  The witnesses saw that most of the fire in the hills was extinguished.
______ 2.  Some of the animals from the zoo was released into the animal preserve.
______ 3.  All of the students in the class taught by Professor Roberts is required to turn in their term papers next
______ 4. Half of the food that we are serving to the guest are still in the refrigerator.
______ 5. We believe that some of the time of the employees is going to be devoted to quality control.
______ 6. All of the witnesses in the jury trial, which lasted more than two weeks, have indicated that they defendant
           was quality.
______ 7. She did not know where most of the people in the room was from.
______ 8. In spite of what was decided at the meeting, half of the procedures was not changed.
______ 9. I was sure that all of the questions on the test were correct.
______ 10. Most of the trouble that the employees discussed at the series of meetings was resolved within a few


                            place                       V             S
                            condition (no if)
         After question words, negative expression, place expression, conditions without
         if, and comparisons, the verb agrees with the subject, which may be after the

EXERCISE 22: Each of the following sentences contains an inverted subject and verb. Circle the word or group of
words that causes the subject and verb to inert. Find the subject and verb that follow these words. Underline subject once
and the verb twice. Then, indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

______ 1. Only once were the letters delivered by the campus mail service.
______ 2. Around the corner and to the right is the rooms that have been assigned to that program.
______ 3. What in the world is the children trying to do?
______ 4. John would be studying the chapters were he able to get hold of the book.
______ 5. This chapter has many more exercises than do the next one.
______ 6. The computer programmer was unaware that there was so many mistakes in the program he had written.
______ 7. Seldom in the history of television has two new comedies been so successful in one season.
______ 8. How many huge mistakes have the teacher actually found in the research paper?
______ 9. The new phone system is able to hold far more massages than was the phone system that had previously been
_____ 10. In the parking lot south of the stadium was the cars that were about to be towed.


  These words or expressions are grammatically singular, so they take singular verbs;

  anybody           everybody         nobody           somebody           each (+noun)
  anyone            everyone          no one           someone            every (+noun)
  anything          everything        nothing          something

EXERCISE 23: Each of the following sentences contains one of words that are grammatically singular but have plural
meaning. Underline these words once and underline the verbs twice. Then, indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or
incorrect (I).

______ 1.    It is impossible to believe that somebody actually admire that man.
______ 2.    Each of the doctors in the building needs to have a separate reception area.
______ 3.    The president felt that no one were better suited for the position of chief staff advisor.
______ 4.    Everybody participating in the fund-raiser are to turn in the tickets by 8:00.
______ 5.    Because of the low number of orders, nothing has to be done now.
______ 6.    Every time someone take unnecessary breaks, precious moments of production time are lost.
______ 7.    Anybody who goes to the top of the Empire State Building is impressed with the view.

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______ 8. Every man, woman, and child in this line are required to sign the forms in order to complete the registration
______ 9. It is nice to believe that anything is possible if a person tries hard enough.
_____ 10. The company reiterated to reporters that nobody have been dismissed because of the incident.

EXERCISE (Skills 20-23): Underline the subjects one and the verbs twice in each of the following sentences. Then,
indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

______ 1.   The contracts signed by the company has been voided because some stipulations were not met.
______ 2.   Ten miles beyond the river was farmlands that they had purchased with their life savings.
______ 3.   Each package that is not properly wrapped have to be returned to the sender.
______ 4.   She would not have to enter the house through the bedroom window were the keys where they were supposed
            to be.
______ 5.   The proposal brought so much new work to the partnership that here was not enough hours to complete all of
______ 6.   The box of ribbons for the electric typewriter have been misplaced.
______ 7.   It is disconcerting to believe that every possible candidate has been rejected for one reason or another.
______ 8.   Only once have there been more excitement in this city about a sporting event.
______ 9.   Bobby has a bigger bicycle than does the other children in the neighborhood.
_____ 10.   If nobody have bought that car from the dealer, then you should return and make another offer.

TOEFL EXERCISE (Skills 20-23): Choose the latter of the word or group of words that best completes the sentence
1. Among bees ___ a highly elaborate form of communication.
   (A) occur           (B) occurs               (C) it occurs            (D) they occur

2. ___ heated by solar energy have special collectors on the roofs to trap sunlight.
   (A) A home is
   (B) Homes are
   (C) A home
   (D) Homes
Choose the letter of the underlined word or group of words that is not correct.

___ 3.   Each number in a binary system are formed from only two symbols.
                               A             B     C            D
___ 4.   Scientists at the medical center is trying to determine if there is a relationship
                                            A            B               C
         between saccharine and cancer.
___5.    On the rim of the Kilauae Volcano in the Hawaiian Islands are a hotel called
               A                                              B          C             D
         the Volcano Hotel.

___ 6.   The great digital advances of the electronic age, such as integrated circuitry and
                   A                                                             B
         a microcomputer, has been planted in tiny chips.
                             C          D
___ 7.   There are many frequently mentioned reasons why one out of four arrests involve
                              A          B                                     C         D
         a juvenile.

___ 8.  Kepler‟s Laws, principles outlining planetary movement, was formulated based on
                                                                    A      B        C
        observations made without a telescope.
___ 9. Only with a two-thirds vote by bough house are the U.S. Congress able to override
                             A                        B                       C
        a presidential veto.
___ 10. Of all the evidence that has piled up since Webster‟s paper was published, there is
                                    A                                                    B
        no new ideas to contradict his original theory.
             C             D

TOEFL REVIEW EXERCISE (Skills 1-23): Choose the latter of the word or group of words that best completes the

1.   ___ several unsuccessful attempts, Robert Peary reached the North Pole on April 6, 1980.
     (A) After             (B) He made                (C) When                 (D) His

2.   The musical instrument ___ is six feet long.
     (A) is called the bass
     (B) it is called the bass
     (C) called the bass
     (D) calls the bass

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3.   One problem with all languages ___ they are full of irregularities.
     (A) when
     (B) so
     (C) is that
     (D) in case

4.   ___ of economic cycles been helpful in predicting turning points in cycles, they would have been used more
     (A) Psychological theories
     (B) Psychological theories have
     (C) Had psychological theories
     (D) Psychologists have theories

5.   Hospital committees ___ spent weeks agonizing over which artificial kidney candidate would receive the treatments
     now find that the decision is out of their hands.
     (A) Once
     (B) that once
     (C) have
     (D) once had

Choose the letter of the underlined word or group of words that is not correct.

___ 6.    More than half of the children in the 1356-member district qualifies for
              A            B                                            C
          reduced-price or free lunches.

___ 7.    Five miles beyond the hills were a fire with its flames reaching up to the sky.
                               A       B                C            D

___ 8.    Kettledrums, what were first played on horseback, were incorporated into the
                          A               B                  C                   D
          orchestra in the eighteenth century.

___ 9.    When is a flag hung upside down, it is an internationally recognized symbol of
                    A     B                  C            D

___ 10. The Museum of the Confederation in Richmond hosts an exhibition which
        documenting the origins and history of the banner that most Americans think
               B                                                     C
        of as the confederate flag.



                (same structure)             but              (same structure)

            (same structure), (same structure),        but         (same structure)

EXERCISE 24: Each of the following sentences contains words or groups of words that should be parallel. Circle the
word that indicates that the sentence should have parallel parts. Underline the parts that should be parallel. Then,
indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

___ 1.    She held jobs as a typist, a housekeeper, and in a restaurant.
___ 2.    The report you are looking for could be in the file or on the desk.
___ 3.    She works very hard but usually gets below-average grades.
___ 4.    The speaker introduced himself, told several interesting anecdotes, and finishing with an emotional plea.
___ 5.    You should know when the program starts and how many units you must complete.
___ 6.    The term paper he wrote was rather short but very impressive.
___ 7.    She suggested taking the plane this evening or that we go by train tomorrow.
___ 8.    The dean or the assistant dean will inform you of when and where you should apply for your diploma.
___ 9.    There are papers to file, reports to type, and does letters should be-to answered.
___ 10.   The manager needed a quick but thorough response.

                                                                       Toefl Preparation Module



             both                        and
            either                        or
           neither    (same structure)   nor    (same structure)
           not only                    but also

EXERCISE 25: Each of the following sentences contains words or groups of words that should be parallel. Circle the
word that indicates that the sentence should have parallel parts. Underline the parts that should be parallel. Then,
indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

__I_ 1.   According to the syllabus, you can write a paper or you can take an exam.
___ 2.    It would be both noticed and appreciated if you could finish the work before you leave.
___ 3.    She would like neither to see a movie nor to go bowling.
___ 4.    Either the manager or her assistant can help you with your refund.
___ 5.    She wants to take a trip to Europe but she also would like to travel to Asia.
___ 6.    He could correct neither what you said nor you wrote.
___ 7.    Both the tailor or the laundress could fix the damage to the dress.
___ 8.    He not only called the police department but also called the fire department.
___ 9.    You can graduate either at the end of the fall semester or you can graduate at the end of the spring semester.
___ 10.   The movie was amusing nor was it interesting.


                    (same structure)    less…than         (same structure)
                                        the same…as

EXERCISE 26: Each of the following sentences contains words or groups of words that should be parallel. Circle the
word that indicates that the sentence should have parallel parts. Underline the parts that should be parallel. Then,
indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

___ 1.    His research for the thesis was more useful than hers.
___ 2.    Dining in a restaurant is more fun than to eat at home.
___ 3.    I want a new secretary who is as efficient as the previous one.
___ 4.    What you do today should be the same as you did yesterday.
___ 5.    This lesson is more difficult than what we had before.
___ 6.    You have less homework than they do.
___ 7.    What you do has more effect than what you say.
___ 8.    Music in your country is quite similar to my country.
___ 9.    The collection of foreign journals in the university library is more extensive than the high school library.
___ 10.   How to buy a used car can be as difficult as buying a new car.

EXERCISE (Skills 24 – 26): Circle the words or words that indicate that the sentences should have parallel parts.
Underline the parts that should be parallel. Then, indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

 ___ 1.   After retirement he plans on traveling to exotic locations, dine in the finest restaurants, and playing a lot of golf.
___ 2.    She was both surprised by and pleased with the seminar.
___ 3.    What came after the break was even more boring than had come before.
___ 4.    He would find the missing keys neither under the bed nor behind the sofa.
___ 5.    Depending on the perspective of the viewer, the film was considered laudable, mediocrity, or horrendous.
___ 6.    He exercised not only in the morning, but he also exercised every afternoon.
___ 7.    Working four days per week is much more relaxing than working five days per week.
___ 8.    Sam is always good-natured, generous, and helps you.
___ 9.    Either you have to finish the project, or the contract will be cancelled.
___ 10.   The courses that you are required to take are more important than the courses that you choose.

TOEFL EXERCISE (Skills 24-26): Choose the letter of the word or group of words that best completes the sentence:

1.   Truman Capote‟s In Cold Blood is neither journalistically accurate ___
     (A) a piece of fiction
     (B) nor a fictitious work
     (C) or written in a fictitious way

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     (D) nor completely fictitious

2.   Vitamin C is necessary for the prevention and ___ of scurvy.
     (A) it cures
     (B) cures
     (C) cure
     (D) for curing

3.   A baby‟s development is influenced by both heredity and ___
     (A) by environmental factors
     (B) environmentally
     (C) environment
     (D) the influence of the environment

4.   Because bone loss occurs earlier in women than ___, the effects of osteoporosis are more apparent in women.
     (A) men do
     (B) in men
     (C) as men
     (D) similar to men

Choose the letter of the underlined word or group of words that is not correct.

___ 5.   Fire extinguishers can contain liquefied gas, dry chemicals, or watery.
                    A            B                                    C D
___ 6.   The U.S. Congress consists of both the Senate as well as the House of
                               A      B            C        D

___ 7.   The prison population in this state, now at an all time high, is higher than any state.
                        A                                 B                C            D

___ 8.  A well-composed baroque opera achieves a delicate balance by focusing
                 A                            B                            C
        alternately on the aural, visual, emotional, and philosophy elements.
___ 9. Manufactures may use food additives for preserving, to color, to flavor,
                          A                           B
        or to fortify foods.
                 C      D
___ 10. A bankruptcy may be either voluntary nor involuntary.
               A          B               C      D

TOEFL REVIEW EXERCISE (Skills 1-26): Choose the letter of the word or group of words that best completes he

1.   The growth (of hair) ___ cyclical process, with phases of activity and inactivity.
     (A) it is
     (B) is a
     (C) which is
     (D) a regular

2.   The fire ___ to have started in the furnace under the house.
     (A) is believed
     (B) that is believed
     (C) they believe
     (D) that they believe

3.   In Roman numerals, ___ symbols for numeric values.
     (A) are letters of the alphabet
     (B) letters of the alphabet are
     (C) which uses letters of the alphabet
     (D) in which letters of the alphabet are
4.   The legal systems of most countries can be classified ___ common law or civil law.
     (A) as either
     (B) either as
     (C) either to
     (D) to either

5.   One difference between mathematics and language is that mathematics is precise, ___.
     (A) language is not
     (B) while language is not
     (C) but language not
     (D) while is language

6.   Your criticism of the three short stories should not be less than 2,000 words, nor ___ more than 3,000.

                                                                      Toefl Preparation Module

     (A)   should it be
     (B)   it should be
     (C)   it is
     (D)   should be it

Choose letter of the underlined word or group of words that is not correct.

7.  In 1870. the attorney general was made head of the Department of Justice, given
    an enlarged staff, and endow with clear-cut law-enforcement functions.
           B                  C                                      D
8. The general Sherman Tree, the largest of all the giant sequoias, are reputed to be
                                     A                               B    C
    the world‟s larges living thing.
9. The skeleton of a shark is made of cartilage rather than having bone.
                   A            B                   C            D
10. At least one sample of each of the brands contains measurable amounts of aflatoxin,
                             A                    B
    and there is three which exceed the maximum.
             C                D


                                more (long adjective) 
 COMPARATIVE                     (short adjective)  er               than
                                                        
                                                most (long adjective)
 SUPERLATIVE                   the               (short adjevtive)  est          maybe in, of, that
                                                                         

EXERCISE 27: Each of the following sentences contains a comparative or superlative. Circle the comparative or
superlative. Then, indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

_I_ 1.     Oxygen is abundanter than nitrogen.
_C 2.      The directions to the exercise say to choose the most appropriate response.
___ 3.     The lesson you are studying now is the most important test lesson that you will have.
___ 4.     Fashions this year are shorter and more colorful than they were last year.
___ 5.     The professor indicated that Anthony‟s research paper was more long than the other students‟ papers.
___ 6.     Alaska is the coldest than all the states in the United States.
___ 7.     The workers on the day shift are more rested than the workers on the night shift.
___ 8.     She was more happier this morning than she had been yesterday.
___ 9.     The quarterback on this year‟s football team is more versatile than the quarterback on last year‟s team.
___ 10.    She always tries to do the best and most efficient job that she can do.


     The COMPARATIVE is used to compare two equal things.

     The SUPERLATIVE is used to show which one of many is in some way the most outstanding.

EXERCISE 28: Each of the following sentences contains a comparative or superlative. Circle the comparative or
superlative. Then, indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

_C 1.      Harvard is probably the most prestigious university in the United States.
___ 2.     Rhonda is more hard working of the class.
___ 3.     The engineers hired this year have more experience than those hired last year.
___ 4.     The graduate assistant informed us that the first exam is the most difficult of the two.
___ 5.     He bought the more powerful stereo speakers that he could find.
___ 6.     The afternoon seminar was much more interesting than the morning lecture.
___ 7.     The food in this restaurant is the best of the restaurant we visited last week.
___ 8.     The plants that have been sitting in the sunny window are far healthier than the other plants.
___ 9.     The photocopies are the darkest that they have ever been.
___ 10.    The first journal article is the longest of the second article.


                                                                      Toefl Preparation Module


                                  THE –ER,–ER STRUCUTRE
                 -er                                            -er
 THE            more          (same structure),   THE          more         (same structure)

                       The type of sentence may or may not include a verb.

EXERCISE 29: Each of the following sentences contains the irregular –er, -er structure. Circle the two comparisons
with the. Underline the parts that should be parallel. Then, indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

___ 1.    The hotter the food is, harder it is to eat.
___ 2.    The warmer the weather, the greater the attendance at the outdoor concert.
___ 3.    The more you say, the worst the situation will be.
___ 4.    The more time they have to play, the happier the children are.
___ 5.    The thicker the walls, the noise that comes through is less.
___ 6.    If you run faster, the more quickly you‟ll arrive.
___ 7.    The more you use the phone, the higher the bill will be.
___ 8.    The harder you serve, the easier it is to win the point.
___ 9.    The earliest you send in your tax forms, the sooner you will receive your refund.
___ 10.   The more people there at the party, you‟ll have a good time.

EXERCISE (Skill 27-29): Circle the comparatives and superlatives in the following sentences. Then, indicate if the
sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

___ 1.    The coffee is more stronger today than it was yesterday.
___ 2.    The three that was struck by lightning had been the tallest of the two tress we had in the yard.
___ 3.    He will buy the most fuel-efficient car that he can afford.
___ 4.    The closest it gets to summer, the longer the days are.
___ 5.    The business department is bigger of the departments in the university.
___ 6.    I really do not want to live in the Southeast because it is one of the most hot areas in the U.S.
___ 7.    It is preferable to use the most efficient and most effective method that you can.
___ 8.    Tonight‟s dinner was more filling than last night‟s.
___ 9.    The sooner the exam is scheduled, the less time you have to prepare.
___ 10.   The house is now the cleanest that it has ever been.

TOEFL EXERCISE (Skill 27-29): Choose the letter of the word or group of words that best completes the sentence.

1.   The speed of light is ___ the speed of sound.
     (A) faster
     (B) much faster than
     (C) the fastest
     (D) as fast

2.   The use of detail is ___ method of developing controlling idea, and almost all students employ this method.
     (A) more common
     (B) common
     (C) most common
     (D) the most common

3.   ___ in Stevenson‟s Landscapes, the more vitality and character the paintings seem to posses.
     (A) The brushwork is loose
     (B) The looser brushwork
     (C) The loose brushwork is
     (D) The looser the brushwork is

Choose the letter of the underlined word or group of words that is not correct.

___ 4.    Certain types of snakes have been known to survive fasts more as a year long.
               A                         B                       C          D
___ 5.    The grizzly bear, which can grow up to eight feet tall, has been called a more
                              A                   B                       C         D
          dangerous animal of North America.

___ 6.    Climate, soil type, and availability of water are the most critical factors than
                                      A                  B                              C
          selecting the best type of grass for a lawn.
___ 7.    Peter Abelard, a logician and theologian, was the controversialest teacher
                                      A                    B         C
          of his age.
___ 8.    Protein molecules are the most complex than the molecules of carbohydrates.

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                          A      B                   C          D
___ 9.  The leek, a member of the lily family, has a mildest taste than the onion.
                  A                                     B           C        D
___ 10. The widely used natural fiber of all is cotton.
           A         B           C           D

TOEFL REVIEW EXERCISE (Skill 1-29): Choose the letter of the word or group of words that best completes the

1.   ___, a liberal arts college specifically for deaf people, is located in Washington, D.C.
     (A) Gallaudet College
     (B) Gallaudet College is
     (C) About Gallaudet College
     (D) Because of Gallaudet College

2.   ___ varieties of dogs at the show, including spaniels, poodles, and collies.
     (A) The several
     (B) Those
     (C) Several
     (D) There were several

3.   While the discovery that many migratory songbirds can thrive in deforested wintering spots ___, the fact remains
     that these birds are dying at unusual rates.
     (A) it is heartening
     (B) hearten
     (C) heartening
     (D) is heartening

Choose the letter of the underlined word or group of words that is not correct.

___ 4.  The coyote is somewhat smaller in size that a timber wolf.
                            A       B         C D
___ 5. The weather reports all showed that there were a tremendous storm front
                           A        B               C
        moving in.
___ 6. Seldom cactus plants are found outside of North America.
                          A           B     C    D
___ 7. In a basketball game a player what is fouled receives one or two free throws.
                                          A     B       C                   D
___ 8. Until recently, California was largest producer of oranges in the U.S.
                  A                        B      C         D
___ 9. An understanding of engineering theories and problem are impossible until basic
                                        A                       B
        arithmetic is fully mastered.
                    C          D
___ 10. The earliest the CVS (chorionic villus sampling) procedure in the pregnancy, the
                A     B                                      C
        greater the risk to the baby.


                              VERB FORMS AFTER HAVE
                                HAVE + Past Participle

EXERCISE 30: Each of the following sentences contains a verb in the past or a past participle. Underline the verbs or
past participles twice. Then, indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

___ 1. The young girl drunk a glass o milk.
___ 2. Before she left, she had asked her mother for permission.
___ 3. Having finished the term paper, he began studying for the exam.
___ 4. The secretary has broke her typewriter.
___ 5. The installer should have completes the task more quickly.
___ 6. He has often become angry during meetings.
___ 7. She has rarely rode her horse in the park.
___ 8. Having saw the film, he was quite disappointed.
___ 9. Tom has thought about taking that job.
___ 10. You might have respond more effectively.


                                                                      Toefl Preparation Module


                                VERB FORMS AFTER BE
                                BE + (1) present participle
                                     (2) past participle

EXERCISE 31: Each of the following sentences contains a verb formed with be. Underline the verbs twice. Then,
indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

___ 1. At 12:00 Sam is eat his lunch.
___ 2. We are meeting them later today.
___ 3. The message was took by the receptionist.
___ 4. Being heard was extremely important to him.
___ 5. The Smiths are build their house on some property that they own in the desert.
___ 6. It had been noticed that some staff members were late.
___ 7. The report should have been submit by noon.
___ 8. Are the two companies merge into one?
___ 9. He could be taking four courses this semester.
___ 10. The score information has been duplicates on the back-up disk.


                           VER FORMS AFTER MODALS
                          MODALS + main form of the verb

EXERCISE 32: Each of the following sentences contains a verb formed with a modal. Underline the verbs twice. Then,
indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

___ 1.    The salesclerk might lower the price.
___ 2.    The television movie will finishes in a few minutes.
___ 3.    Should everyone arrive by 8:00?
___ 4.    The method for organizing files can be improved.
___ 5.    The machine may clicks off if it is overused.
___ 6.    Every morning the plants must be watered.
___ 7.    The houses with oceans views could sell for considerably more.
___ 8.    Would anyone liked to see that movie?
___ 9.    I do not know when it will depart.
___ 10.   She will work on the project only if she can has a full-time secretary.

EXERCISE (Skills 30-32): Underline the verbs twice in the following sentences. Then, indicate if the sentences are
correct (C) or incorrect (I).

___ 1.    I have gave you all the money that I have.
___ 2.    The articles were put in the newspaper before he was able to stop production.
___ 3.    All the tickets for the concert might already be sold.
___ 4.    He was so thirsty that he drunk several large glasses of water.
___ 5.    The deposit will has to be paid before the apartment can be rented.
___ 6.    He objects to being held without bail.
___ 7.    Having completed the first chapter of the manuscript, she decided to take a break.
___ 8.    If Stave had really wanted to pass his exam, he would has studied much more.
___ 9.    He thought that he should have be invited to attend the conference.
___ 10.   Before the speaker finished, many guests had rose from their seats and started for the door.

TOEFL EXERCISE (Skills 30-32): Choose the letter of the underlined word or group of words that is not correct.

___ 1.    Alice in Wonderland, first published in 1865, has since being translated into thirty
                                         A               B         C        D

___ 2.    The Peace Corps was establish on March 1, 1961, by then President JF Kennedy.
                  A           B     C                             D
___ 3.    The advisor told himself, while listening to the speech, that a dozen other reporters
                         A                    B
          would has already asked that question.
               C                D
___ 4.    At the start of the American Revolution, lanterns were hung in the Old North
                  A                                           B     C
          Church as a signal that the British were came.
___ 5.    Linus Pauling has wins two Nobel Prizes: the 1954Nobel Prize in Chemistry and
                           A B            C                                     D
          the 1962 Nobel Peace Prize.

                                                                    Toefl Preparation Module


___ 6.   On the huge Ferris wheel constructed for a world exhibition in Chicago in 1983,
                  A                     B
         each of the thirty-six cabs could held sixty people.
             C                              D
___ 7.   To overcome rejection of a skin graft, a system for matching donor and recipient
               A                                                B                  C
         tissues has be developed.
___ 8.   Nails are commonly make of steel but also can contain substances such as
               A                 B                     C      D
         aluminum or brass.

___ 9.   A patient suffering from amnesia may had partial or total loss of memory.
                       A                   B C                       D

___ 10. The idea of using pure nicotine to help smokers stop was first tries in
                     A                    B              C               D
        the mid-1980‟s with the nicotine–laced chewing gum Nicotette.

TOEFL REVIEW EXERCISE (Skills 1-32): Choose the letter of the word or group of words that best completes the

1.   ___ separates Manhattan‟s Upper East Side from the Upper West Side.
     (A) Central Park
     (B) Where Central Park
     (C) Where is Central Park
     (D) Central Park which

2.   Bioluminescent animals ___ the water or on land.
     (A) live
     (B) are living either
     (C) they are found in
     (D) can be found in

3.   The purpose of a labor union is to improve the working conditions, ___ and pay of its members.
     (A) job are secure
     (B) to be secure
     (C) job security
     (D) the job‟s security

4.   When ___ on July 4, 1789, the federal tariff, intended by the Founding Fathers to be the government‟s primary
     source of revenue, was remarkably evenhanded.
     (A) was first enacted
     (B) first enacted
     (C) was enacted first
     (D) it first

5.   ___ inclined to push for such a reduction, it would probably not be successful.
     (A) The Office of Management
     (B) The Office of Management was
     (C) In the Office of management
     (D) Were the Office of Management

Choose the letter of the underlined word or group of words that it not correct.

___ 6.   Helium has the most low boiling point of all substances.
                   A         B        C                  D
___ 7.   There is twenty-six bones in the human foot, fourteen of them in the toes.
                A                            B                      C        D
___ 8.   Extension of the countdown hold to fourteen hours was ordered to give crews
                                        A                       B
         more time to repair wiring and clear away equipment.
              C                     D
___ 9.   The study demonstrates that neither experience or awareness will improve chances
                          A        B                     C                           D
         of success.

___ 10. Some of the eye movements used in reading is actually unnecessary.
                                   A        B     C     D


                                                                    Toefl Preparation Module


                       USING THE PAST WITH THE PRESENT
  1. If you see a sentence with one verb in the past and one verb in the present, the
     sentence is probably incorrect.
  2. However, it is possible for a correct sentence to have both past and present
  3. If you see the past and present together, you must check the meaning to
     determine whether or not the sentence is correct

EXERCISE 33: Each of the following sentences has at least one verb in the past and one verb in the present. Underline
the verbs twice and decide if the meanings are logical. Then, indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

___ 1. I tell him the truth when he asked me the question.
___ 2. I understand that you were angry
___ 3. When he was a child, he always goes to the circus
___ 4. Last semester he reads seven books and wrote five papers.
___ 5. Steve wakes up early every morning because he went to work early.
___ 6. Mark studied at the American University when he is in Washington, D.C.
___ 7. He is telling the teacher why he did not have time to finish his homework.
___ 8. He put some money in his account when he goes to the bank.
___ 9. Tom keeps studying hard because he intended to go to dental school.
___ 10. She is where she is today because she worked hard when she was a student.


         TENSE               FORM                     MEANING        USE
 present perfect        have + past participle Past up to now not with a past tense **

 past perfect            had + past participle     before past up to past     not with a present tense
                 ** Except when the time expression since is part of the sentence (see Skill 35)

EXERCISE 34: Each of the following sentences contains had or have. Underline the verbs twice and decide if the
meanings are logical. Then, indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

___ 1.    I have always liked the designs that are on the cover.
___ 2.    Because her proposal had been rejected, she is depressed.
___ 3.    The students have registered for classes before the semester started.
___ 4.    When she had purchased the car, she contacted the insurance agents.
___ 5.    He said that he had finished the typing when you finish the reports.
___ 6.    She has enjoyed herself every time that she has gone to the zoo.
___ 7.    He drove to the post office after he had finished preparing the package.
___ 8.    After the votes were counted, it had been determined that Steve was the winner.
___ 9.    Last night all the waiters and waitresses have worked overtime.
___ 10.   He had fastened his seat belt before the airplane took off.


         by (1920)           (two years) ago      since (1920)
                                last (year)           lately
                                 in (1920)

EXERCISE 35: Each of the following sentences contains a time expression. Circle the time expressions and underline
the verbs twice. Then, indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

___ 1. The phone rang incessantly last night.
___ 2. They have finished contacting every one by 4:00 yesterday.
___ 3. The pilgrims have arrived in the New World in 1612.
___ 4. Since the new law passed, it has been difficult to estimate taxes.
___ 5. The cashier put the money into the account two hours ago.
___ 6. All the votes have been counted last week.
___ 7. The students are writing many compositions lately.
___ 8. The Senate votes on the law to ban cigarette smoking in public in 1990.
___ 9. By the time the main course was served, all the guests had arrived and been seated.
___ 10. I had not done much more work since I talked to you on Wednesday.


                                                                    Toefl Preparation Module


            VERB                        MEANING                          USE
             Will                     after the present          do not use with past
            Would                       after the past          do not use with present
 NOTE: There is a different modal would that is used to make polite requests.
 This type of would is often used with the present tense.
 I would like to know if you have a pencil that I could borrow.

EXERCISE 36: Each of the following sentences contains will or would. Underline the verbs twice and decide if the
meanings are logical. Then, indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

___ 1.    He knew that he will be able to pass the exam.
___ 2.    I think that I will leave tomorrow.
___ 3.    Paul did not say when he will finish the project.
___ 4.    Jake doubts that he would have time to finish the project.
___ 5.    I know that I will go if I can afford it.
___ 6.    The police officer indicated that he would write a ticked if he has the time.
___ 7.    Students will often study in the library before they go to classes or before they go home.
___ 8.    He told me that he thought he will get the job in spite of his lack of education.
___ 9.    The executive vice president emphasizes at the conferences that the board would not change its position.
___ 10.   Students will register for classes according to who has the highest numbers of units.

EXERCISE (Skills 33-36): Underline the verbs twice in each of the following sentences. Then, indicate if the
sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

___1.     When he receives the money from the insurance company two days ago, he had already rebuilt the house.
___ 2.    The position on the city council will be filled next week when the electorate votes.
___ 3.    The dentist fills the cavities every time the X-rays show that it was necessary.
___ 4.    When the bill rang, the students have left the class.
___ 5.    The space shuttle would be launched next month if the weather is good.
___ 6.    The special delivery package has arrived by noon yesterday.
___ 7.    It is probable that the students who were tested yesterday were quite successful.
___ 8.    After forty-five students had signed up for the class, the class was closed.
___ 9.    The parking at the arena was inadequate for the tremendous numbers of drivers who will want to park there.
___ 10.   They have not returned to Rhode Island since they left in 1870.

TOEFL EXERCISE (Skills 33-36): Choose the letter of the underlined word or group of words that is not correct.

___ 1. In several of his paintings, Edward Hicks depicted the Quaker farm in
       Pennsylvania where he spends his youth.
                         B        C     D
___ 2. Florida has become the twenty-seventh state in the U.S. on March 3, 1845.
                    A                 B           C    D
___ 3. After last week‟s meeting, the advertising department quickly realized that
                  A                                                      B
        the product will need a new slogan.
                     C D
___ 4. John F. Kennedy‟s grandfather, John F. Fitzgerald, serves two terms as the mayor
                    A                                         B                C
        of Boston in the beginning of the twentieth century.
___ 5. Fort Ticonderoga, a strategically important fortification during the Revolution, had
        since been reconstructed and turned into a museum.
                B         C              D
___ 6. In making their calculations, Institute researchers assume that the least costly form
             A                                                                B
        of energy would be used.
                     C        D
___ 7. A twenty-one-year-old man became the second casualty yesterday when he loses
                                        A                                     B         C
        control of his truck.
___ 8. Most people had written with quill pens until pens with mental points become
                        A     B                   C                                 D
        popular in the middle of the nineteenth century.

___ 9.  In a determined drive to pare its dept, Time Warner is launching a stock offering
                 A                       B                                       C
        plan that would potentially raise $2.8 billion.
___ 10. The formula used in the study calls for either peroxide or metaldehyde, but metaldehyde was not always

                                                                      Toefl Preparation Module

                    A                         B                                 C                       D available.


                               THE FORM OF THE PASIVE
                                BE + past participle (by + object)

TOEFL REVIEW EXERCISE (Skills 1-36): Choose the letter of the word or group of words that best completes the

1.   ___ in the U.S. declined from twenty million in 1910 to nine million in the 1970‟s.
     a. for a number of horses
     b. The number of horses
     c. When the number of horses
     d. That the number of horses

2.   Because of his reservations about the issue, ___ refused to vote for it.
     a. who
     b. and
     c. which the senator
     d. the senator

3.   Bats avoid running into objects by ___ high-frequency sounds and listening for echoes.
     a. the emission
     b. emitted
     c. emitting
     d. they emit
4.   It has been estimated that if we intend to stay above the starvation level, ___ the food supply.
     a. so we will have to double
     b. and it must double
     c. which it must be double
     d. we must double

Choose the letter of the underlined word or group of words that is not correct.

__ 5. To determine an object‟s force, the mass and speed of the object must be measure.
       A                                B               C                      D
__ 6. The most common time for tornados to occur are in the afternoon or evening on a
                 A                   B                C
      hot, humid spring day.
__ 7. Automakers Nissan and Ford and several aerospace research facilities in Great
      Britain are working lately to apply active noise cancellation to entire cars and
                  B                                    C               D

__ 8. When a country in an early stage of development, investments in fixed capital
                  A                                           B       C
       are vital.
__ 9. John Chapman became famous in American folklore as “Johnny Appleseed” after
       he plants apple trees throughout the northeastern part of the U.S.
            B                    C                        D
__ 10. Inasmuch he kept mostly to himself, the author of The Treasure of the Sierra Madre
            A                B       C
       was known as “the mysterious B. Treuen.”


                               THE FORM OF THE PASIVE
                               BE + past participle (by + object)

EXERCISE 37: Each of the following sentences has a passive meaning. Underline twice the verbs that should be
passive. Then, indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

___ 1.   The boy had never be stung by a bee.
___ 2.   The suits were hung in the closet when they were returned from the cleaners.
___ 3.   Money is lending by the credit union to those who want to buy homes.
___ 4.   The record had been chose by dancers near the jukebox.

                                                                     Toefl Preparation Module

___ 5. The topic for your research paper should have been approved by your advisor.
___ 6. That song has been playing over and over again by Stave.
___ 7. Their utility bills have been increased again and again.
___ 8. The patients who are too sick td sit up are being assisted by the orderlies.
___ 9. The offices were thoroughly clean last evening by the night crew.
___ 10. The car that was struck in the intersection yesterday is being repaired today.


                            ACTIVE AND PASSIVE MEANING
          ACTIVE                   The subject does the action of the verb
          PASSIVE                  The subject receives the action of the verb

EXERCISE 38: Each of the following sentences contains at last one active verb; however, some of the verbs should be
passive. Underline the verbs twice. Then, indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

___ 1. The car parked in a no-parking zone.
___ 2. The physics exam began just a few minutes ago.
___ 3. Everything to organize the picnic has already done.
___ 4. The police investigated him because of his unusual actions.
___ 5. The package containing the necessary samples has just sent.
___ 6. The vacation to Europe will plan carefully before the scheduled departure date.
___ 7. The coffee turned bitter when it left on the stove for so long.
___ 8. The soccer game won in the closing minutes.
___ 9. The clothes made to rival the latest fashions of the season.
___ 10. When the roads are icy, the buses do not drive.

EXERCISE (Skills 37-38): Underline the verbs twice in the following sentences. Then, indicate if the sentences, are
correct (C) or incorrect (I).

___ 1.    After the old radiator had be replaced, the travelers continued their cross-country trip.
___ 2.    During the lightning storm, he struck in the head by a falling tree.
___ 3.    While I am on vacation, the pets should be feeds every morning and evening.
___ 4.    A book being written now by a team of writers will be published in the fall.
___ 5.    I fount out that the real estate agent had already been leased the condominium.
___ 6.    The house that Mrs. Martin has always wanted to buy has just placed on the market.
___ 7.    The foundation should have been finishing by the construction workers before they left the construction site.
___ 8.    We must leave that money in the checking account because the bills pay on the first of the month.
___ 9.    The horses can‟t be taken out now because they have been rode for the past few hours.
___ 10.   It is being announced by a presidential aide that a lawyer from Virginia has been named attorney general.

TOEFL EXERCISE (Skills 37-38): Choose the letter of the word or group of words that best completes the sentence.

1.   ___ discussed by the board of directors when it was proposed again by the supervisors.
     (A) The problem had already
     (B) The problem is already
     (C) The problem had already been
     (D) The problem has already

2.   Much of the carnage of elephants, giraffes, and big cats ___ uncaring hunters.
     (A) must commit by
     (B) must be committed
     (C) must have been committed by
     (D) must have committed

3. The X-ray treatments ___ up to the time that he was dismissed from the hospital.
   (A) gave daily
   (B) were given daily
   (C) basically have given
   (D) daily had been given

Choose the letter of the underlined word or group of words that is not correct.

___ 4.    Particular issues that concern teenagers were covering in the half-hour program.
                       A           B               C      D
___ 5.    Electrical impulses may also picked up by the optic nerve.
                       A       B          C            D
___ 6.    Workers training for a specific job have a strong possibility of being replaced
                      A                        B                            C      D
          by a machine.

                                                                    Toefl Preparation Module

___ 7.  On June 30, 1992, international timekeepers in Paris were added an extra second
        A                                                         B                 C
        to the day.
___ 8. The report could not be turned in on time because all the needed work lost.
                        A         B                                C          D
___ 9. In English these questions have be formed by changing the word order of a
                                       A        B          C
        statement, whereas in some languages the word order remains the same.
___ 10. He was not able to define the process by which the body had protected by
              A             B                    C                    D
        the immunologic system.

TOEFL REVIEW EXERCISE (Skills 1-38): Choose the letter of the word or group of words that best completes the
1. ___ Big Dipper, a seven-star constellation in the shape of a cup, is part of Ursa Major.
    (A) The
    (B) It is the
    (C) With the
    (D) That the
2. The Military Academy at West Point ___ on the west bank of the Hudson River, north of New York City.
    (A) located
    (B) is located
    (C) which is located
    (D) whose location is
3. ___ impressive chapter in the book was the chapter on Stuart‟s scientific theories.
    (A) It was the most
    (B) The most
    (C) Most
    (D) Most of the
Choose the letter of the underlined word or group of words that is not correct.
___ 4. The first have appeared on the earth approximately 500 million years ago.
            A     B        C                                         D
___ 5. Only rarely sound waves are of a single frequency encountered in practice.
          A                 B              C                      D
___ 6. Cameos can be carved not only from onyx and sardonyx or from agate.
           A             B                C                           D
___ 7. Although most of the wild horses in the western range have already been rounded
                       A                                                  B
         up, the most remote the area, the greater the possibility that wild horses can still be
                  C                                      D
___ 8. During this period, $206 was spend annually on food by families in the lower third
                                   A     B                C                            D
         income bracket.
___ 9. The dangers of noise are, unfortunately, not as clear-cut than are those
                               A                                     B      C
         from most other health hazards.
___ 10. In a recent survey of Americans, more than 75 percent expressed the view that the
                  A                                                    B
         government it should take a more active role in health care.
                          C           D


    For Singular Nouns  each    every    single  one                            a
         For Plural Nouns      both       two           many       several     various

EXERCISE 39: Each of the following sentences contains at least one key word to tell you if a noun should be singular
or plural. Circle the key words. Draw arrows to the nouns they describe. Then, indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or
incorrect (I).

___ 1.   The automotive shop stocked many part for the various types of Hondas.
___ 2.   Every receipt must be removed from the cashier‟s drawer and tallied.
___ 3.   The salesclerk demonstrated various additional way that the machine could be used.
___ 4.   The woman found it difficult to believe that both of the piece of jewelry had disappeared.
___ 5.   The unhappy man became more and more discouraged with each passing days .
___ 6.   An extended cruise would be a nice way to spend a vacation one days.
___ 7.   The manager was surprised that not a single worker was available on Tuesdays.
___ 8.   When the first bill was defeated, the Senate immediately began work on a different bills.

                                                                       Toefl Preparation Module

___ 9. The housekeeper cleaned the room and took two of the occupant‟s dress to the laundry.
___ 10. There were several boxes in the cupboard, and each box contained a dozen glasses.


        For Countable Nouns               many         number           few        fewer
       For Uncountable Nouns              much         amount           little     less

EXERCISE 40: Each of the following sentences contains at least one key word to tell you if a noun should be countable
or uncountable. Circle the key words. Draw arrows to the nouns they describe. Then indicate if the sentences are correct
(C) or incorrect (I).

___C__ 1.     He received little notice that the bill would have to be paid in full.

___I__ 2. The police had few opportunities to catch the thief who had committed a large amount of crimes.

______ 3.    You will have fewer problems with your income taxes if you get professional help.

______ 4.    After the strike, the company dismissed many employees.

______ 5. Because the bottom corner of the pocket was torn, much coins fell out.

______ 6.    Since he bought the new adapter, he had has less trouble with the machine.

______ 7. There are much new items to purchase before leaving, and there is such a short amount of time.

______ 8. The less time you take on the assignment, the less pages you will complete.

______ 9.    A few soldiers who had been in heavy combat were brought back for a little rest.

______ 10. It is better to go shopping in the late evening because there are less people in the market, and you can
           accomplish a number of tasks in a short period of time.


                                   IRREGULAR PLURALS
                              man/men                           foot/feet
 Vowel change                 goose/geese                       woman/women
                              tooth/teeth                       mouse/mice
 Add -EN                      child/children                    ox/oxen
                              deer/deer                         salmon/salmon
 Same as singular             trout/trout                       fish/fish
 -is                -ES       analysis/analyses                 diagnosis/diagnoses
                              synthesis/syntheses               axis/axes
                              bacterium/bacteria                datum/data
 Ends in -A                   criterion/criteria                curriculum/curricula
 -US             - I          alumnus/alumni                    fungus/fungi
                              stimulus/stimuli                  bacillus/bacilli
                              nucleus/nuclei                    syllabus/syllabi
                              cactus/cacti                      radius/radii

EXERCISE 41: Each of the following sentences contains at least one noun with an irregular plural. Circle the noun with
the irregular plural. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

___I__ 1. Parentheses is needed around the expression.

___C__2.     He wants to go on a fishing trip this weekend because he has heard that the fish are running.

______ 3. The syllabi for the courses is included in the packet of materials.

______ 4. The diagnosis that he heard today were not very positive.

______ 5. The crisis is not going to be resolve until some of the pressure is relieved.

______ 6.    All of the alumni are attending the reception at the president‟s house.

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______ 7.   A flock of geese were seen heading south for the winter.

______ 8.   The teeth in the back of his mouth need s to be capped.

______ 9. The fungi has spread throughout the garden.

______ 10. The sheepdog is chasing after the sheep which are heading over the hill.


                                    PERSON OR THING
  1.   It is common to confuse a person with a thing in the written Expression section of
       the TOEFL test.
  2.   This type of question generally appears near the end of the Written Expression

EXERCISE 42: Some of the following sentences contain incorrectly used persons or things. Circle the incorrectly used
words. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

___I__ 1.   In the evening he relaxes in front of the fire and writes long poets.

___C__2.    Service in the restaurant was slow because one cook had called in sick.

______ 3. The sculpture worked from sunrise until sunset on his new project.

______ 4.   She has received several awards for her research in engineer.

______ 5. The economist‟s radical views were printed in a column in the Sunday newspaper.

______ 6.   You must have remarkable looks to work as a model for Vogue.

______ 7.   He had several critics to offer about the new play.

______ 8. The gardener worked feverishly after the frost to save as many plants as possible.

______ 9. The company hired a statistic to prepare marketing studies for the new project.

______ 10. The famous acting has appeared in more than fifty Broadway plays.

EXERCISE (Skills 39-42): Study the nouns in the following sentences. Then indicates if the sentences are correct (C)
or incorrect (I).

____ 1. The professor does not give many exam in chemistry class, but the ones she gives are difficult.
____ 2. His thesis includes an analyses of the hypotheses.
____ 3. It was his dream to be a musical in the New York Philharmonic.
____ 4. For the reception, the caterers prepared a large amount of food to serve a large number of people.
____ 5. Many job opportunities exits in the field of nurse if you will accept a low paying position.
____ 6. For each business trip you make, you can choose from many different airlines.
____ 7. The stimulus for his career change is his acknowledgment that he is in a dead-end job.
____ 8. She wants to undergo a series of treatments, but she thinks it costs a little too much money.
____ 9. The television producer that was shown last night on the CBS network from 9:00 to 11:00 was one of the best
shows of the season.
____10. Various sight-seeing excursion were available from the tourist agency.

TOTAL EXERCISE (Skills 39-42): Choose the letter of the underlined word or group of words that is not correct.

____ 1. As a compilation of useful details, a weekly magazines commends itself in several respect.
                                     A          B                                 C                  D
____ 2. Through aquaculture, or fish farming, more than 500 million tons of fish are produced each years.
                                                       A                  B                C                  D
____ 3. The legal system has much safeguards to protect the right of a defendant to an impartial jury.
                                A                               B           C                         D
____ 4. The mystery bookstore was largely a phenomena of the last decade.
                                  A B                  C                  D
____ 5. The song of Hiawatha, by Longfellow, tells the story of the Indian heroism who married Minehaha.
                                                   A                              B        C         D
____ 6. Uranus is the seventh planets from the Sun.
                 A B                 C            D
____ 7. The sycamore has broad leaves with a large amount of pointed teeth.
                             A       B                   C                D
____ 8. The first of two such investigation requires the students to read continuously over a period of four hours.
                                     A        B                                                 C          D

                                                                    Toefl Preparation Module

____ 9. A quantitative analysis, using both the computer and quantitative techniques, are used to oplimize
                                     A                                           B           C     D
        financial decisions.
____10. To enter the FBI National Academy, an application must be between the ages of twenty-three and
        A                              B             C                              D

TOEFL REVIEW EXERCISE (Skills 1-42): Choose the letter of the word or group of words that best completes the

1. Presidential ____ held every four years on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November.
   (A) Electing
   (B) Elections are
   (C) Is elected
   (D) Elected and

2. Studies of carcinogenesis in animals can provide data on ____ in human susceptibility.
   (A) Differences are
   (B) That differences are
   (C) Differences have
   (D) Differences

3. Those who favor the new law say that the present law does not set spending limits on lobbyists gifts to politicians,
   nor ____ statewide funds.
   (A) It limits
   (B) Limits it
   (C)Does it limit
   (D) Does it

4. The population of the earth is increasing at a tremendous rate and ____ out of control.
   (A) They have become
   (B) Are soon going to be
   (C) Soon will be
   (D) Why it will be

5. Starting in 1811, traders and manufactures were more easily able to send goods upriver in ____ provided the
   necessary power to counteract the flow of the waters.
   (A) Steamboats
   (B) Which
   (C) That
   (D) That steamboats

Choose the letter of the underlined word or group of words that is not correct.
____ 6. Temperature indicates on a bimetallic thermometer by the amount that the bimetallic strip bends.
                           A        B                                    C      D
____ 7. Many of the food consumed by penguins consists of fish obtained from the ocean.
         A                 B                          C                  D
____ 8. Before the newspaper became widespread, a town crier has walked throughout a village or town
                                             A                 B     C
         singing out the news.
____ 9. All of NASA‟s manned spacecraft project are headquartered at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in
         A                 B                 C                 D
____10. Fungi cause more serious plant diseased than do other parasites.
                  A        B                 C                 D


                       SUBJECT                                                         OBJECT
                           I                                                             Me
                          You                                                           You
                          He                                                            Him
                          She                                                            Her
                           It                                                             It
                          We                                                             Us
                         They                                                           Them

EXERCISE 43: Each of the following sentences contains at least one subject or object pronoun. Circle the pronouns.
Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

___C__ 1. The worst problem with it is that he cannot afford it.

___I__ 2. They saw Steve and I at the movie last night after class.

                                                                      Toefl Preparation Module

 ______ 3. Perhaps you would like to go to the seminar with they and their friends.

 ______ 4. The mother took her son to the doctor‟s office because he was feeling sick.

 ______ 5. I did not know that you and her are working together on the project.

 ______ 6.   She did not buy the sweater because it had a small hole in it.

 ______ 7.   The man leading the seminar gave me all the information I needed to make a decision.

 ______ 8. The cards connecting the computer to its printer need to be re4placed before them wear down.

 ______ 9.   He is going to the party with you and me if you do not mind.

 ______ 10. You and her ought to return the books to the library because they are already overdue.


               POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES                                              POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS
                         My                                                               Mine
                        Your                                                              Yours
                         His                                                               His
                         Her                                                               Hers
                         Its                                                               ----
                        Our                                                                Ours
                        Their                                                             Theirs

              Must be accompanied by a noun                                   Cannot be accompanied by anoun

 EXERCISE 44: Each of the following sentences contains at least one possessive pronoun or adjective. Circle the
 possessive in these sentences. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

 ___I__ 1.   If she borrows your coat, then you should be able to borrow her.

 ___C__2.    Each pot and pan in her kitchen has its own place on the shelf.

 ______ 3.   Mary and Mark invited their parents to see their new apartment.

 ______ 4. When my roommate paid her half of the rent, I paid mine.

 ______ 5.   All students need to bring theirs own pencils and answer sheets to the exam.

 ______ 6.   All her secretaries are working late tonight to finish her report.

 ______ 7.   The horse trotting around the track won its race in a few minutes ago.

 ______ 8. Before the report is finalized, the information in their notes and ours must be proofed.

 ______ 9.   She worked all day cooking food and making decorations for her son‟s birthday party.

 ______ 10. The weather in the mountains this weekend will be extremely cold, so please take yours heavy jacket.


                                              PRONOUN AGREEMENT
1. Be sure that every pronoun and possessive agrees with the noun it refers to.
2. You generally check back in the sentence for agreement.

 EXERCISE 45: Each of the following sentences contains at least one pronoun or possessive. Circle the pronouns and
 possessives. Draw arrows to the nouns they refer to. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

 ___I__ 1.   If a person really wants to succeed, they must always work hard.

 ___C__2.    If you see the students from the math class, could you return their exam papers to them?

 ______ 3.   Some friends and I went to see a movie, and afterwards we wrote a critique about them.

 ______ 4. If you have a problem, you are welcome top discuss it with me before you try to resolve them.

 ______ 5. I know you had a terrible time last week, but you must try to forget about it.

                                                                     Toefl Preparation Module

______ 6.   At the start of the program, each student needs to see his advisor about his schedule.

______ 7. In spite of its small size, these video recorders produce excellent tapes.

______ 8. Whatever the situation, you should reflect profoundly about them before coming to a decision.

______ 9. The people I admire most are those who manage to solve their own problems.

______ 10. If anyone stops while I am at the meeting, please take a message from them.

EXERCISE (Skills 43-45): Circle the pronouns and possessive in the following sentences. Then indicates if the
sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

____ 1. Helicopters are being used more and more in emergency situations because of its ability to reach out-of-the-way
____ 2. The worker was fired by the chemical company because his refused to work with certain dangerous chemicals.
____ 3. If you have car trouble while driving on the freeway, you should pull your car over to the side of the freeway
and wait for help.
____ 4. The administration will not install the new security system because they cost so much.
____ 5. Some parents prefer to send their children to private schools because they believe the children will be better
____ 6. The air traffic controller was not blamed for the accident because he had strictly followed the correct
____ 7. The new student has been assigned to work on the project with you and I.
____ 8. Many different kinds of aspirin are on the market, but theirs effectiveness seems to be equal.
____ 9. You must bring a tent and a sleeping bag for your trip to the Sieeras.
____10. Each of the team members had their new uniform.

TOEFL EXERCISE (Skills 43-45): Choose the letters of the underlined word or group of words that is not correct.

____ 1. Superman made their comic debut in 1938 in Action Comics.
                    A      B           C              D
____ 2. Commercial letters of credit are often used to finance export trade, but them can have other uses.
                                              A                   B                 C                 D
____ 3. When children experience too much frustration, its behavior ceases to be integrated.
                           A        B                      C               D
____ 4. On march 30, 1981, President Reagan was shot as his was leaving a Washington hotel.
                                                    A      B C             D
____ 5. Although the destruction that it causes is often terrible, cyclones benefit a much wider belt than they devastate.
                                          A                                  B         C                     D
____ 6. President Andrew Jackson had an official cabinet, but him preferred the advice of his informal advisors, the
                                              A                     B      C                  D
        Kitchen Cabinet.
____ 7. After Clarence Day‟s book Life with Father was rewritten as a play, they ran for six years on Broadway.
                  A                                               B              C          D
____ 8. Almost half of the Pilgrims did not survive theirs first winter in the New World.
         A        B                                     C     D
____ 9. There was no indication from the Senate that he would agree with the decision made in the House.
         A                 B                            C                                   D
____10. A baby learns the meanings of words as they are spoken by others and later uses him in sentences.
                                                     A                     B        C         D

TOEFL REVIEW EXERCISE (Skill 1-45): Choose the letter of the word or group of words that best completes the

1. ____ worst phase of the Depression, more than thirteen million American had no jobs.
   (A) It was in the
   (B) During the
   (C) While the
   (D) The

2. When reading a book, you must keep your point of view separate from the point of view in ____ you are studying.
   (A) That
   (B) The material and
   (C) The materials that
   (D) The materials that are

3. Speech consist not merely of sounds but ____ that follow various structural patterns.
    (A) Of organized sound patterns
    (B) Organized sound patterns
    (C) That sound patterns are organized
    (D) In organizing sound patterns

Choose the letter of the underlined word or group of words that is not correct.

                                                                        Toefl Preparation Module


____ 4. The latest medical report indicated that the patient‟s temperature was near normal and their lungs were partially
         A                                                                         B                  C       D
____ 5. Most oxygen atoms have eight neutrons, but a small amount have nine or ten.
         A                     B                                 C                 D
____ 6. When Paine expressed his belief in independence, he praised by the public.
                                 A B                             C            D
____ 7. A vast quantity of radioactive material is made when does a hydrogen bomb explode.
         A                           B            C                       D
____ 8. Games have several alternative form, or alleles, which are produced by mutations.
                           A               B                  C           D
____ 9. A star that used up its energy and has lost its heat became a black dwarf.
                 A           B                           C       D
____ 10. Each lines of poetry written in blank verse has ten syllables, which are alternately stressed and unstressed.
                  A               B                      C                         D


                                     BASIC USE OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVEBS
ADJECTIVES                   Adjectives describe nouns or pronouns.
ADVERBS                      Adverbs describe verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs.

EXERCISE 46: Each of the following sentences contains at least one adjective or adverb. Circle the adjectives and
adverbs, and label them. Draw arrows to the words they describe. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or
incorrect (I).

___I___ 1. The mother was pleasant surprised when her daughter came to visit.
                            Adj.      Adj.

___C__ 2.    The salespeople frequently visit the East Coast for trade show.

______ 3.   He was driving an expensive sports car.

______ 4. There is a special program on television this evening.

______ 5.   She was chosen for the leading part because she sings so well.

______ 6. The car was not complete ready at 3:00.

______ 7. It was difficult to believe that what we read in the newspaper was a truly story.

______ 8. Points will be subtracted for each incorrect answered question.

______ 9.   The production manager quietly requested a completely report of the terribly incident.

______ 10. The children finished their homework quickly so they could watch television.


                                     ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS AFTER VERBS

                               (subject)       +       (regular verb)           +      (adverb)

A regular verb is followed by an adverb. The adverb describes the verb.

                              (subject)       +        (linking verb)          +       (adjective)

A linking verb is followed by an adjective. The adjectives describes the subject.

                 (subject)       +         (linking verb)       +           (adverb)      +          (adjective)

It is possible that a linking verb is followed by an adverb and an adjective. The adverb describes the adjective and the
adjective describes the subject.

LINKING VERBS :                      appear                         feel                      seem
                                     be                             look                      smell
                                     become                         prove                     taste

                                                                       Toefl Preparation Module

EXERCISE 47: Each of the following sentences contains at least one adjective or adverb. Circle the adjectives and
adverbs, and label them. Draw arrows to the words they describe. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or
incorrect (I).

___I__ 1. The parents seem angrily about the child‟s report card.

__C__ 2. The speaker talked knowingly about prehistoric fossils.

______ 3.   After he drank the lemonade, the cake tasted too sweetly to her.

______ 4. Throughout dinner we were bored because he spoke incessantly.

______ 5.   Sam felt terribly depressed after the accident.

______ 6.   The neighbor appeared calm in spite of the fact that his house was on fire.

______ 7.   He looked quite unhappily at the tough of leaving.

______ 8.   Marla jump up quick when she heard the gunshot.

______ 9.   Even though we were not really hungry, the food smelled deliciously.

______ 10. The history course that I took last semester proved more difficultly than I had expected.


                               THE POSITION OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
ADJECTIVES          A one-word adjective comes before the noun it describes. It does not come directly after.
ADVERBS             An adverb can appear in many positions. It cannot be used between a verb and its object.

EXERCISE 48: Each of the following sentences contains at least one adjective or adverb. Circle the adjectives and
adverbs, and label them. Draw arrows to the words they describe. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or
incorrect (I).

___I__ 1.   The store opened with a sale fantastic.

__C__ 2. The pharmacist has always filled our order quickly.
                              ADV                    ADV
______ 3. The political candidates expressed their opposing views.

______ 4. The lawyer has selected carefully a new case.

______ 5.   Frequently the coffee has tasted bitter.

______ 6. The wedding reception was held a restaurant expensive.

______ 7. The salesclerk has often traveled to New York.

______ 8.   Following the failure of the sets of plans, the manager has altered subsequently them.

______ 9. The students had to study many hours daily during the program intensive.

______ 10. The naval officer asked to transfer to a foreign country.

EXERCISE (Skill 46- 48): Circle the adjectives and adverbs in the following sentences. Draw arrows to the words they
describe. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or in correct (I).

____ 1. They were unable to see where their friends were sitting in the theater because of the lights dim.
____ 2. After the comprehensive exam, she looked exhaustedly by the experience.
____ 3. The project was remarkable close to being finished.
____ 4. Mark always does his homework careful.
____ 5. The program proved far more interesting than I had imagined it would be.
____ 6. The student had attended regularly all the lectures in the series.
____ 7. The patient became healthy after the operation.
____ 8. The grandparents speak proudly about all their offspring.
____ 9. The manager seemed certainly that the project would be finished under budget.
____10. The firefighters worked feverishly, and they put out immediately the fire.

TOEFL EXERCISE (Skill 46-48): Choose the letter of the underlined word or group of words that is not correct.

____ 1. Modern art is on display at the Guggenhein Museum, a building with an unusually design.

                                                                     Toefl Preparation Module

              A               B                                    C                    D
____ 2. By the beginning of the 1980s fifteen states had adopted already no-fault insurance laws.
                                 A                               B              C          D
____ 3. Heart attacks are fatally in 75 percent of occurrences.
              A               B             C            D
____ 4. In spite of a tremendous amount of electronic gadgetry, air traffic control still depends heavy on people.
                            A          B           C                                                 D
____ 5. Only recently have Gooden‟s industrially designers and engineers been able to optimize Watertred‟s unusual
                   A                        B                                                                      C
         tread patterns for mass production.
____ 6. A baboon‟s arms appear as lengthily as its legs.
                A             B          C         D
____ 7. A serious problem is how to communicate reliable with a submerged submarine.
                   A             B                     C                 D
____ 8. Americans are destroying rapidly wetlands, faster than an acre every two minutes.
              A                  B                         C                  D
____ 9. The central banking system of the United States consists of twelve banks districts.
                 A       B                                    C                    D
____ 10. Telegraph service across the Atlantic was successful established in 1866.
                         A      B                         C         D

TOEFL REVIEW EXERCISE (Skill 1-48) : choose the letter of the word or group of words that best completes the

1. Patty Berg, the top tournament winner in women‟s golf, ____ eighty-three golf tournaments from 1935 through 1964
   (A) She won
   (B) winning
   (C)    won
   (D) who won

2. ____ with about fifteen times its weight in air does gasoline allow the carburetor .
   (A) It is mixed
   (B) To mix it
   (C) When mixed
   (D) Only when mixed

Choose the letter of the underlined word or group of words that is not correct.

____ 3. The Colorado River reaches their maximum height during April and May.
                                   A   B                C      D
____ 4. Plants proteins tend to have few amino acids than protein from animal sources.
              A           B            C                                     D
____ 5. The Viking spacecraft has landed on Mars in July of 1976.
         A                        B         C       D
____ 6. Admiral Byrd commanded airplane expeditions over both the Arctic or the Antarctic.
                            A                     B       C                 D
____ 7. The advertising campaign will be based on the recent completed study
                  A                   B                   C         D
____ 8. Coronary occlusion results from a disease in which fatty substances with a large amount of cholesterol is
                                     A                B                                    C                   D
        deposited in the arteries.
____ 9. Her money gave back as soon as she threatened to take the matter to court.
                         A           B             C       D
____10. Other sites of fossil discoveries throughout Wyoming, ranging from the fiery Tyranmosaurus rex to the milder
              A                                                    B                                              C
           Triceratops , have proven equally excite.


                                                     -LY ADJECTIVES
  Costly                   Likely                   Daily                    Quarterly            Northerly
  Early                    Lively                   Hourly                   Weekly               Easterly
  Friendly                 Lonely                   Monthly                  Yearly               Southerly
  Kindly                   Manly                    Nightly                  Lovely               Westerly

EXERCISE 49: Each of the following sentences contains at least one adjective or adverb ending in -ly. Circle the -ly
words, and label them as either adjectives or adverb. Draw arrows to the words they describe. Then indicate if the
sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

__C__ 1. Federal taxes are yearly taxes which must be paid every April.

                                                                     Toefl Preparation Module

__I___ 2.   At the fashion show, the new seasonally fashions will be shown.

______ 3.   Do you want to go to the early movie or lately movie?

______ 4.   She offered me some friendly advice about how to deal with the terribly problem.

______ 5. The quarterly report need to be turned in at the next weekly meeting.

______ 6.   He did not have a manly reaction to the negatively comment.

______ 7. The likely outcome of the purchase of the costly car is that he will not be able to pay his monthly bill.

______ 8. The days she spent at the beach house were lonely and solitarily.

______ 9.   She takes her daily medication on a regularly schedule.

______ 10. The kindly neighbor paid hourly visit to her unhealthily friend.


                                                PREDICATE ADJECTIVES
                 PREDICATE ADJECTIVES                            FORMS USED IN FRONT OF NOUN
                         Alike                                            Like, similar
                         Alive                                            Live, living
                         Alone                                                Lone
                        Afraid                                             Frightened
                        Asleep                                              Sleeping

  A predicate adjective appears after a linking verb such as be. It cannot appear directly in front of the noun that it

EXERCISE 50: Each of the following sentences contains a predicative adjectives or its related form. Circle the
predicative adjectives or its related form. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

__C__ 1. The two brothers do not look at all alike.

__I___ 2.   My friend brought the alive lobster to my house and expected me to cook it.

______ 3.   Are you going to be lone in the house tonight?

______ 4. The afraid child cried for his mother.

______ 5.   Everyone else was asleep by the time I arrived home.

______ 6. We completed our two projects in a like manner.

______ 7.   All the crash victims were alive when they were found.

______ 8.   She tried to walk quietly by the asleep dogs without waking them.

______ 9. Were you feeling afraid when you heard the noise?

______ 10. According to the report, the president was shot by an alone gunman.


                                              -ED AND –ING ADJECTIVES
  TYPE             MEANING                              USE                               EXAMPLE
  -ING              Active             It does the action of the verb     … the happily playing children…
                                                                          (The children play.)
    -ED               Passive          It receives the action of the verb … the frequently played record                  …
                                                                          (Someone plays the record.)

EXERCISE 51: Each of the following sentences contains either an –ed or an –ing verbal adjective. Circle the verbal
adjective. Draws arrows to the words they describe. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

___I___ 1. The teacher gave a quiz on the just completing lesson

__C___ 2. There is a fascinating movie at the theater tonight.

______ 3. They thought that it had been a very satisfied dinner.

                                                                       Toefl Preparation Module

______ 4. The empty bottles are to the left, and the filling bottles are to the right.

______ 5.    For lunch at the restaurant she ordered a mix salad.

______ 6. The students thought that it was an interesting assignment.

______ 7. The shoppers were impressed by the reducing prices.

______ 8.    He can‟t afford to take long vacation to exotic places because he is a worked man.

______ 9. I recently received several annoying phone calls from the insurance agents.

______ 10. Today the bookkeeper is working on the unpaying bills.

EXERCISE (Skill 49- 51): Circle the adjectives in each of following sentences. Draw arrows to the noun or
pronouns they describe. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or in correct (I).

____ 1. Her kindly words of thanks made me feel appreciating.
____ 2. After the earthquake, assistance was sent to the damaging areas.
____ 3. Your view has some validity; however, we do not have alike opinions on the matter.
____ 4. It is likely that the early seminar will not be the most interested.
____ 5. I prefer a live theater show to a movie.
____ 6. The thesis of your essay was not very well developed.
____ 7. The asleep children were wakened by the loud sound of the crashing thunder.
____ 8. During the nightly news there was a lively and fascinating debate.
____ 9. His car was struck by an uninsured motorist.
____10. The girl was all alone and feeling lonely in the darkened, frightened house.

TOEFL EXERCISE (Skill 49-51): Choose the letter of the underlined word or group of words that is not correct.

____ 1. As the only major American river that flowed in a west direction, the Ohio was the preferred route for settlers.
               A                                     B          C                                   D
____ 2. During the annually salmon migration from the sea to fresh water, Alaska‟s McNeil River becomes a gathering
                         A                                           B                                                  C
         place for brown bears waiting eagerly to catch their fill.
____ 3. Edelman stresses the mounting evidence showing that greatly variation on a microscopic scale is likely.
                                     A                  B            C                                            D
____ 4. Perhaps the most welcoming and friendly of the park‟s wild places in the live oak forest that surrounds the
                             A                  B                                       C
         district‟s alone visitors‟ center in Gulf Breeze.
____ 5. Halley‟s comet, viewing through a telescope, was quite impressive.
                             A        B                         C        D
____ 6. The state of deep asleep is characterized by rapid eye movement, or REM, sleep.
                        A B                 C        D
____ 7. Among the disputing section of the Monteverdi opera are the sinfonia, the prologue, and the role of Ottone.
           A            B           C                              D
____ 8. Most probably because of the likeable rapport between anchors, the night newscast on the local ABC affiliate
                   A                           B                                      C
         has recently moved well beyond its competitors in the ratings battle.
____ 9. Signing at the outset of a business deal , a contract offers the participants a certain degree of legal protection
         A                 B                                                                 C
         from costly mistakes.
____10. The story presented by Fischer is a headlong tale told so effectively that its momentum carries the reader right
                                                     A                     B                   C
         through the live endnotes.

TOEFL REVIEW EXERCISE (Skill 1-51) : choose the letter of the word or group of words that best completes
the sentence.

1. During the early nineteenth century, the Spanish missions in Alta, California ____ to be an integral part of the
   economy and productive capacity of the region.
   (A) proved
   (B) they proved
   (C) they proved it
   (D) proved it

2. Still other hurdles remain before ____ suitable for private cars.
    (A) fuel cells
    (B) become

                                                                    Toefl Preparation Module

   (C) fuel cells become
   (D) that fuel cells become

3. The daughters if Joseph LaFlesche were born into the generation of Ohama Forced to abandon tribal traditions, ____
     on the reservation, and to adapt to the while man‟s ways.
    (A) they matured
    (B) to mature
    (C) maturing
    (D) to maturity

4. Among the most revealing aspects of mining towns ____ their paucity of public open space.
   (A) was
   (B) were
   (C) it was
   (D) so

Choose the letter of the underlined word or group of words that is not correct.

____ 5. Factor analysis is used to discover how many abilities are involve in intelligence test performance.
                  A         B                 C                         D
____ 6. One of the early orders of marine mammals, manatees have evolved more than fifty millions years ago from
                    A                                                   B                          C                  D
         land animals.
____ 7. Dolphins and chimps are like in that they have been shown to have language skills.
                               A B       C             D
____ 8. In the appendix at the end of the chapter are the instructions to be used for the completion correct of the form.
                                A                  B                       C                       D
____ 9. Used sound that varies not only in time but in space, whales at close range may communicate with sonarlike
         A           B                                 C                                             D
____10. The 1898 Trans-Mississippi International Expositions has the distinction of being the last major fair which held
                                                                   A                     B                           C
         during the Victorian period.


                                     ARTICLES WITH SINGULAR NOUNS
A singular noun must have an article (a, an, the) or some other determine such as my or each. (A plural noun or an
uncountable noun may or may not have an article.

EXERCISE 52: The following sentences contain different types of nouns. Circle only the countable singular nouns.
Mark where articles (or determiners) have been omitted. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

__I___ 1. She is taking trip with friends.

__C__ 2. In my yard there are flowers, trees, and grass.

______ 3. The manager sent memo to his employees.

______ 4.   There is car in front of the building.

______ 5. The child and his friends are having milk and cookie.

______ 6.   She is studying to be an actress in films.

______ 7.   My neighbor was arrested for throwing rocks through windows.

______ 8.   We have machinery that prints ten pages each minute.

______ 9. Teacher has many students during the semester.

______ 10. Can you heat water for tea?


                                                      A AND AN
        A           A is used in front of a singular noun with a consonant sound
       AN           An is used in front of a singular noun with a vowel sound
Be careful of words beginning with letters such as u, o, e, x, or h. They may begin with either a vowel or a consonant

                                                                     Toefl Preparation Module

EXERCISE 53: Each of the following sentences contains a or an. Circle each a or an. Underline the beginning of the
word that directly follows. Pronounce the word. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

__I___ 1. The dishwasher quit quit his jopb because he was making only four dollars a hour.

__C__ 2. It was an unexpected disappointment to receive a rejection letter from the university.

______ 3.   A signature is required wherever you see a X on the form.

______ 4.   He bought half gallon of milk and a box of a hundred envelopes.

______ 5.   An objection was raised because it was such a unacceptable idea.

______ 6. There are two trees in the yard, an elm tree and a eucalyptus tree.

______ 7. The police officer was not wearing an uniform when she arrested the suspect.

______ 8. If you do not give me a hand, finishing the project on time will be an impossibility.

______ 9.   She was upset when a honest mistake was made.

______ 10. She opened a account at a local department store during a one-day sale.


                                    AGREEMENT OF ARTICLES WITH NOUNS
                                    You should never use a or an with a plural noun.

EXERCISE 54: Each of the following sentences contains a or an. Circle each a or an. Draw an arrow to the word it
describes. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

__C__ 1. She went to school in a local community.

__I___ 2.   The doctor used an other pills.

______ 3. It is necessary to have a farm or land of your own.

______ 4.   He must contact a members of the club.

______ 5.   You will need a pen or a pencil.

______ 6.   He is responsible for bringing a number of items.

______ 7.   You must write a report on a report on a subjects of your choice.

______ 8. They crossed through several forests and a stream.

______ 9. There will be another important lessons tomorrow.

______ 10. He could not give me a good reasons for what he did.


                                         SPECIFIC AND GENERAL IDEAS
ARTICLE                       MEANING                  USES
A or AN                       General idea             Use when there are many, and you do not know which one
                                                       it is.
                                                       Use when there are many, and you do not care which one
                                                       it is.
THE                           Specific idea            Use when it is the only one.
                                                       Use when there are many, and you know which one it is.

EXERCISE 55: Each of the following sentences contains one or more articles. Circle the articles. Draw arrows to the
nouns they describe. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

__I___ 1.   He took a trip on a Snake River.

__C__ 2. I‟ll meet you at the library later.

______ 3. The ball hit a child on the head.

______ 4.   He had a best grade in the class on the exam.

                                                                     Toefl Preparation Module

______ 5. The people who came here yesterday were here again today.

______ 6.   She was a most beautiful girl in the room.

______ 7. The trip that I took last year to the Bahamas was the only vacation I had all year.

______ 8. I need a piece of paper so that I can finish the report that I am working on.

______ 9.   A basketball player threw the ball to the center of the court.

______ 10. The sixth-grade class went on a field trip to visit a Lincoln memorial.

EXERCISE (Skill 52- 55): Circle the articles in the following sentences. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C)
or in correct (I).

____ 1. He took a money from his wallet to pay for sweater.
____ 2. The notebook that he left had an important assignment in it.
____ 3. Because of previous disagreements, they are trying to arrive at an understanding.
____ 4. The appearance of room could be improved by adding a green plants.
____ 5. The Senate passed law banning smoking in public workplaces.
____ 6. Each chemistry student should bring laboratory manual to a next class.
____ 7. She admitted that she made mistake but said that she had made a honest effort.
____ 8. His absence from the board meeting was a strong indications of his desire to leave the company.
____ 9. The car needed gas, so the driver stopped at a service station.
____10. Anyone taking group tour to the Hawaiian Islands must pay fee before a first of the month.

TOEFL EXERCISE (Skill 52-55): Choose the letter of the underlined word or group of words that is not correct.

____ 1. On a trip down to the bottom of the Grand Canyon, the equipment will in all probability be carried by a burros.
              A                     B               C                                                               D
____ 2. Ford designed the first large-scale assembly line at plant in Highland Park, Michigan.
                            A                  B                   C                 D
____ 3. In the human body, blood flows from a heart through the arteries, and it returns through the veins.
         A                                       B                       C                             D
____ 4. The scholarship that Wilson received to study history at Cambridge presented an unique opportunity
                A                                            B            C                D
____ 5. Observations from Earth indicate that at the solar surface, the outward magnetic field is a strongest at the polar
                                                      A                     B                          C
____ 6. A radar images of Venus add details about a planet dominated by volcanoes and lava.
         A                                B                C                         D
____ 7. In 1863 and 1864, the U.S. Congress passed the National Bank Acts which set up a system of privately owned
                                                                   A                            B                C
         banks chartered by a federal government.
____ 8. An human ear responds to a wide range of frequencies.
         A           B                     C               D
____ 9. Bacteria that live in soil and water play a vital role in recycling carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and another chemical
                                      A                  B                                                   C
         elements used by living things.
____10. During the U.S Civil War, an American balloonist organized a balloons corps in Army
                  A                        B                                  C                 D

TOEFL REVIEW EXERCISE (Skill 1-55) : choose the letter of the word or group of words that best completes the

1. In economics, “diminishing returns” describes ____ resource inputs and productions.
    (A) among
    (B) when it is
    (C) among them
    (D) the relationship between

2. When lava reaches the surface, its temperatures can be ten times ____ boiling water.
   (A) the temperature
   (B) that of
   (C) it is
   (D) more

3. Rarely ____ remove the entire root of a dandelion because of its length and sturdiness.
    (A) can the casual gardener
    (B) the casual gardener
    (C) the casual gardener will

                                                                     Toefl Preparation Module

   (D) does the casual gardener‟s

Choose the letter of the underlined word or group of words that is not correct.

____ 4. Operas can be broadly classified as either comedies or they are tragedies.
                            A         B                       C           D
____ 5. Tungsten has the highest melting point of all metals, and for this reason it is often use in equipment that must
                           A                                                          B          C
         withstand high temperatures.
____ 6. Whereas there are forty-three ant species in Great Britain, the same amount of ant species can be found in a
         A                                                           B             C                                    D
         single tree in Peru.
____ 7. People voice theirs opinions first in small groups or among friends and acquaintances.
                         A                             B        C                        D
____ 8. Inside the Lincoln Memorial is a large statue of Lincoln make from white marble.
                                        A      B                     C                   D
____ 9. Detailed photometric data of the area just north of Triton‟s equatorial region indicate the existences of thin,
                   A                                                                         B
         transparent layers of frost.
          C             D
____10. U.S. census figures indicates that people with only an elementary education can earn just halt as much as
                                 A                            B                                        C
         college graduations.



TOEFL EXERCISE (Skill 56-57): Choose the letter of the underlined word or group of words that is not correct.

____ 1. Amelia Earhart, the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic, disappeared on June 1937 while attempting to fly
                            A                            B                             C
         around the world.
____ 2. The occurrence edema indicates the presence of a serious illness.
                   A                 B                   C              D
____ 3. Atomic nuclei are believed to be composed by protons and neutrons in equal numbers for the lighter elements.
                        A       B                      C                        D
____ 4. According legend, Betsy Ross designed and sewed the first American flag.
                   A                           B                    C             D
____ 5. The middle ear is attached for the back of the throat by the Eustachian tube.
                   A                 B             C              D
____ 6. Plants that sprout, grow, bloom, produce seeds, and die within one year are classified for annuals.
                                               A                      B      C                  D
____ 7. A marionette is controlled by means strings connected to wooden bars.
                               A               B            C     D
____ 8. In July of 1861, Pat Garrett killed Pilly the kid in a house close Fort Sumner.
         A       B                                         C               D
____ 9. Many comfort heating systems using steam as a working fluid operate at the convection principle.
                                            A           B                      C D
____10. Mars‟ two small moons are irregularly shaped and covered for craters.
                   A                       B         C                   D

TOEFL REVIEW EXERCISE (Skill 1-57) : choose the letter of the word or group of words that best completes the

1. In any matter, heat tends to flow ____ to the cooler parts.
    (A) hotter parts
    (B) there are hotter parts
    (C) from the hotter parts
    (D) towards the hotter parts

2. Certain authorities claim that the costumes that people wear to parties ____ into their personalities.
    (A) give subtle insights
    (B) they give subtle insights
    (C) which give subtle insights
    (D) subtle insights

3. ____ Army camps near Washington, D.C., in 1861, Julia Ward Home wrote “The Battle Hymn of the Republic.”
    (A) she visited
    (B) after visiting
    (C) when visited
    (D) when was she visiting

                                                                    Toefl Preparation Module


Choose the letter of the underlined word or group of words that is not correct.

____ 4. The body depends in food as its primary source of energy.
                       A B          C D
____ 5. Regular programming was interrupted to broadcast a special news bulletins.
                       A                 B             C                          D
____ 6. Sulfa drugs had been used to treat bacterial infection until penicillin becomes widely available.
                                A                   B                               C     D
____ 7. Plans for both the International Monetary Fund or the World Bank were drawn up at the Bretton Woods
         A    B                                           C                           D
____ 8. Seldom Antarctic icebergs will move far enough north to disturb South Pacific shipping lanes.
                            A                       B                 C                    D
____ 9. In 1958, a largest recorded wave, with a height of 500 meters, occurred in Lituya Bay, Alaska.
                     A        B             C                                 D
____10. Exercise in swimming pools is particularly helpful because of the buoyant effect water.
                                             A         B               C                   D



                                      LIKE, ALIKE, UNLIKE, AND DISLIKE
            GRAMMAR             MEANING                                          USE
 Like        Adjective           Similar     As an adjective, like is used before a noun.
 Alike       adjective           Similar     As an adjective, alike is used after a linking verb

  Like       Preposition          Similar        Both prepositions are followed by are followed by objects. They can
 Unlike      Preposition         Different       both be used in many positions, including at the beginning of the

 Like           Verb              Enjoy          Both verbs follow subjects
Dislike         Verb             Not enjoy


                                                      SINGULAR                                   PLURAL
                                          I have another book                      I have other books
            INDEFINATE                    I have another                           I have others

                                          I have the other book                    I have the other books.
             DEFINITE                     I have the other                         I have the others.

EXERCISE (Skills 58-60): Circle the words in the following sentences that are commonly confused on the
TOEFL test. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

____ 1. When the car‟s odometer reached 100,000, she decided that it was time to buy another car.
____ 2. Every time someone does an error in the program, several extra hours of work are created.
____ 3. Like the fashions shown in this magazine, the fashions in the other magazine are quite expensive.
____ 4. Because the main highway is crowded at this hour, the driver should try to find another routes to the stadium.
____ 5. Although the two signatures are supposed into be exactly the same, they are not at all like.
____ 6. The decorators did the shopping for the material and made curtains for the windows.
____ 7. Before the administrator reads the stack of paper in his desk, he should sign the others that are on the file
____ 8. The committee is doing the arrangements for the Saturday evening banquet.
____ 9. When he made several other big mistakes, he did his apologies to the others in the office.
____ 10. Perhaps the designer could select others styles if these are inappropriate.

TOEFL EXERCISE (Skill 58-60): Choose the letter of the underlined word or group of words that is not correct.

____ 1. The buffalo and the bison are like except for the size and shape of the head and shoulders.
                                     A B         C            D
____ 2. Other interesting aspect of tachistopic training in recent years has been the newfound use by professional teams.
           A      B                                                          C                   D
____ 3. Only about 8 percent of oil wells actually do aprofit.
              A                      B        C      D
____ 4. Dislike sumac with red berries, sumac with white berries is poisonous.
           A             B                                          C     D
____ 5. Pittsburgh has reduced its smog by requiring more complete oxidation of fuel in cars, and others cities can do
                                A                        B                                            C               D
         the same thing.

                                                                     Toefl Preparation Module

____ 6. Alike all other mammals, dolphins have lungs.
          A B C                                D
____ 7. Up to World War II almost all important research in physics had been made in universities, with only university
                A                                                B                       C                 D
         funds for support.
____ 8. Because the plan that was made yesterday is no longer feasible, the manager had to choose another alternatives.
                                 A                         B                               C                     D
____ 9. Particles with unlike charges attract each other, while particles with alike charges repel each other.
                         A                                   B                   C                        D
____ 10. One another surprising method of forest conservation is controlled cutting of trees.
               A            B                             C               D

TOEFL REVIEW EXERCISE (Skill 1-60) : choose the letter of the word or group of words that best completes the

1. Wild Bill Hickok ____ for the Union Army during the Civil War by posing as a Confederate officer.
   (A) spied
   (B) spying
   (C) a spy
   (D) was spied

2. ____ was unusable as farmland and difficult to traverse, the Badlands is an area in South Dakota
   (A) So named because it
   (B) Because of
   (C) it
   (D) Naming it

Choose the letter of the underlined word or group of words that is not correct.

____ 3. Titania, photographed by Voyager 2 in 1986, has significantly fewer craters than another moons of Uranus.
                       A                                   B                   C                  D
____ 4. The author Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald is better know as F. Scott Fitzgerald.
              A                                          B       C D
____ 5. The result of the failure to plan for the future is that a child from an urban area must be took to the country to
                                                             A                    B                    C
         see nature.
____ 6. This machine can print on a single pieces of paper, but only if the level is facing the front of the machine.
          A                                     B                      C                 D
____ 7. The development of permanent teeth, alike that of deciduous teeth, begins before birth.
                                                    A B                              C           D
____ 8. A crowd of several hundred fan watched the ceremony from behind a fence.
                        A               B       C                          D
____ 9. Unlike other architects of the early modern movement, Alvar Aalto stressed informality, personal expressions
            A     B
         romantic, and regionality in his work.
              C                            D
____ 10. Color blindness may exist at birth or many occur later in life as a result for disease or injury.
                  A               B                                 C                  D


1.   With the passing of time and the encroachment of people, the habitat of gorillas __________ to decrease.
     (A) continuing
     (B) which continue
     (C) continues
     (D) that it has continued

2.   Sugar intake, particularly that of refined sugar, ________ curtailed by most overweight people wishing to lessen
     their corpulence.
     (A) must being
     (B) which must
     (C) must be
     (D) must

3.   In recent months, the final mapping of the human genome ________ the range of medical treatments and cures
     available to those suffering from various diseases.
     (A) has extended
     (B) extends
     (C) will extend
     (D) will have extended

                                                                     Toefl Preparation Module

4.   Intelligent life on other planets, while remaining an intriguing possibility, ________ yet to be discovered.
     (A) has
     (B) has been
     (C) has not
     (D) have

5.   Despite being basically arboreal in nature, koalas ________ to inhabit a specific territory and range of some 30
     square miles.
     (A) Knowing
     (B) which know
     (C) are knowing
     (D) are known

6.   Initially elected as a labor leader, Jimmy Hoffa _________ mysteriously.
     (A) vanishing
     (B) who vanished
     (C) vanished
     (D) vanishes
7.   Broccoli _________ best in gardens having loose, well-composted soil, and full sunlight.
     (A) had grown
     (B) grows
     (C) growing
     (D) which grows

8.   Many of the novels of Kurt Vonnegut __________ a remarkable skepticism about the ultimate value of
     technological advances.
     (A) display
     (B) will have displayed
     (C) they display
     (D) had displayed

9.   Because copper is nonconductive, it __________ for housing electrical cords and circuitry.
     (A) values
     (B) is valued
     (C) is being valuable
     (D) has valued

10. Numerous performances of Mozart's operas __________ in Austria long before the beginning of the 19th century.
    (A) perform
    (B) had been performed
    (C) had performed
    (D) were performing

Answers: C, C, A, A, D, C, B, A, B, B


1.   In __________, the crime rate has begun to drop due to neighborhood
     (A) the past few years
     (B) a few years ago
     (C) few years
     (D) a few years since

2.   Three responsibilities ________ are to search out, identify, and assess patentable inventions and technologies.
     (A) to a patent manager
     (B) with a patent manager
     (C) on a patent manager
     (D) of a patent manager

3.   Disappointingly, many software companies have discovered a limited audience for ________ from the couch.
     (A) web surfing
     (B) web to surf
     (C) to Web surf
     (D) web surfs

4.   Shooting stars, otherwise known as meteorites, often fall to Earth in a pattern dictated ________ and Earth rotation.
     (A) to solar winds
     (B) by solar winds
     (C) on solar winds
     (D) which solar winds

5.   Ink stains, commonly regarded __________ difficult stains to remove, will not succumb to the usual array of
     detergents and cleaners found in supermarkets.
     (A) as the most

                                                                   Toefl Preparation Module

     (B) to the most
     (C) in the most
     (D) through the most

6.   Examples of selective use __________ are found in commercial leaf removal prior to harvest in the cotton and
     sugar beet industries.
     (A) of defoliants
     (B) by defoliants
     (C) in defoliants
     (D) through defoliants

7.   Ethyl cyanoacetate is derived __________ of an alkali cyanide and chloroacetic ethyl ester.
     (A) at the reaction
     (B) from the reaction
     (C) to the reaction
     (D) above the reaction

8.   On the second level of mammalian evolution, that __________ mammals or marsupials, the eggs are practially
     (A) to the pouching
     (B) of the pouched
     (C) in the pouches
     (D) by the pouchable

9.   Foraging ants make a network __________ around the nest.
     (A) inside roads
     (B) by roads
     (C) of roads
     (D) to roading

10. __________ its richness and varied coloring, Schubert's Symphony in C has enjoyed a deserved reputation among
    classical music lovers.
    (A) Renowning by
    (B) Renownable to
    (C) Renowned for
    (D) Renowning with

Answers: A, D, A, B, A, A, B, B, C, C


1.   __________ was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for his work on the photoelectric effect.
     (E) That Einstein
     (F) It was Einstein
     (G) Einstein who
     (H) Einstein

2.   ________ of Willa Catha present an unadorned picture of life on the prairies of the Midwestern United States
     during the 19th century.
     (A) The stories who
     (B) That the novels
     (C) The novels which
     (D) The novels

3.   Unlike the climate of the other islands of Hawaii, ________ Kona contains 54 different temperate zones.
     (A) that of
     (B) this is
     (C) these are
     (D) those that

4.   With few exceptions, ________ are warm-blooded, have live births, and are suckled with milk from their mother‟s
     (A) which mammals
     (B) mammals
     (C) mammals that
     (D) mammals, they

5.   Among all the scientists of the 1930s, ________ was so suited to carry out the Manhattan project as J. Robert
     (A) no scientists
     (B) not who was a scientist
     (C) none
     (D) a scientist never he

                                                                    Toefl Preparation Module

6.   By the time of the appearance of "Paulus", __________ was widely recognized as the most famous living composer.
     (A) it was Felix Mendelssohn
     (B) Felix Mendelssohn who
     (C) Felix Mendelssohn
     (D) Felix Mendelssohn whom
7.   __________ is as widespread in the U.S. as the grey squirrel, an animal actually classified as a rodent.
     (A) No mammal
     (B) Not a mammal which
     (C) None mammal
     (D) Not a mammal that

8.   In the quiet of the woods, __________ sometimes hears the thrush breaking snail shells.
     (A) the one
     (B) one
     (C) ones
     (D) those ones

9.   __________ is a growing practice in cooperative farming associations to pool and sell the fruit as a common
     commodity under the brands of the association rather than to sell the fruit of each grower separately.
     (A) There
     (B) One
     (C) It, which
     (D) Why

10. The __________ the forest reached their highest price in the 1980s.
    (A) products of
    (B) productions by
    (C) producers to
    (D) products with

Answers: D, D, A, B, C, C, A, B, A, A


1.   Emma Thompson was nominated for an Academy Award as both a screenwriter __________ an actress in 1996.
     (A) also
     (B) or
     (C) in addition
     (D) and

2.   With neither a naturally aggressive disposition ________ particularly large size, the mimic octopus survives quite
     easily because of its natural adaptations.
     (A) and a
     (B) with its
     (C) nor a
     (D) or its

3.   Above-ground swimming pools have ________ the flexibility of being able to be moved from place to place but
     also the efficiency of using less water than standard in-ground pools.
     (A) That
     (B) All
     (C) in addition
     (D) not only

4.   Life in the Sahara has many negative features including aridity and high temperatures but many positive aspects
     (A) in addition to
     (B) as well
     (C) coupled with
     (D) plus

5.   As a universal language, Esperanto has never really gained widespread acceptance ________ its lack of native
     (A) because
     (B) as a result
     (C) in order to
     (D) due to

6.   Readily soluble in sulfuric and nitric acid, mercury is __________ birth defects can easily result from its ingestion
     by pregnant women.
     (A) such poisonous that
     (B) so poisonous that
     (C) too poisonous that
     (D) very poisonous that

                                                                    Toefl Preparation Module


7.   Synthetic polymers may be __________ thermoplastic or thermosetting depending on the action of tolylene
     (A) Both
     (B) as well as
     (C) but also
     (D) either

8.   Road conditions in the United States suffered a severe setback __________ of the Civil War.
     (A) as a result of
     (B) because
     (C) despite
     (D) in spite of the fact that

9.   __________ other mollusks, the oyster reproduces by eggs.
     (A) Like
     (B) As to
     (C) Regarding
     (D) With

10. The introduction of the Japanese persimmon into the United States aroused widespread interest throughout the
    country __________ the precocity of the trees and the large size and great beauty of the fruit.
    (A) on account of
    (B) because
    (C) nevertheless
    (D) owing with

Answers: D, C, D, B, D, B, D, A, A, A


1.   Because of its warm tropical climate, Hawaii __________ subzero temperatures.
     (A) almost experiences never
     (B) experiences never almost
     (C) experiences almost never
     (D) almost never experiences

2.   In flush financial times, ________ on Wall Street may employ as many as 800 stock brokers and managers.
     (A) a brokerage typical stock
     (B) typically stock, a brokerage
     (C) a stock typical brokerage
     (D) a typical stock brokerage

3.   Even at the peak of its power, the circulating column of air at the core of a tornado ________ in excess of 250 miles
     per hour.
     (A) almost never reaches
     (B) reaches almost never
     (C) almost reaches never
     (D) reaches never almost

4.   Among the many unusual creatures of the high Nepalese forests _________ with genetic ties hearkening back to the
     time of mammoths.
     (A) a breed is of unusual elephants
     (B) is an unusual breed of elephants
     (C) an unusual breed is of elephants
     (D) elephants are an unusual breed

5.   Not only __________ a strong swimmer but also, as its name suggests, it can walk for miles with little rest.
     (A) the booby blue footed is
     (B) the blue footed booby is
     (C) is the blue footed booby
     (D) footed is the booby blue

6.   "Earth" is a __________ appearing in somewhat impure or diluted form.
     (A) naturally occurring metal oxide
     (B) occurred naturally oxide metal
     (C) oxide metal occurring naturally
     (D) metal occurring naturally oxide

                                                                   Toefl Preparation Module


7.   Wagner's son, Siegfried, was __________ despite being devoid of originality and force.
     (A) a man young, talented extremely
     (B) a young man, extremely talented
     (C) a talented young man extremely
     (D) an extremely talented young man

8.   __________, Buffon, studied tree sloths intensively before dying in 1788.
     (A) The great French naturalist
     (B) The naturally great French
     (C) The French greatly natural
     (D) Naturally, the great French

9.   __________ the import trade appreciate the proportion of imported food and drug stuffs.
     (A) Few persons not associated with
     (B) Not few persons associated with
     (C) Associated with not a few persons
     (D) With not a few persons associated,

10. Beaver dams vary in size from __________ to branchy shrubbed obstacles thwarting the flow of water.
    (A) log barriers large
    (B) large log barriers
    (C) barriers log large
    (D) log large barriers

Answers: D, D, A, B, C, A, D, A, A, B


1.   From the inception of his long and distinguished career, Frank Lloyd Wright was concerned with how __________
     architecture with topography.
     (A) integrating
     (B) to integrate
     (C) did he integrate
     (D) integrated

2.   Legendary home of the Nabateans, Petra is known ________ housed more than 15,000 residents at one time.
     (A) to have
     (B) to be
     (C) is
     (D) which

3.   Unless an observer knows ________ an eclipse properly, severe retinal and cornea damage can result.
     (A) to observing
     (B) how observing
     (C) how to observe
     (D) to have observed

4.   Sibling confrontations containing the seeds of unrequited hostility can serve ________ familial difficulties lasting
     for years.
     (A) the creation of
     (B) to create
     (C) creating
     (D) that creates

5.   Judging from the blurry image of his right leg in many of his “seated” photographs, Abraham Lincoln is thought
     ________ from Marfon‟s Disease.
     (A) to suffer
     (B) to be suffering
     (C) to have suffered
     (D) to have been suffered

6.   The most important function of the Department of Agriculture is __________ for providing a sufficient and
     wholesome supply of food for the nation's people.
     (A) when supplying the means
     (B) to supply the means
     (C) to have supplied the means
     (D) that to supply the means
7.   Knowing __________ the alarm for an impending earthquake is a crucial problem confronting seismologists.
     (A) when to sound
     (B) to have sounded
     (C) that to sound
     (D) to sound that

8.   The Asiatic wild ass, otherwise known as the "onager," is famed for knowing __________ fast.

                                                                    Toefl Preparation Module

     (A)   running
     (B)   to run
     (C)   how to run
     (D)   how to have run

9.   Lafon's reagent, a solution of ammonium or sodium selenite, finds use as a test __________ codeine.
     (A) detection
     (B) to detect
     (C) to have detected
     (D) to detectable

10. Thomas Edison is generally considered _________ one of the most productive of all inventors.
    (A) to be
    (B) to have been
    (C) being
    (D) who was

Answers: B, A, C, B, C, B, A, C, B, B.


1.   Egyptian pyramids were regularly robbed despite their intricate passageways, byzantine mazes, and __________.
     (A) walls which were false
     (B) they had false walls
     (C) false walls
     (D) walls of falsity

2.   In the years following the American Revolution and prior to the establishment of a national government,
     Washington provided the fledgling country with keen economic insight, _________, and astute international
     (A) a recognition of stability that was domestic
     (B) to stabilize the domestic situation
     (C) which was domestically stable
     (D) a sense of domestic stability

3.   Despite the appearance of being merely pests, ants can serve a garden by eliminating other bothersome insects and
     (A) they can aerate the soil
     (B) aerating the soil
     (C) to aerate the soil
     (D) that can aerate the soil

4.   From Wrangell Island to Anchorage, Alaskan glacial formations rival those ________ and ones located in northern
     (A) found in Antarctica
     (B) which are found in Antarctica
     (C) finding in Antarctica
     (D) they find in Antarctica

5.   The undergirding of cars is adversely affected ________ and excessive jostling.
     (A) in extremely salty
     (B) by extreme salinity
     (C) which is extremely salty
     (D) with salt that is extreme

6.   The red-headed clytus is a close relative of the banded ash borer and __________ considerable damage to the wood
     of dead and dying ash.
     (A) doing
     (B) to do
     (C) its
     (D) does
7.   The continued use of the soils of the Ozark region is no longer possible because of a number of factors, both natural
     and __________.
     (A) those of which are artificial
     (B) artificial
     (C) artificially
     (D) artificiality

8.   The common puffin is a member of the very well-defined family of auks, including _________, guillemonts,
     razorbills, and the extinct greak auk.
     (A) those little auks
     (B) the auks which are little
     (C) little auks
     (D) auks that are little

                                                                     Toefl Preparation Module

9.   Aluminum, __________, ductile metal, is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust.
     (A) a silver
     (B) that is a silversmith
     (C) a silvery
     (D) that is silver

10. Comparing __________ with a melody by Rossini or a scherzo by Beethoven, brings into focus the difference
    between schools of music
    (A) a Jensonian nocturne
    (B) a nocturne which belongs to Jensen
    (C) a nocturne whose Jensen
    (D) a nocturne by Jensen

Answers: C, D, B, A, B, D, B, C, C, D


1.   The Duncan sofa, __________ is highly valued in today's antique furniture market.
     (A) a colonial masterpiece,
     (B) a colonial masterpiece which
     (C) it is a colonial masterpiece that
     (D) whose colonial masterpiece

2.   Ulysses S. Grant, ________, showed great magnanimity in receiving the surrender of his arch-rival, Robert E. Lee
     at the end of the Civil War.
     (A) that was the supreme commander of Northern forces
     (B) who supremely commanding Northern forces
     (C) he was the supreme commander of Northern forces
     (D) the supreme commander of Northern forces

3.   Though renowned for his work with the deaf, Alexander Graham Bell is best remembered for his invention of the
     telephone, ________.
     (A) that it was an invention of ingenuity and impact
     (B) it was an invention of ingenuity and impact
     (C) an invention of ingenuity and impact
     (D) invention ingeniously and impaction

4.   Mars, __________, has been a source of human fascination for untold generations of sky gazers.
     (A) the fourth planet from the Sun
     (B) it is the fourth planet from the Sun
     (C) which the fourth planet from the Sun is it
     (D) is it the fourth planet from the Sun

5.   Of all the saturated vegetable oils, coconut oil, ________, has the greatest concentration of polysaturated oils.
     (A) that derived it from the meat of the coconut
     (B) it is derived from the meat of the coconut
     (C) derived from the meat of the coconut
     (D) is derived it from the meat of the coconut

6.   Recently, severe management problems have afflicted Coca-Cola, __________.
     (A) which is a large multinational corporation
     (B) a large multinational corporation
     (C) there is a large multinational corporation
     (D) a large multinational corporation is it

7.   Chopin, a famous Polish composer, died at Place Vendome, ___________.
     (A) a famous Paris square
     (B) it is a famous Paris square
     (C) a famous Paris square which
     (D) that is a famous Paris square

8.   Henry and June, __________ was bowdlerized at first publication.
     (A) what a novel of sexual exploration
     (B) it is a novel of sexual exploration
     (C) which it explored sexuality,
     (D) a novel of sexual exploration,

9.   Arachidic acid, __________ is used in organic synthesis, lubricating greases, waxes, and plastics.
     (A) a widely distributed but minor component of the fats of peanut oils and related plant species,
     (B) widely distributed, it is a minor component of the fats of peanut oils and related plant species
     (C) a minor component of the fats of peanut oils and related plant species that it is widely distributed
     (D) a minor component widely distributed of the fats of peanut oils and related plant species

10. The common sand crab, __________, carries a small garden on top of its shell.

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     (A)   which it is Hyas araneus
     (B)   is it Hyas araneus
     (C)   there it is Hyas araneus
     (D)   Hyas araneus

Answers: A, D, C, A, C, B, A, D, A, D


1.   Having weekly family talks can be an important means of exploring sensitive family issues, redefining sibling
     relationships, and to foster new familial bonds.

2.   Three goals of the Sierra Club are to encourage environmental conservation, lobbying for environmental issues in
     Washington, D.C., and develop youth awareness of environmental concerns.

3.   Acumen that was political, knowledge of Congress, and the Southern vote were qualities that Lyndon Johnson
     brought to the national ticket in 1960.

4.   Because of their size, dachshunds are less expensive to feed, more easy to train, and more congenial than Great

5.   Electronic bulletin boards are important in the process of reviewing product performance which evaluates how a
     product operates and recommend whether one should buy it.

6.   Certain changes in the method of mailing packeted seeds including packaged, assembling, and mailing have
     obviated the necessity for rehandling by authorities.

7.   There is no doubt that a herd of elephants show much more intelligence in their ordinary life than any of the other
     gregarious vegetable feeders, such as deer, for, though these follow a leader, post sentinels, and detected every
     unusual sign or sound, they never combine to attain some end as elephants do.

8.   Production of chlorine without the attendant sodium hydroxide is attained by the electrolysis of fused chlorides such
     as lithium or magnesium and several different chemical processes such as the reaction of sodium chloride and nitric

9.   Chopin, in the "Ballade in A flat," while not confining himself to a superficial imitation, contriving to suggest in
     each stanza the chimes of that which preceded, and sums up the whole in a tremendous peroration.

10. The decrease in game can be easily attributed to the recklessness of early colonists who could be found selecting
    haunches of venison and leaving the rest of the carcass to their dogs, giving wild geese to their dogs as well, and
    burning canebreaks thereby they destroyed the habitat of many game animals and birds.

Answers: D, B, A, C, D, C, D, C, B, D


1.   There has been an alarming increase in the incidental of babies born addicted to cocaine.

2.   Lincoln's ability to hold the Union together and waging war successfully amazes historians even today.

3.   Evaluation potential Supreme Court justices is one of the most important prerogatives of the House and Senate
     Judiciary Committees.

4.   Hartwell, Georgia is well-known for the manufacturer of trampolines and of other critical trampoline components.

5.   Dependent on monetary aid from foreign countries often cripples the economies of developing countries.

6.   Light electrical stimulate of certain lobes of the brain has been known to affect great mood swings in the behavior
     of the recipients.

7.   Highly solute in alcohol, ether, and hydrocarbons, butyl acetate has a freezing point of -75 C. and a refractive index
     of 1.3951.

8.   In rivers like the Colorado, with highly banks and a changeable water level, beavers make a tunnel well under water,
     and this leads to a large burrow in the bank.

9.   The eradication of tuberculosis from animal herds in the U.S. was once thought completely, but now forms of the
     disease have been diagnosed in such animals as buffalo.

10. It is of general as well as scientific interest to ascertain to what extent mental activity compares with muscular
    activity with respect to the bodily transformational of matter and energy attendant upon it.

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Answers: C, C, A, B, A, B, A, B, C, C


1.   The dependence of killer whale offspring in their mothers can be seen by the fact that they remain together for life.

2.   It is interesting that some the most intriguing languages in the world have originated in central Africa.

3.   The martial art of aikido is based from the principle of using the force of the opponent to the practitioner‟s

4.   In the southwestern part of the United States, most of the water comes of the Colorado River and the manmade
     lakes created from it.

5.   Temperatures along the Egyptian Sinai peninsula have been known to reach as high as 55 degrees Celsius inside the

6.   The virgin forests of Vietnam are home to some the most unusual animal species that can be found anywhere.

7.   Young oak pruner larva, after hatching of the egg, first mine in the inner bark, then enter the wood and girdle the
     twig or branch by boring around it several times in the same place.

8.   The water required to form soil fluid ranges with the texture of the solid body from 10% for sand in 40% for fine

9.   No class of imported products subject for inspection under the provisions of the food and drug act has shown more
     marked improvement than the crude drugs.

10. Bach's compositions are the outgrowths of his purely ideal way looking at the world and of his deeply religious

Answers: B, B, B, C, D, C, A, D, B, B


1.   Computer email is replacing the postal service as the reliablest mode of document transfer.

2.   The higher infant mortality rate in the world can be found in the nation of Burkina Faso.

3.   In responding to telephone surveys with detailed answers, consumers are unawares that they may be placed on
     telephone and email marketing lists.

4.   A colostomy bag, normally used in cases of colon failure, has also found utility for those suffer from extreme
     blockage of the urethra.

5.   It can be easily understood that peace negotiations involving religious factors are more difficulter to resolve than
     those which are purely political.

6.   Through intensive efforts to make its hiring policies more equitably, the Coca-Cola Company has set the standard
     for other beverage companies.

7.   The land tortoise differs from the sea tortoise in having its tail rounded, not flattened, and in not having webbing

8.   To the grower and shipper, precooling fruit is important as a means of extending the marketed area of the product.

9.   Progesterone, the femaled sex hormone, is secreted in the body by the corpus luteum, the adrenal cortex, or by the
     placenta during pregnancy.

10. Ideal purity of thought, simplicity of means, simplicity and wise orchestration, all contribute to the freshness and
    ingenuousness of Haydn's cantatas.

Answers: C, A, C, C, C, C, D, D, A, B


1.   The canine collie family is often separate into several branches including border collies and Australian collies.

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2.   George Washington, the nation's first President, caught a cold while riding, is bled profusely, and died shortly

3.   Producing two presidents, various cabinet heads, and numerous judges, the Adams family has been the preeminent
     political family of 19th century America.

4.   Because genetic researchers already will find the blueprint of the human genome, many scientists believe that cures
     to most of the major diseases will soon be found.

5.   Malaria, once thought to be completely eradicated, remained today a source of sickness through the developing

6.   Amelia Earhart, famed for her ill-fated attempt to be the first woman to fly around the world, establishes many
     intercontinental flight records during her lifetime.

7.   The opening of the seventeenth century saw a revolution in music such as has never since been paralleling.

8.   Related to the manatee, the dugong eats seaweed, but its back teeth are few and soon fallen out.

9.   The old system of paying road taxes in labor has proved inefficient and is been rapidly discarded for the better plan
     of requiring all road taxes to be paid in cash.

10. The first agricultural universities in the United States are established according to a special act of Congress passed
    on July 2, 1862.

Answers: B, C, D, B, C, D, D, D, C, A


1.   A newest computer programs contain graphics which once could only be imagined.

2.   Reputed to be the loveliest woman of her time, Helen of Troy's actual existence is the matter of historical dispute.

3.   Most of the South‟s victories occurred between years of 1860 and 1863, at the outset of the Civil War.

4.   Mozart, whose life spanned less than half century, composed a copious amount of musical works ranging from
     simple sonatas to highly complex symphonies and operas.

5.   Relatively little is known about his background and life of the famous Persian Emperor, Xerxes I.

6.   Although the water is critical to the growth of plants, the amount of water actually delivered to root systems is
     almost as important.

7.   The armature of ordinary tortoise, like the Greek tortoise, is intricately shaped and formed.

8.   When the Portuguese landed on St. Helena in the beginning of a fifteenth century, they took with them many goats.

9.   In 1834, Wagner secured the post of musical director at the Magdeburg Stadttheater, and at once embarked upon a
     composition of a second opera, 'Das Liebesverbot.'

10. The sum of an atomic weights of the atoms in a molecule is called its molecular weight.

Answers: A, C, B, B, B, A, B, D, C, B


1.   Earlier or later, a less painful method for medicine delivery than the needle will be devised.

2.   Bell's palsy is a paralytic condition that usually occurs in one side of the face but not another.

3.   Making homework assigned by a professor is one of the best ways that a student has of mastering material covered
     in class.

4.   Jimmy Carter and Walter Mondale redefined the nature of the relationship between President and Vice-President by
     having Mondale perform duties formally done by only the President.

5.   Following the conquests of Marcus Aurelius and Augustus Caesar, Roman ideas about culture and law were spread
     throughout almost of the European and Mediterranean world.

6.   Alike her father, Elizabeth I displayed an understanding of what the people wanted and how to give it to them.

7.   From time to time, conditions disclosed by inspection or questions raised in the administration of law render it
     necessary to let special studies of certain classes of food or drugs.

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8.   Quail have been reduced most to the vanishing point in the Northern states ranging from New York to New

9.   Silicone is the group name for semi-organic polymers made up of a skeleton structure of alternate silicon and
     oxygen atons with variety organic groups attached to the silicon.

10. Continental islands are done by the tops of submarine volcanoes, or by the peaks of a slowly rising mountain chain,
    or by coral growths on the shoulders of either of those.

Answers: A, D, A, D, D, A, D, B, C, A


1.   The gravitational interplay in the atmosphere of Jupiter is intriguing because of the presence of so many moon.

2.   Whether eating plant is morally unacceptable is an issue raised by only the most extreme of philosophers.

3.   Unlike those who are lactose intolerant, others are able to subsist almost entirely on a diet that is based on milks.

4.   Ecology, the branch of science that deals with the connection between living organism and their environment, has
     evolved into a required course at many universities.

5.   The ability of economists to explain such simple phenomenon as fluctuations in the stock market remains

6.   Displaying no aptitudes for language or mathematics at an early age, Einstein confounded academia by producing
     the General Theory of Relativity.

7.   In year of severity such as 1992, the cost of fighting the tobacco flea beetle has ranged from twenty to thirty dollars
     per acre.

8.   With its chisel edged front teeth the beaver cuts two parallel furrows across the grain of the wood, and then
     wrenches off the part between in a succession of chip.

9.   Experiments clearly prove that nesting birds can find their way homes from a distance of 800 miles or more across
     seas or along coasts unknown to them.

10. A group of compound with the empirical formula of CnH2n+2, paraffins vary from colorless gases to water-white

Answers: D, A, D, B, B, B, A, D, C, A


1.   Some native grasses of California are too drought resistant that they never need watering.

2.   Thomas Jefferson was a magnificent writer as well a noted scholar in the area of languages.

3.   By geological dating of rocks, scientists have determined that neither the Rocky Mountains stretching from Canada
     to Mexico or the Sierra Nevada Mountains of the Pacific Coast is the continent‟s oldest mountain chain.

4.   Some lizard societies of Sonoran Mexico are too matriarchal in nature that no males whatsoever reside in their

5.   Hiermonious Bosch produced some of the most creative paintings of the Renaissance as well some of the most

6.   Movie critics agree that Ridley Scotts‟ movies contain either an original vision of the future and a disquieting
     perspective about the past.

7.   Continental islands are made by the tops of submarine volcanoes, or by the peaks of a slowly rising mountain chain,
     or by coral growths on the shoulders of both of these.

8.   Female cockroaches are about three times more numerous as male cockroaches and have rudimentary wings.

9.   Practically as same as those obtained from eating meat, fat and protein consumption statistics from eating cheese
     show that cheese is a viable substitute when eaten in moderation.

10. Such healthy is oat bran that nutitionists recommend one serving a day is sufficient to lower cholesterol.

Answers: B, B, C, B, C, B, D, B, A, A


1.   Colonial woman, espcially those in the northern colonies, were expected to fill a wide array of responsibilities.

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2.   Few beetles are as specialized as elephant dung beetles which feed exclusively on fecal matter it obtains from

3.   The difference in Asian and European retailing methods have led to economic seminars which help importers and
     exporters to understand how to deliver their goods.

4.   The Masters Golf Tournament, one of four tournaments which make up golf‟s Grand Slam, are held each spring in
     Augusta, Georgia.

5.   That there exist much oil under the ocean off the Pacific coast of California has been known by petroleum
     companies for over half a century.

6.   The Tri-Nations Cup, which brings together the finest rugby teams from southern Pacific nations, have traditionally
     been won by the famous All-Blacks Team from New Zealand.

7.   The results that have been secured with broom corn stalks indicate that this material are suitable for immediate use
     in paper making, both on the basis of quality of fiber produced and on yield of fiber secured.

8.   The soundness in general of the bluebirds' instincts are vindicated by the fact that various natural catastrophes do
     not permanently diminish the bird population.

9.   For many years, large importations of grafted persimmon trees from Japan was made by commercial nurseries.

10. Who, since Mozart and Beethoven, have created piano concertos in which the solo instrument and the orchestra are
    in just relationship?

Answers: A, D, B, C, A, C, C, B, D, B


1.   Bill Clinton, that won the 1992 presidential election, was formerly governor of the state of Arkansas.

2.   James Buchanan, who was elected President in 1856, did little to calm the war fever that swept the country during
     its term of office.

3.   The technique of DNA fingerprinting is becoming more well known to those detectives who specialty is homicide.

4.   Casablanca is essentially a cinematic story about an expatriot American whom decides that he is living in neither
     the time nor the place for moral ambiguity.

5.   From a psychological perspective, those people who expect that the worse will happen to him are seldom

6.   Making tunnels as they go through any woody product including trees, paper, and furniture, the termite eats

7.   They have been noted by many travelers to India that when figs ripen in the groves around temples, monkeys come
     forth in troops to feast upon them.

8.   The hen has kept pace with her breed and environment and invariably gives the owner more than they receive.

9.   The American Revolution established the independence of the colonies in whose the fire of freedom had burned
     brightly for their citizens.

10. Yolo County, located in the central valley of California, has as it's capital, Woodland, a city of 75,000 inhabitants.

Answers: A, D, D, B, D, B, A, D, B, C


1.   Berbers of the western Sahara they are distinguishable by their unique language and customs.

2.   CNN, based in the southern state of Georgia, it was the first all-news television network to begin international

3.   Improved alfalfas are mostly needed in the colder states, where great hardiness is essential, and in the eastern states,
     where strains they will produce seed under humid conditions are desired.

4.   The Bureau of Biological Survey, a little known and completely misunderstood arm of the Department of
     Agriculture, it has continued its investigations of the economic relations of wild birds and mammals with special
     effort to render its work of practical importance to the stock grower.

Answers: B, B, C, C

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1.   Patients suffering from Alzheimers disease often do not know who are they.
2.   When Lance Armstrong won his second Tour de France bicycling victory, he brought his young son with him to the
     podium to receive the trophy championship.

Answers: D, B


A pocket calculator is useful for to compute difficult mathematical functions in algebra, trigonometry, geometry, and

Answer: B


Translators at the United Nations are usual hired if they can translate a speaker‟s words accurately and quickly

Answer: A


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