PROPOSED TECHNICAL FRAMEWORK FOR GREAT LAKES HABITAT/SPECIES CONSERVATION
As Great Lakes Tribes and First Nations remind us, the health of Great Lakes life support system upon which all else depends. The Lakes, for example, provide we enjoy abundant natural capital. Conversely, when these systems are degraded,
habitats and species is dependent on sustaining the processes and functioning of the us with drinking water; wetlands help control floodwaters; forests provide oxygen polluted, over-used, or wasted, this and future generations of all living species are
following systems: open/nearshore waters; coastal wetlands; coastal shore; streams, while reducing erosion and sedimentation; coastal habitats provide stability; upland impoverished.
tributaries, connecting channels; inland lakes and wetlands; and uplands. Human landscapes produce topsoil and habitats for pollinators and biocontrol agents. These
health as well is dependent on the vitality of these systems, for they comprise the systems are the natural capital of the Great Lakes region. When they are healthy,
GREAT LAKES SYSTEMS DESIRED STATE KEY THREATS CURRENT ISSUES RESEARCH/MONITORING POLICIES/LAWS/ ONGOING EFFORTS RECOMMENDATIONS
Outlines six systems and their processes and Presents a general vision Lists the current and major threats to habitats and Lists the current and INFORMATION NEEDS REGULATIONS An incomplete listing of Intended to list concise recommendations
functions in order to frame the issues and statement for each system. species within each system; general statements of the critical problems that need Statements of known research, An initial, incomplete list of just a plans, restoration to begin to deal with the current issues.
recommendations and lists major habitats and Needs to be concrete, human activities that contribute to the threats. These our immediate attention. To monitoring and information few laws for each system. Most of activities, and efforts by Recommended actions should address
species within each system. This is not an compelling, and synergistic, are the organizing principles by which goals and preserve ecosystem needs for each system. This the laws (e.g., Lacey, Fish and federal, state, tribal, multiple threats and issues. Meaningful
exhaustive listing; however, it will form the and build on existing objectives are set and decisions are made. processes and functions, listing is incomplete. Wildlife, Clean Water, Endangered local, NGO, academic restoration can occur only in the context
basis for further goal and objective setting. efforts. however, all key threats Species, Food Security, and Federal entities. The listing needs of ongoing protection. Therefore, a long
must be addressed, perhaps Highway Aid acts) apply to or to be categorized to make term strategy that outlines
in a long term strategy yet impact (by design or default) more it more understandable. habitat/species goals and objectives, as
to be developed. than one or even all systems. well as includes provision for ecosystem
Decision criteria for inclusion needs outcome-based evaluation of
to be developed. Once a coastal protection/restoration actions, is
strategy is crafted, the list should be recommended. Some issues may be
reviewed to include amendments, addressed by other strategy teams or
implementing regulations, and ongoing efforts (e.g.: Annex 2001)
court interpretations. Relevant state
and local authorities need to be
incorporated at least by the
Needs” contains statements of
known research, monitoring and
information needs for each system.
Stresses Sources of Stresses This listing is incomplete.
Open/nearshore waters—Lakes Superior, Great Lakes open and 1. Competition /altered 1. Ballast water, a. The aquatic food web has a. Continue to investigate food web International: NISA Invasive non-indigenous species:
Michigan, Huron, Erie and Ontario exert climatic nearshore waters are free of food webs by invasive aquaculture, pet trade, bait. been severely—some would interactions. U.S.-Canada Great Lakes Water Great Lakes Panel on ANS - Set up a system of early detection
influence over the entire region. The Lakes are toxic contamination; non- non-indigenous species say catastrophically— Quality Agreement Great Lakes Fishery monitoring of non-indigenous species to
among the world's largest freshwater bodies and indigenous species have been 2. Toxic compounds 2. Atmospheric deposition disrupted. Federal Laws: Commission plan, goals prevent non-indigenous species from
the only ones of such scale located in a temperate prevented and controlled; and (energy production); b. Aquatic non-indigenous b. Set up a system of early Clean Water Act of 1986; Great Lakes and objectives entering the Lakes.
climate. The Lakes provide the bulk of the basin's the lakes contain a full array industrial discharge. species continue to enter the detection monitoring of non- Legacy Act of 2002; Non-indigenous LaMP/Lakes Huron and St. Toxic compounds:
human population with drinking water, commerce of natural habitats and 3. Introduction of 3. Non-point source runoff Lakes via ballast water. indigenous species. Aquatic Invasive Species Act of 1990; Clair goals and objectives - Appropriate full amount for the Legacy
and recreation. Phytoplankton convert the energy species. Water is of sufficient nutrients/sedimentation from incompatible c. Periodic outbreaks of c. Continue research into reasons Water Resources Development Act of L. ER Protection and Act plus funding for technology research
of sunlight and chemical nutrients found in the quality and clarity to support agricultural, development, botulism in Lakes Erie and for botulism outbreaks. 1976; Lacey Act of 1900; Fish and Restoration Plan and education.
surrounding waters to biomass via photosynthesis. submersed aquatic plants. and forestry practices; Ontario are little understood. Wildlife Act of 1956; Fish and Lake Ontario Study Nutrients/sedimentation:
The Great Lakes fishery is dependent on nearshore Native species are a incompatible waste-water d. Diporeia have largely d. Continue research into the Wildlife Conservation Act; Great Lakes Observing - Identify, eliminate, control and monitor
aquatic habitats for spawning and life cycle needs. functioning, self sustaining treatment disappeared from Lake disappearance of Diporeia. Comprehensive Environmental System point and non-point sources of pollution
Waterfowl, raptors and colonial waterbirds component of the fish 4. Changes in the acid-base 4. ? Michigan. Response, Compensation, and IADN and excess sedimentation.
dependent on open waters for food. community. balance e. Spawning substrates and e. Classify, inventory, and map Liability Act of 1980 GLERL (NOAA) - Reduce or stop open lake disposal of fine-
5. Salinity changes 5. ? submersed aquatic plants nearshore substrate and fish and programs grained dredge material.
Habitats/Biodiversity: 6. Depletion of fish 6. Overfishing have been disrupted by wildlife habitats, as well as the Water quality/fish - Re-establish construction grants or SRF
Reefs (natural and artificial), islands populations sedimentation and dredging severity of sedimentation and monitoring programs program.
7. Temperature increases 7. Climate change, dredging impacts. RAPs for Areas of - Support and recommend $xxx for the 319
Phytoplankton, algae, zooplankton, benthic industrial discharge. f. Loss of species and f. Evaluate the success of native Concern Program.
invertebrates, and numerous species of fish, both 8. Disruption of sediment 8. Shoreline hardening, biodiversity continues. fish species protection and Riparian work through - Regulate and enforce stormwater
native and non-native. transport lake level management restoration. NAWMP discharges to ensure that quality, quantity,
Importance of submersed aquatic plants (dams), dredging Binational Toxic Strategy and hydro period of receiving waters are not
9. Altered lake levels 9. Climate change, lake Farm Bill Conservation adversely impacted.
level management Programs Habitat/species conservation:
EPA 319 - Collaboratively inventory, assess, protect,
NOAA Partners for Fish and restore nearshore aquatic habitats in
and Wildlife Program order to improve the health and productivity
USGS Coastal and of Great Lakes fishery and wildlife
Wetland Ecology Branch populations.
and National Water - Maintain widely distributed, self-
Quality Assessment sustaining populations in as many original
Program habitats as is practical.
Great Lakes Fishery and - Maintain, enhance and rehabilitate self-
Ecosystem Restoration sustaining populations where the species
Program (USACE) occurred historically basinwide.
Great Lakes Coastal - Restore and reestablish lake trout, lake
Restoration Program herring, deepwater ciscoes, and open water
(USFWS) habitats to sustain native and introduced
GLNPO habitat funds salmonid and percid predators in support of
Lake Sturgeon support sport and commercial fisheries.
Rehabilitation Plan for L.
208 Water Quality Mgmt.
Coastal wetlands—More than 216,000 hectares of Coastal wetland quantities 1. Alteration of lake levels 1. Lake level management a. Wetland loss and a. Regular coastal imaging with International: Great Lakes Coastal Habitat/species conservation:
coastal wetlands have been recently classified remain consistent at baseline and natural fluctuations (dams), climate change. degradation continues, but high enough resolution to detect North American Waterfowl Wetlands Consortium - Implement the Coastal Wetland
binationally. Coastal wetlands are dominated by levels and quality is restored 2. Competition/altered 2. Ballast water, since coastal wetland quality wetland boundary and land cover Management Plan; Tripartite State/Provincial wetland Consortium’s long term coastal wetland
large lake processes, including major water level for fish and wildlife. Targeted food webs/altered structure aquaculture, pet trade, bait. and quantity are not currently change. Agreement on wetlands between monitoring programs monitoring program that utilizes Great
fluctuations, severe wave action and wind tides or and coordinated restoration by invasive non- landscaping consistently monitored across Increase scientific understanding of Canada, U.S. and Mexico Lake Ontario Study Lakes indicators and based on the
seiches. They store and cycle nutrients and organic and protection of high indigenous species the basin, impacts to fish and coastal ecosystems, including Federal Laws: The Nature Conservancy monitoring information, expand wetland
material from the land into the aquatic food web. potential/critical need 3. Addition of toxic 3. Atmospheric deposition wildlife are difficult to functioning, processes and human Sections 401 and 404 of the Clean Blueprint protection, restoration and enhancement
They sustain large numbers of common or wetlands results in a net gain. compounds (energy production); calculate. disturbance impacts. Water Act; Clean Water Act’s 1987 Numerous restoration programs to protect and restore priority
regionally rare bird, mammal, herptile and Hydrologically modified industrial discharge. b. Water level controls and b. Research the effects of reducing National Estuary Program; State projects coastal wetlands in order to provide healthy
invertebrate species, including many land-based environments are maintained 4. Temperature increases 4. Climate change, hydrological modifications in fluctuations of Great Lakes water Wetland Protection Grants; recent RAPs for Areas of habitats for fish and wildlife.
species that feed from the highly productive and improved to provide for industrial discharge. many areas have diminished levels on wetlands and how to court ruling on definition of wetland; Concern - Maintain widely distributed, self-
marshes. Fish species depend upon them for some fish and wildlife benefits. 5. Alteration of sediment 5. Shoreline hardening wetland diversity and manage water levels in ways that North American Wetlands NAWMP sustaining populations in as many original
portion of their life cycles. They are migratory bird Native species are a transport (jetties, seawalls, etc.), lake function. minimize these impacts. Conservation Act of 1989; Rivers and DU Strategic Plan coastal wetland habitats as is practical.
staging and feeding areas. Periodic inundation re- functioning, self sustaining level management (dams), c. Intact coastal wetlands are c. Development of a database of Harbors Act of 1938 The Nature Conservancy - Maintain, enhance and rehabilitate self-
sets succession and maintains the highly productive component of the fish climate change breeding habitat or refugia for potentially restorable sites. Blueprint sustaining populations where the species
herb-dominated system. In many areas where the community. 6. Direct destruction 6. Draining/filling for native fish and wildlife; FWS Coastal Program occurred historically basinwide.
natural systems have been highly modified, development, agriculture however, such areas are in State Wildlife Programs - Maintain/enhance the yellow
vegetated coastal wetlands persist only because of 7. Sedimentation 7. Non-point source runoff need of restoration to National Estuary Program perch/walleye fishery.
intensive management. from incompatible maintain current functioning. National Wetlands Invasive non-indigenous species:
agricultural, development d. Loss of species and d. Spring migrant bird staging Research Center - Set up a system of early detection
Habitats/Biodiversity and forestry practices biodiversity continues. study by DU/TNC others. Long- GLNPO habitat funds monitoring of non-indigenous species to
Lacustrine, riverine, barrier protected (plus sub- term trend data on wetland biota- USGS Coastal and prevent non-indigenous species from
categories including estuaries and island coastal stressor interactions. Wetland Ecology Branch entering coastal wetlands (currently the
wetlands) e. Non-indigenous species e. Set up a system of early refugia for native species).
continue to invade coastal detection monitoring of non- Sedimentation/non-point sources:
Wide diversity of plant and animal species – many wetlands. indigenous species. - Identify, eliminate, control and monitor
of which breed in coastal wetlands point and non-point sources of pollution
Coastal wetlands provide critical staging habitats and excess sedimentation.
for migratory birds and waterfowl.
Coastal shore--Water levels, surface and A representative number of 1. Competition /altered 1. Landscaping, a. Development, including a. Increase scientific understanding International: Great Lakes Islands Habitat/species conservation:
groundwater interactions, wind, waves and coastal shore habitats are food webs/altered structure introductions home, agriculture, shipping, of coastal ecosystems, including Kyoto Agreement Collaborative - Inventory and assess Great Lakes coastal
longshore sediment transport are the dominant protected/restored and by invasive non- industry, marina, etc., is functioning, processes and human Federal Laws: Lake Ontario Dunes habitats (islands, sand beaches and dunes,
forces shaping some 11,000 lineal miles of coastal functioning as buffers to indigenous species continuing to destroy coastal disturbance impacts. Coastal Zone Management Act of Coalition cobble/bedrock shores, jack pine barrens,
ecosystems, including more than 30,000 islands. inland systems. Sufficient 2. Alteration of sediment 2. Shoreline hardening shore habitats and disrupt 1972; Endangered Species Act of Lake Michigan Dunes alvars and consolidated bluffs; prioritize
The coastline is dominated by the effects of the diversity and amount of transport (jetties, seawalls, etc.), lake shoreline replenishment 1973; Federal-Aid Highways Act of Alliance them for protection and restoration;
Great Lakes, including wind, wave action, coastal habitat is protected to level management (dams), processes. 1968 -- As amended by the Areas of Concern implement protection and restoration
hydrology, temperature and humidity. Extensive sustain endemic species climate change b. Channel expansion—both b. Research the impact of channel Department of Transportation Act of The Nature Conservancy activities.
freshwater sand dunes support more endemic populations. 3. Direct destruction 3. Sand dune and alvar historical and future— expansion/dredging on nearshore 1966 (requires approval to build Blueprint - Maintain widely distributed, self-
species than any other part of the Great Lakes mining, shoreline continues to disrupt habitats. habitats. Federal highways through wildlife GLEI sustaining populations in as many original
basin. Sandy sediments from eroding banks and hardening, home and c. Shoreline habitats are not c. Regular coastal imaging with refuges and other designated areas); RAPs for Areas of habitats as is practical.
tributary mouths are carried by longshore currents commercial development well inventoried; therefore, it high enough resolution to map and Migratory Bird Conservation Act of Concern - Maintain, enhance and rehabilitate self-
and form dunes as well as bars and spits that 4. Sedimentation 4. Non-point source runoff is difficult to track changes. classify coastal habitats and land 1929 NOAA Great Lakes sustaining populations where the species
shelter many highly productive marshes. Lake level from incompatible cover change. Coastal Program occurred historically basinwide.
fluctuations are important in this cycle of erosion, agricultural, development d. Loss of species and d. Monitor shoreline species for GLNPO habitat funds Areas of Concern:
sediment transport and dune maintenance. and forestry practices biodiversity continues. trends in biodiversity loss. - Conduct detailed monitoring of Areas of
Shoreline systems absorb the brunt of wind and e. Wind farm construction has e. Research impact of wind farms Concern.
wave energy from the lakes, buffering the inland the potential to impact to migratory bird species. - Provide ongoing funding leading to de-
systems from disruptive forces. migratory birds. listing of habitat-related beneficial use
f. Non-indigenous invasive f. Universally accepted risk impairments in Areas of Concern.
Habitats/Biodiversity species continue to disrupt assessment protocols for non-native
Dunes, beaches, islands, alvars, cobble/bedrock coastal habitats. invasive plants and animals.
shores, jack pine barrens, consolidated bluffs.
Migratory birds and waterfowl, shore birds
Examples of rare endemic species found on coastal
Dune thistle (Cirsium pitcheri), Houghton's
goldenrod (Solidago houghtonii) and the Lake
Huron locust (Trimerotropis huroniana), dwarf
lake iris (Iris lacustris) and ram's head lady's
slipper (Cypripedium arietinum).
Streams, tributaries, connecting channels— Cold and warm water 1. Direct destruction 1. Stream channelization, a. Thousands of dams block a. Study the impacts of dam Federal Laws: Annex 2001 Dams:
These are the primary conduits for drainage of tributary access is sufficient road building, and water flow as well as fish removal at specific locations. Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968; The Nature Conservancy - Prioritize and coordinate dam removal and
waters from the basin's landscape to the Great to allow natural sustainability shoreline hardening. passage, thus fragmenting Watershed Protection and Flood Blueprint tributary restoration projects.
Lakes. They transport sediments, nutrients and of native fisheries. Buffers 2. Alteration or disruption 2. Dams and dam habitats in streams and rivers Prevention Act of 1954 Numerous watershed plans Buffers:
organic material throughout the watershed. adequately reduce of amount and frequency operation, diversions, and disrupting the rate and (Little Traverse Bay - Establish development setbacks and
Biodiversity elements of tributaries depend upon sedimentation and nutrient of stream flows withdrawals, agricultural flow of water to the Lakes. Watershed Protection Plan vegetated buffers sufficient to protect water
the oxygenation of water and the balance of inflow. Riparian floodplains drainage (tiling), b. Non-point source runoff b. Evaluate buffers in reducing Clinton River Watershed quality and habitat from new development.
nutrients and organic materials to maintain and wetlands are reconnected. incompatible stormwater into streams contributes to nutrient and sediment inflow. Council Altered sediment regime:
favorable habitat conditions. Tributaries provide Stream habitat is improved to management contamination at river mouths Watershed Diagnostic of - Implement watershed plans to reduce
important spawning habitat for several Great Lakes support migratory birds and 3. Alteration of water table 3. Excessive groundwater and in the Lakes. the Little Calumet-Galien nutrient and sediment inputs, including
fish, as well as migration corridors for other other wildlife. Native species withdrawal c. Legacy sediment c. Continue to research the impact River Watershed wetland restoration and riparian buffers.
wildlife, including migratory birds. are a functioning, self 4. Toxic compounds 4. Industrial/municipal contamination is still of contaminated sediments on Sheboygan County Natural Habitat/species conservation:
sustaining component of the discharge; incompatible impacting species. species. Areas and Critical - Maintain widely distributed, self-
Habitats/Biodiversity: fish community. mining practices d. Loss of floodplains, d. Continue to research loss of Resources Plan) sustaining populations in as many original
Coldwater, warmwater fish and wildlife habitats, 5. Competition /altered 5. Aquatic invasive species riparian buffers and floodplains, riparian habitats, and RAPs for Areas of habitats as is practical.
islands food webs/altered structure introduced through ballast channelization, continued tile groundwater and surface water Concern - Maintain, enhance and rehabilitate self-
water, aquaculture, pet and surface drainage, and changes to habitats. Conservation Programs sustaining populations where the species
World's richest freshwater mussel fauna. trade, bait, recreation groundwater depletions are NAWMP/Joint Ventures occurred historically basinwide.
Two endemic species: the copper redhorse (boating); direct stocking impacting habitats. USDA Farm Bill - Restore and reestablish lake sturgeon.
(Moxostoma hubbsii), Hungerford's crawling water 6. Temperature increases 6. Stream channelization, e. Loss of species and e. Monitor species for trends in EPA 319 Invasive non-indigenous species:
beetle (Brychius hungerfordi); several rare fish incompatible forestry, biodiversity continues. biodiversity loss. TMDLs - Develop an invasive species mitigation
species including the lake sturgeon.. industrial discharge, f. Non-indigenous invasive f. Universally accepted risk GLNPO habitat funds plan for each major tributary.
Migrant bird corridors, resident wildlife habitats. climate change species continue to disrupt assessment protocols for non-native Brook Trout Rehabilitation
7. Altered sediment regime 7. Incompatible tributary habitats. invasive plants and animals. Plan for Lake SU
agricultural practices Eastern Brook Trout
(tiling, tillage), Venture (USDA Forest
incompatible forestry, Service)
incompatible development, Coaster Brook Trout
road building and Initiative (USDA Forest
8. Fragmentation 8. Dams, culverts, USFWS National Fish
road/stream crossings Passage Program
Inland lakes and wetlands--These are important Inland wetlands have been 1. Direct destruction 1. Draining and filling for a. Loss and degradation of a. Monitor wetlands/lakes for Federal laws: Joint Ventures Buffers:
reservoirs for water within the basin's drainage inventoried and losses from home and commercial wetlands/lakes and their changes. Section 319 of the Clean Water Act The Nature Conservancy - Establish development setbacks and
system, regulating volumes, periodicity, sediment development tracked development and functions are continuing. Inventory/classify wetlands/lakes. (nonpoint source grants to states); Blueprint vegetated buffers sufficient to protect water
content and chemical/temperature characteristics. basinwide. Wetland agriculture. Update the National Wetlands Clean Lakes Program of 1972 (as DU Strategic Plan quality and habitat from new development.
They also serve as centers of nutrient retention, complexes increase/are 2. Altered hydrology 2. Dams and dam Inventory. section 314 of the Federal Water FWS Partners Program Regulations:
storage and exchange. Wetlands are often highly restored (net gain) to operation, diversions, Identify and evaluate potentially Pollution Control Act)--not funded in Farm Bill conservation - Amend existing wetland regulatory
productive from a biological standpoint and are sufficiently meet the needs of withdrawals, agricultural restorable wetlands. recent years); Transportation Equity Programs frameworks to ensure that all wetlands are
important to the life cycles of many species, wildlife, water quality, drainage (tiling), b. Aquatic invasive species b. Set up a system of early Act for the 21st Century of 1998 National Wetlands protected, including isolated wetlands.
including wetland, threatened and endangered ground water recharge, flood incompatible stormwater are impacting inland detection monitoring of non- Research Center Habitat/species conservation:
species and many upland species which breed or attenuation and recreation. management, excessive wetland/lake species and indigenous species. GLNPO habitat funds - Update the FWS National Wetlands
feed in wetlands. Native species are a groundwater withdrawal. communities. WI DNR Wetlands Inventory.
functioning, self sustaining 3. Toxic compounds 3. ? c. Loss of species and c. Monitor species for trends in Strategy - Prioritize and conserve areas of key
Habitats/Biodiversity: component of the fish 4. Competition /altered 4. Aquatic invasive species biodiversity continues. biodiversity loss. MN Wetlands wetland complexes (focus areas).
bogs, fens, islands community. food webs/altered structure introduced through Conservation Plan - Reestablish sufficient quantity of wetlands
threatened and endangered species, e.g.: Mitchell's aquaculture, pet trade, bait, Mentor Marsh Special to achieve desired ecosystem benefits.
satyr butterfly (Neonympha mitchellii) recreation (boating), Area Management Plan - Maintain widely distributed, self-
Resident breeding birds, amphibians, reptiles & landscaping; direct Issues Identification sustaining populations in as many original
mammals. stocking. habitats as is practical.
5. Temperature increases 5. Incompatible forestry, - Maintain, enhance and rehabilitate self-
incompatible water sustaining populations where the species
management, climate occurred historically basinwide.
change. - Increase the net wetland resource base by
6. Eutrophication (nutrient 6. Incompatible one million acres by the year 2025.
enrichment) development, incompatible Invasive non-indigenous species:
wastewater treatment. - Develop an invasive species mitigation
7. Fragmentation of 7. Dams, culverts, plan for inland lakes and wetlands.
wetlands road/stream crossings.
Uplands-- This system covers a large percentage Sufficiently large and 1. Fragmentation and 1. Incompatible a. Value of a. Inventory and assess the Federal Laws: The Nature Conservancy Habitat/species conservation:
of the basin and forms the principle collector for connected habitats to allow direct destruction development, conversion prairies/grasslands, savannas, functioning of existing prairies, National Forest Management Act of Blueprint - Identify existing and significant grassland
precipitation inputs to the rest of the system. 51% upland diversity and to agriculture, barrens, and other upland significant grassland and other 1976; Food Security Act of 1985; Oak Savanna Recovery habitats and evaluate the potential for
of the basin is forested. Through their character and population sustainability are incompatible forestry habitats are consistently upland habitats. Wilderness Act of 1964; Safe Plan restoration and implementation of programs
health, inland terrestrial communities influence the protected and restored. There practices. undervalued. Drinking Water Act Amendments of Numerous restoration to increase these critical habitats.
rate, periodicity and quality of incoming is a net gain in 2. Altered fire regimes 2. Fire management policy b. Loss of species and b. Monitor species for trends in 1996; Organic Administration Act of projects (DU, PF, FWS, - Maintain widely distributed, self-
precipitation, and direct its flow to surface drainage prairies/grasslands and (suppression). biodiversity continues. biodiversity loss. 1897; Knutson-Vanderberg Act of TNC, etc.) sustaining populations in as many original
and groundwater recharge. The ecological integrity savannas. Native species are a 3. Altered 3. Management of/for June 9, 1930, 46 Stat.527, as Sheboygan County Natural habitats as is practical.
of this system is also important in controlling functioning, self sustaining composition/altered certain species (deer, c. Non-indigenous invasive c. Inventory of non-native invasive amended; 16 U.S.C. 576, 576a-576b); Areas and Critical - Maintain, enhance and rehabilitate self-
erosion, which is a major factor in the ecological component of upland structure maple, aspen, etc.); species continue to disrupt species. Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenant Act of Resources Plan sustaining populations where the species
health of tributaries and coastal areas. The inland communities. invasive species from upland habitats. Universally accepted risk 1937; Anderson-Mansfield GLNPO habitat funds occurred historically basinwide.
terrestrial system provides migration corridors and management activities, assessment protocols for non-native Reforestation and Revegetation Joint Midwest Invasive Plant
habitat for portions of the life cycles of species accidental introduction, invasive plants and animals. Resolution, Act of October 11, 1949; Network
principally associated with other systems. landscaping; pathogens; Effective treatment protocols for Granger-Thye Act of 1950; Sikes Act Land and Resource
climate change. priority species. (Fish and Wildlife Conservation) of Management Plans for the
Habitats/Biodiversity: September 15, 1960; 16 U.S.C.670g- Superior, Chequamegon-
Forest lands, oak savannas, prairies, oak and pine 670l, 670o - Sec. 201b); Multiple Use- Nicolet, Ottawa, Hiawatha,
barrens, agricultural lands, islands Sustained Yield Act of 1960; and Huron Manistee
Wilderness Act of 1964; National National Forests
Moonwort, neotropical migrant birds, endemic Historic Preservation Act of 1966; Non-native Invasive
Kirtland's warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii) National Environmental Policy Act of Species Framework for
1969; Federal Water Pollution Control Plants and Animals of the
Act of 1948, as revised in 1972 and Eastern Region (2003)
amended in the Water Quality Act of Native Plant Framework
1987; The Endangered Species Act (USDA Forest Service
(ESA) of 1973; Federal Land Policy Eastern Region)
and Management Act (FLPMA) of USDA Forest Service
1976; The National Forest Strategic Plan for the
Management Act of 1976; Surface Years 2004-2008
Mining Control and Reclamation Act National Strategy and
of 1977; Cooperative Forestry and Implementation Plan for
Assistance Act of July 1, 1978; 16 Invasive Species
U.S.C. 2101; North American Management (USDA
Wetland Conservation Act of Forest Service 2004)
December 13, 1989; Section 323 of
Public Law 108-7; Consolidated
Appropriations resolution, 2003;
Healthy Forests Restoration Act (H.R.
1904) of November 21, 2003; The
Federal Power Act of June 5, 1920;
Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of
October 2, 1968
36 CFR Part 10 Subpart (b)
Executive Order 11987 (May 24,
1977); Executive Order 13112
(February 3, 1999); Executive Order
13148 (April 21, 2000); Executive
Order 13352 (August 26, 2004)
Things that need to be considered as next steps: Integrate with the US F&WS National Fish Passage Program.
Training/Education: Need to develop creative ways to provide long term local funding for watershed stewardship projects. Outcomes/Measuring Successes:
Encourage use of native plant materials. Need to understand and express the unique economic value of the Great Lakes. Monitoring and reporting on outcomes needs to be a part of the overall strategy.
Expand ―train the trainer‖ workshops (such as the Forest Service for inventory, assessment and design for aquatic Potential Partnership Projects:
and terrestrial organism passage at roads and stream crossings). Integrate work of the USGS Aquatic and Terrestrial GAP Analysis efforts for the Great Lakes Basin.