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									Yamaha Motor Mfg. Co.          General Arc Welding Specifications

                           WI - 0492

                    Yamaha Motor Mfg. Co.
              General Arc Welding Specification for
            Tubular Frames and Bolt–On Components

                            Page 1
Yamaha Motor Mfg. Co.                    General Arc Welding Specifications

                               Table of Contents
1   Scope
2   General References
3   Definitions
4   General Weld Requirements
5   Fillet Welds
6   Geometric Discrepancies
7   Dispositions of Nonconforming Welded Product
8   Inspection and Rejection
9   General information

Appendix A
1 Definitions

1 Types of Weld Joints, Page 10
2 Acceptable and Unacceptable Intermittent Welds, Page 11
3 T-Joint with Root Opening and Incomplete Fusion, Page 12
4 Depth of Fusion T-Joint , Page 12
5 Penetration of Butt and V-Groove Joints, Page 13
6 Flare-V and Flare-Bevel Groove Welds, Page 14
7 Undercut, Page 15
8 Meltback and Notching, Page 15
9 Crack Types, Page 16
10 Porosity, Page 17
11 Melt-Through, Page 18
12 Intermittent Fillet Welds, Page 19
13 Examples of Various Weld Terms, Page 20
14 Joint and Root Penetration, Page 21
15 Underfill and Undercut, Page 22

                                      Page 2
Yamaha Motor Mfg. Co.                           General Arc Welding Specifications

                                                       is intended to be used as a supplement to
                                                       engineering     drawings     and    other
1 Scope                                                documents for arc welding. When no
1.0) The application of the requirements               welding is designated on the engineering
of this specification is mandatory, unless             drawings, this document shall apply for
a specific note on the engineering                     arc welds.
drawing establishes different weld
criteria. Any exception from these                     1.5) This specification does not apply for
                                                       arc spot, plug and slot weld joint types.
requirements must be made in
accordance with good engineering
                                                       1.6) Any requirements exceeding the
                                                       limits of this specification shall be
                                                       designated on the engineering drawing.
1.1) Welds are considered satisfactory                 1.7) Should any conflict occur between
when they carry the intended or expected               the limits specified herein and those
service loads and satisfy functional                   specified on the engineering drawings,
performance requirements for a required                the engineering drawing has precedence.
period. Service loads on weldments in a
vehicle are varied in both type and                    1.8) This specification defines the
magnitude and cannot be addressed by                   geometric quality requirements for welds
this specification.                                    made with the addition of filler material
 Therefore, while weld criteria of this                for the Gas Metal Arc Welding
specification are consistent with service              (GMAW) process.
loading requirements, they have been
established based on the use of process
                                                       2 General Provisions
and product monitoring. Any attempted
application of this document to other
                                                       2.1) Filler metal shall be designated on
uses, such as post-crash weld quality
                                                       the weld symbol or by note on the
assessment, may lead to an erroneous
                                                       engineering drawing or other appropriate
result or conclusion.
                                                       documents. The designated filler metal
                                                       must conform to the latest requirements
1.2) Welds are considered discrepant
                                                       of the appropriate AWS filler metal
when they do not meet the criteria of this
                                                       classification.      Any change in
specification. Discrepant welds often
                                                       specification or classification of filler
retain some of their engineering
                                                       metal requires requalification for
properties and may still contribute to the
                                                       welding procedure prior to its
integrity of the assembly.
1.3) The welding vendor is responsible
                                                       2.2) Responsible technical personnel
for establishing practices and test
                                                       shall determine that welding equipment
methods to assure that the criteria of this
                                                       and procedures are capable of
specification are met.
                                                       consistently producing good welds.
1.4) This specification is applicable to
arc welding related to tubular frames and
                                                       2.3) Welding symbols on engineering
bolt-on components when specified on
                                                       drawings shall be those in the latest
the engineering drawing. This document

                                              Page 3
Yamaha Motor Mfg. Co.                          General Arc Welding Specifications

edition of ANSI/AWS 2.4, Standard                     5.5) Welds shall be located within 6 mm
Symbols for Welding and Non                           of the specified weld start location
Destructive Examination. The use of                   shown on the engineering drawing.
auxiliary symbols to clarify location is
accepted. Special conditions should be                5.6) Fusion shall be required for the
fully explained by added notes or details.            effective length of the weld, which will
                                                      be defined as the specified length minus
                                                      0.5 times the weld size. The
3 Definitions                                         requirements for depth of penetration
                                                      will be defined as follows:
3.1) Terms frequently used in this                       a) For materials less than or equal to
specification are explained further in                       2.66mm (12 ga) the depth of
Appendix A.                                                  penetration must be at least 10%
                                                             of the thickness of the thinner
                                                             material being welded.
4 Types of Weld Joints                                   b) For materials greater than
                                                             2.66mm(12 ga) and less than or
4.1) The weld joints that are covered by                     equal to 6.35mm(.250”) the depth
this specification are shown in Figure 1.                    of penetration must be at least 5%
                                                             of the thickness of the thinner
                                                             material being welded.
5 General Weld Requirements                              c) For materials greater than
                                                             6.35mm(.250”) and less than or
5.1) The maximum allowable gap                               equal to 9.53mm(.375”) the depth
between adjacent members in the joint                        of penetration must be at least 3%
shall be limited to the 0.9 times the                        of the thickness of the thinner
electrode diameter. However, in the case                     material being welded.
of heavier gauges above 3 mm, the gap
must not exceed 1.5 mm.
                                                      6 Fillet Welds
5.2) Any portions of the weld either off
seam or not properly fused shall be
                                                      6.1) The length of the fillet weld on each
considered skips and shall not be include
                                                      side of the joint determines the fillet size
in the effective weld length.
                                                      and shall conform to the following
5.3) Welds may be longer than specified
provide that there is specific structural                Minimum fillet weld size shall be
                                                          90% of the thickness of the thinner
engineering approval to assure that the
                                                          material being welded.
part configuration remains functional
and all other requirements of this                       Maximum fillet weld size is not
specification are met.                                    defined so long as the part meets its
                                                          functional       and      performance
5.4) All welds must be located on or in a                 specifications.
manner to ensure fusion between the                      When root openings (gaps) are
parts being joined.                                       present, the weld size must be
                                                          increased by the width of the root
                                                          opening as shown in Figure 4.

                                             Page 4
Yamaha Motor Mfg. Co.                         General Arc Welding Specifications

                                                     8.4) Cracks are not permissible (see
6.2) The theoretical throat shall not be             Figure 9).
less than 60% of the thinner material
being welded as shown in Figure 4.                   8.5) Meltback is not permissible (see
(This requirement does not preclude the              Figure 8).
weld side requirement specified in 7.1.)
                                                     8.6) Notching is not permissible (see
6.3) There are no convexity limitations              Figure 8).
provided that part remains functional
and meets performance specifications.                8.7) Maximum porosity diameter shall
                                                     not exceed 1.6 mm or 0.5 x T whichever
                                                     is smaller, where T is the thickness of
7 Welds in Butt Joints                               the thinnest member. The total length of
                                                     porosity (sum of the diameters) shall not
7.1) Joint penetration shall be 100%                 exceed 6.4 mm in any 25 mm of weld.
unless otherwise specified(see Figure 5).            Two or more pores, which are separated
                                                     by less than the diameter of the smaller
7.2) No limitation shall be set on the               pore(s), are not permissible. Scattered
height of the weld reinforcement or the              porosity which is within the above
convexity provided the part remains                  limitations is acceptable. Sharp angular
functional and meets the performance                 porosity is not permissible (see Figure
specification requirements.                          10).

7.3) Throat, weld size, and positioning              8.8) Nonmetallic inclusions shall be
requirements for flare-bevel and flare-V-            considered and judged as porosity.
groove welds are shown in Figures 6
(A), (B), (C), and (D).                              8.9) Melt through shall not effect the
                                                     function or fit-up of the part (see Figure
8 Geometric Discrepancies
8.1) Undercut (see Figure 7) exceeding a             9 Disposition of Nonconforming
depth of 10 % of the thickness of the                Welded Product
affected member, within 13 mm of each
end of the weld, is not permissible.                 9.1) Products or components with weld
Undercut exceeding a depth of 20% at                 found to be nonconforming to the
any other location is not permissible.               requirements of the specifications must
                                                     be discarded or repaired using
8.2) Weld craters shall not be considered            engineering approved procedures.
a part of the designated weld length
unless they are filled. All craters shall
meet the requirements of this standard.

8.3) Burn-through producing a hole in
the weld is not permissible.

                                            Page 5
Yamaha Motor Mfg. Co.                        General Arc Welding Specifications

10 Inspection and Rejection                         incoming shipments and checked for
                                                    conformances to this specification, the
10.1) All shipments of material or parts            supplier shall accept the responsibility
under contract or purchase order                    for the incoming shipments meeting this
manufactured to this specification shall            specification without dependence upon
be equivalent in every respect to the               purchaser’s inspection.
initial samples approved by engineering.
There shall be no changes in either
formulation or manufacturing processes              11 General Information
permitted without prior notification and
approval by engineering.       Lack of              This standard was originated in August
notification by the supplier constitutes            1999. Last revision was August 25,
grounds for rejection of any shipment.              1999.
While samples may be taken from

                                           Page 6
Yamaha Motor Mfg. Co.                          General Arc Welding Specifications

                                      Appendix A

ACTUAL THROAT: The shortest                           CRACK: A fracture type discontinuity
distance between the weld root and the                characterized by a sharp tip and high
face of the fillet weld (See figure 3).               ratio of length and width to opening
                                                      displacement (see Figure 9).
ARC WELDING: A group of welding
processes that produces coalescence of                CRATER: A depression              at   the
metals by heating them with an arc, with              termination of a weld bead.
or without the application of pressure,
and with or without the use of filler                 DEPTH OF PENETRATION: The
metal.                                                distance that fusion extends into the base
                                                      metal or previous pass from the surface
BURN THROUGH: A nonstandard term                      melted during welding (see Figure 13).
for excessive melt through producing a
hole.                                                 DISCONTINUITY: An interruption of
                                                      the typical structure of a weldment, such
BUTT JOINT: A joint between two                       as a lack of homogeneity on the
members aligned approximately in the                  mechanical, metallurgical, or physical
same plane (see Figure 1a).                           characteristics of the material or the
                                                      weldment.       A discontinuity is not
 CHAIN INTERMITTENT WELD: An                          necessarily a defect.
intermittent weld on both sides of a joint
in which the weld increments on one                   EDGE JOINT: A joint between the
side are approximately opposite those on              edges of two or more parallel or nearly
the other side (see Figure 12).                       parallel members.

COALESCENCE: The growing together                     EFFECTIVE THROAT: The minimum
or growth into one body of the materials              distance minus any convexity between
being welded.                                         the weld root and the face of a fillet weld
                                                      (see Figure 3a).
COLD LAP: Nonstandard term for
overlap. See also Overlap.                            FAYING SURFACE: That mating
                                                      surface of a member that is in contact
CONCAVITY: The maximum distance                       with or in close proximity to another
from the face of a concave fillet weld                member to which it is to be joined.
perpendicular to a line joining the weld
toes.                                                 FILLET        WELD:     A     weld     of
                                                      approximately triangular cross section
CONTINUOUS WELD: A weld that                          joining two surfaces approximately at
extends continuously from one end of a                right angles to each other on a lap joint,
joint to the other. Where the joint is                T-joint, or joint.
essentially    circular,   it  extends
completely around the joint.

                                             Page 7
Yamaha Motor Mfg. Co.                            General Arc Welding Specifications

FILLET WELD LEG: The distance from                      JOINT PENETRATION: The depth a
the joint to the toe of the fillet weld (see            weld extends from its face into a joint,
Figures 3 and 4).                                       exclusive of reinforcement (see Figure
FILLET WELD SIZE: For equal leg
fillet welds, the leg lengths of the largest            JOINT ROOT: That portion of a joint to
isosceles right triangle, which can be                  be welded where the members approach
inscribed within the fillet, weld cross                 closest to each other. In cross section,
section. For unequal leg fillet welds, the              the joint root may be a point, a line, or
leg lengths of the largest right triangle               an area (see Figure 12).
that can be inscribed within the fillet
cross section (see Figures 3 and 4).                    LAP POINT: A joint between two
                                                        overlapping members in parallel planes
FUSION: The melting together of filler                  (see Figure 1d).
metal and base metal (substrate), or of
base metal only which results in                        MELT BACK: This occurs where the
coalescence.                                            base metal melts back from the edge but
                                                        does not become part of the weld. This
FUSION FACE: A surface of the base                      condition leaves a void between the weld
metal that will be melted during welding                deposit and the base metal (see Figure
(see Figure 13).                                        8).

FUSION ZONE: The area of base metal                     MELT-THROUGH:           Visible     root
melted as determined on the cross                       reinforcement produced in a joint
section of a weld (see Figure 13).                      welded from one side (see Figure 11).

GAS METAL ARC WELDING                                   MIG WELDING A nonstandard term for
(GMAW): An arc welding process that                     Gas Metal Arc Welding.
produces coalescence of metals by
heating them with an arc between a                      NOTCHING: Gouging of the parent
continuous filler metal electrode and the               metal at the ends or edge of the welded
workpieces.      Shielding is obtained                  joint (see Figure 8).
entirely from an externally supplied gas.
                                                        OVERLAP: The protrusion of weld
INTERMITTENT WELD: A weld in                            metal beyond the weld tow or weld root.
which the continuity is broken by
recurring unwelded spaces (see Figures                  PENETRATION: A nonstandard term
2 and 12).                                              for Joint Penetration and Root
JOINT: The junction of members or the
edges of members which are to be joined                 POROSITY: Cavity type discontinuities
or have been joined.                                    formed by gas entrapment during
                                                        solidification (see Figure 10).
between the faying surfaces of a joint.                 ROOT: A nonstandard term for Joint
                                                        Root and Weld Root.

                                               Page 8
Yamaha Motor Mfg. Co.                       General Arc Welding Specifications

ROOT OPENING: A separation at the                  THEORETICAL           THROAT:        The
joint root between the workpieces (see             distance from the beginning of the joint
Figure 3).                                         root penetration to the hypotenuse of the
                                                   largest right triangle that can be
ROOT PENETRATION: The depth that                   inscribed within the cross section of a
a weld extends into the joint root (see            fillet weld. This dimension is based on
Figure 14).                                        the assumption that the root opening is
                                                   equal to zero (see Figure 4).
SKIP WELD: A nonstandard term for
Intermittent Weld.                                 THROAT: See actual throat or effective
SLAG INCLUSION: Nonmetallic solid
material entrapped in weld metal or                UNDERCUT: A groove melted into the
between weld metal and base metal.                 base metal adjacent to the weld toe or
                                                   weld root and left unfilled by weld metal
SPATTER: The metal particles expelled              (see Figure 7).
during arc welding that do not form a
part of the weld.                                  UNDERFILL: A depression on the weld
                                                   face or root surface extending below the
 STAGGERED            INTERMITTENT                 adjacent surface of the base metal (see
WELD: An intermittent weld on both                 Figure 15).
sides of a joint in which the weld
increments on one side are alternated              WELD PENTRATION: A nonstandard
with respect to those on the other side            term for Joint Penetration and Root
(see Figure 12).                                   Penetration.

STITCH WELD: A nonstandard term                    WELD TOE: The junction of the weld
for an Intermittent weld.                          face and the base metal.

                                          Page 9
Yamaha Motor Mfg. Co.              General Arc Welding Specifications

                                              APPLICABLE WELDS
                                       Square-Groove  J-Groove
                                       V-Groove       Flare V-Groove
                                       Bevel-Groove   Flare Bevel-Groove
                                       U-Groove       Edge-Flange

                                       (1A)   Butt Joint

                                              APPLICABLE WELDS
                                       Fillet         J-Groove
                                       Square-Groove   Flare V-Groove
                                       V-Groove       Flare Bevel-Groove
                                       Bevel-Groove   Edge-Flange
                                       U-Groove       Corner-Flange

                                       (1B)   Corner Joint

                                              APPLICABLE WELDS
                                       Fillet         J-Groove
                                       Square-Groove  Flare Bevel-Groove

                                       (1C) T-Joint

                                              APPLICABLE WELDS
                                       Fillet         J-Groove
                                       Bevel-Groove   Flare Bevel-Groove

                                       (1D)   Lap Joint

                                              APPLICABLE WELDS
                                       Square-Groove   J-Groove
                                       Bevel-Groove    Edge-Flange
                                       V-Groove        Corner-Flange
                                       U-Groove        Edge

                                       (1E)   Edge Joint

                        Figure 1: Types of Weld Joints

                               Page 10
      Yamaha Motor Mfg. Co.                        General Arc Welding Specifications

                                                       a. Nominal Weld

                                                       b. Acceptable – Excessive Weld Length

                                                       c. Unacceptable – Short Weld Length

                                                       d. Acceptable – Short Spacing

                                                       e. Unacceptable–Excessive Weld Spacing

                                                       f. Acceptable – Excessive Weld Length,
                                                          Short Spacing

                                                       g. Unacceptable – Short Weld Length
                                                          Excessive Spacing

                                                       h. Acceptable – All Weld Lengths
                                                          Excessive, Short Spacing

                                                       i. Acceptable – All Weld Lengths
                                                          Excessive, Short Spacing

                                                       j. Acceptable – Two Spacings Short

                                                       k. Unacceptable – One Weld Length Short,
                                                          Tow Spacings Excessive

                                                       l. Unacceptable – First Weld Too Far From
                                                          Start Point

Figure 2: Examples of acceptable and unacceptable intermittent welds. All examples show that
“over-welding” is acceptable provided that spacing is no more than specified.

                                               Page 11
Yamaha Motor Mfg. Co.              General Arc Welding Specifications

        (ROOT OPENING)

                  Figure 3: T-Joint with Root Opening

              Figure 3a: Fillet Weld with Incomplete Fusion

                                            T = THE THINNEST MEMBER
                                            X = WIDTH OF THE WELD GAP
                                            a = THEORETICAL THROAT
                                             = (0.6 x T) + (O.7 x X)
                                            b = LEG SIZE
                                              = (0.9 x T) + X
                                            e = DEPTH OF FUSION

                               Figure 4
                               Page 12
Yamaha Motor Mfg. Co.               General Arc Welding Specifications

                BUTT BEAD WITHOUT PENETRATION T  4 mm


                                                     a  T min
                                                     b  T min

                                Figure 5

                     MATERIAL THICKNESS  2 mm  = 70°
                     MATERIAL THICKNESS > 2 mm  = 40°

                                Figure 5
                                 Page 13
   Yamaha Motor Mfg. Co.                 General Arc Welding Specifications


            GROOVE WELD                             WHERE GAP EXISTS AT APEX OF JOINT


                                     Figure 6

                                     Page 14
Yamaha Motor Mfg. Co.           General Arc Welding Specifications

                            Figure 7

                        EXAMPLE OF MELT BACK


                             Figure 8

                             Page 15
Yamaha Motor Mfg. Co.             General Arc Welding Specifications


                                          1     CRATER CRACK
                                          2     FACE CRACK
                                          3     HEAT- AFFECTED ZONE CRACK
                                          4     LAMELLAR CRACK
                                          5     LONGITUDINAL CRACK
                                          6     ROOT CRACK
                                          7     ROOT SURFACE CRACK
                                          8     THROAT CRACK
                                          9     TOE CRACK
                                          10    TRANSVERSE CRACK
                                          11    UNDERBEAD CRACK
                                          12    WELD INTERFACE CRACK
                                          13    WELD METAL CRACK

                        Figure 9: Crack Types

                              Page 16
Yamaha Motor Mfg. Co.            General Arc Welding Specifications

            1   SCATTERED POROSITY
            2   HONEYCOMB POROSITY
            3   LINEAR POROSITY
            5   SCATTERED POROSITY
            6   LARGE PORE

                         Figure 10: Porosity

                              Page 17
Yamaha Motor Mfg. Co.              General Arc Welding Specifications

                                                             MELT - THROUGH


                                                                T  2mm

                                            MELT - THROUGH

                                                                T  4 mm

        MELT – THROUGH
                                              MELT - THROUGH


                 Figure 11: Examples of Melt – Through

                               Page 18
Yamaha Motor Mfg. Co.              General Arc Welding Specifications

         CHAIN INTERMITTENT                             STAGGERED INTERMITTENT
            FILLET WELD                                      FILLET WELD

                 Figure 12: Intermittent Fillet Welds

                               Page 19
Yamaha Motor Mfg. Co.       General Arc Welding Specifications



                        (C) – SURFACING WELD

                        Figure 13

                         Page 20
Yamaha Motor Mfg. Co.               General Arc Welding Specifications

            Figure 14: Joint Penetration and Root Penetration

                                Page 21
Yamaha Motor Mfg. Co.       General Arc Welding Specifications

                        Figure 15

                         Page 22

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