Section 1: Groundwater
Surface water, is water that is found on the surface of
the Earth’s crust.
Examples: lakes, rivers, streams, ponds, oceans, seas
Groundwater is water that is
found in the open spaces, or pores
of soil or rock beneath Earth’s
What is the difference in surface water
and groundwater ?
Name one example of surface water.
Name one example of groundwater.
An aquifer is a layer of permeable rock
through which water flows freely.
Aquifers act as reservoirs or storage
areas for groundwater.
Pores are tiny spaces or cracks that can hold
normally is not
found in pools or
through a series of
pores in rock and
Pore size can vary and the word
porosity is used to describe how
much water soil or rock can hold.
P_________describes how much water
rock or soil can hold.
An aquifer is a layer of p_______rock
through which _______flows freely.
Is the rock in an aquifer permeable or
impermeable ? Explain.
Groundwater is not normally found in
pools or channels . It is usually found in
Permeable is a word that describes
rock or soil that allows groundwater
to flow through because that rock or
soil contains many well-connected
pores or cracks.
Impermeable describes rock or soil that
will not allow groundwater to flow
through because rock or soil has no
pores or cracks for water to flow
What is the difference in permeable rock
and impermeable rock ?
The water table is the line where the
soil without water, or zone of aeration,
meets the soil filled with water, known
as the zone of saturation.
The water table will rise during times
of rainfall and fall during times of
is full of
air – Zone
is full of
Section 2: Groundwater Pollution and Overuse
Pollution is the contamination of soil,
water, air or other parts of the
environment by something harmful.
Point-Source water pollution is when waste
is dumped directly into water.
Examples of Point Source Pollution: Trash dumped into
a stream, oil poured down an old well.
Nonpoint-source water pollution is
from sources of pollution over a large
Most groundwater pollution comes
from the non-point source.
Sources of water
Landfill leaks Septic tanks leaking
Waste spills Mining
Road salts Agricultural waste
Storage tanks Feed lots
Challenges of Groundwater Cleanup
Groundwater cleanup is a slow and expensive process.
The source of pollution is sometimes
hard to locate and difficult to reach.
The first step in cleaning up groundwater
contamination is to remove the source of
Water can be pumped out of the ground,
then treated to remove the pollutants and
then returned to the water in the aquifer.
Bioremediation uses living organisms
to remove pollutants.
Conservation of Water
Groundwater shortages occur when more water
is pumped out of aquifers than is replenished.
This is especially a problem in areas where the
population has increased and places with a
higher demand on the water supply.
As aquifers hold less and less water,
subsidence can occur where the land
Saltwater intrusion can also occur in
aquifers near an ocean coast.