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									   Tourism-led Amenity Migration
   and the Transformation of Place:
   Issues of Affordable Housing




BEST Education Network Think Tank VIII       Alison Gill
Sustaining Quality of Life through Tourism   Simon Fraser University
Izmir University of Economics, Turkey
June 24-27, 2008
    Introduction: the impacts of
          global mobility
• Global economic and political change has
  stimulated an explosion in tourism-led migration
  flows resulting in unprecedented transformation in
  the form and condition of impacted communities.
• This increase in human migration to areas of high
  quality recreational and tourism resources is
  referred to as ‘amenity migration’ and includes
  both permanent and second home residents
                  Outline
• Brief conceptual framework for considering
  amenity migration in context of sustainable
  development
• Focus on one important quality of life issue
  resulting from amenity migration:
  affordable housing for workers
• Consider ‘best case’ example of solutions to
  the problem as developed in Whistler.
                                    TOURISM -LED
                                 AMENITY MIGRATION
                                 People, capital, knowledge



  T RANSFORMATIONS                                               STAKEHOLDERS
      OF PLACE
   Land development                                               Amenity migrants
    /property values                                              (consumption and
                                                                   production-led)
   Social values and                    POLITICS OF
    networks                              PLACE
                                                                  Tourism industry

   Environmental and                                              Civil society
    landscape change                                               organizations

   Economic                                                       Bureaucrats
    diversification /
    labour market                                                 NGOs
    change                         POLICY DIRECTIVES

    Access

   Sense of place/image

   Power and politi cal             COMMUNITY
                                   MANAGEMENT
    structures
                                     STRATEGIES
                                   Eg.
                                     Affordable
                                   housing strategies
                                   for workers

Figure 1 Tourism-led migration and the transformation of place
     Housing and Quality of Life
• Consumption-led (second home owners,retirees
  and other lifestyle migrants) reflecting a societal
  shift in values that emphasizes tradition, heritage,
  subjective well-being; environmental protection
  and other quality of life concerns.
• Production-led tourism migration labour pools
  and entrepreneurial personnel. Different QOL
  issues.
• Affordable housing for employees becomes
  particularly evident at the intersection of these two
  types of migration.
Affordable Housing

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In Unaffordable Places
Whistler: A Best Practice Example

               The Resort Municipality of Whistler
                 (RMOW) recognizes that
                 comfortable, affordable housing is
                 vital to the sustainability of the
                 Whistler community
              • Committed to providing a variety of
                 housing options for local employees
                 to house at least 75 percent of the
                 local workforce in the community
              • Both rental and ownership units in a
                 mix of sizes and locations are
                 available and are restricted
                 exclusively to Whistler residents.
     The evolution of affordable
        housing in Whistler
• 1983 Whistler Housing Society - non-profit
• 1989 Employee Service Charge Bylaw - an
  inclusionary zoning bylaw requiring any
  commercial or tourist accommodation
  development to provide employee housing or
  provide cash-in-lieu
• 1996 Fund grown to $6 million but little built (500
  staff housing beds by main ski operator)
• 1997 Whistler Housing Authority formed
  borrowed another $13 million and built 160 units
Accomplishments and challenges
• After 1997 all units rent and resale price restricted,
  consumer price index used to determine
  appreciation
• Over past 7 years 75-80% of peak season work
  force housed (cf 60%Aspen 30% Vail)
• 1000 new units after Athletes village 2010
• Challenges difficult rezoning - new sites still a
  problem even though growth cap lifted to permit
  only affordable housing development
Tools and Policies
        • Inclusionary zoning - requiring
          affordable housing
        • Density bonusing - used as
          bargaining tool with developers
        • Deed restricted - by covenant on
          title affects resale
        • Housing agreements -
          concerning use and occupancy
          by only qualified residents.
        • H.O.M.E - partnering with
          second home owners, residents
          to provide seasonal
          accommodation
        • Green technology in building
  Infill housing: meeting goals of
  sustainability and quality of life
GOALS
• Increase the diversity and availability of resident restricted housing
• Promote social vitality in existing neighbourhoods by increasing the
   number of occupied dwellings
• Enhance neighbourhood character by dividing permitted floor area and
   building mass into smaller units
• Encourage infill by allowing resident owners of market real estate to
   realize some of the value in their property without selling and leaving
   the community
• Create new dwelling units without exceeding the capacity of municipal
   services and infrastructure
• Make regulatory changes fair, flexible to accommodate various site
   conditions and owners’ circumstances, and simple to understand and
   administer
Whistler’s Affordable Housing Program
                Conclusions
• Amenity migration (AM) and affordable housing
  are integrally related because AM invariably leads
  to rising house prices
• A predominantly resident labour force is essential
  to establishing a healthy community and a healthy
  tourism product
• It is necessary to establish policies and mechanism
  for non-market housing before growth is too far
  advanced.
• Affordable housing development need to be
  carefully designed to ‘fit’ with the tourism
  environment and should not be ‘ghettoised’

								
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