Mosaics Mosaics are… the art of creating images with small pieces of colored glass, stone or other material. It may be a technique of decorative art, an aspect of interior decoration or of cultural and spiritual significance as in a cathedral. Small tiles or fragments of pottery (known as tesserae, diminutive tessellae) or of colored glass or clear glass backed with metal foils are used to create a pattern or picture. History of Mosaics Mosaics of the 4th century BC are found in the Macedonian palace- city of Aegae, and they enriched the floors of Hellenistic villas, and Roman dwellings from Britain to Dura-Europos. Splendid mosaic floors are found in Roman villas across north Africa. In Rome, Nero and his architects used mosaics to cover the surfaces of walls and ceilings in the Domus Aurea, built AD 64. Mosaic art also flourished in Rome, gradually declining as conditions became more difficult in the Early Middle Ages. Fifth-century mosaics can be found over the triumphal arch and in the nave of the basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore. The 27 surviving panels of the nave are the most important mosaic cycle in Rome of this period. Two other important 5th-century mosaics are lost but we know them from 17th-century drawings. I Mosaics influenced… Islamic art Jewish Faith The Christian East Renaissance and Baroque Byzantine Culture Rome in the High Middle Ages Historical Mosaics Modern Mosaics A modern example of mosaic is the Museum of Natural History station of the New York Subway. Some modern mosaics are the work of modernisme style architects Antoni Gaudí and Josep Maria Jujol, for example the mosaics in the Park Güell in Barcelona. Today, among of the leading figures of the world in mosaic art is Saimir Strati. His process is similar to traditional oil painting wherein the artist first sketches a design onto a canvas before creating the layers of the artwork. Among his credits are two Guinness World Records for largest 'Nail' and 'Toothpick' mosaics. Modern Mosaics Toothpick and Nail Mosaics Mosaic Terminology Mosaic is an art form which uses small pieces of materials placed together to create a unified whole. The materials commonly used are glass, ceramic, marble, pebble, mirror, shells and china. The term for each piece of material is Tessera (plural: tesserae). The term for the spaces in between where the grout goes is the Interstices. Andamento is the word used to describe the movement and flow of Tesserae. The 'opus', the Latin for ‘work’, is the way in which the pieces are cut and placed varies and is known. Opus Tessellatum: Tesserae laid in regular straight lines like bricks. Opus Regulatum: Vertical and horizontal lines in regular grid. Opus Vermiculatum: Flowing lines of tesserae wriggling over the surface. Opus Musivum: Vermiculatum used totally over image and background. Opus Palladianum: Irregular fitting shapes like crazy paving. Steps to creating a Mosaic Create a good design, but no words or cutesie cartoons! Take broken tiles to layout your design on a piece of wood or cardboard, taking color and shapes into account (you can paint the broken tiles with acrylic before you glue them down to give them a better look). Glue them down with hot glue/ Wood glue, etc. Carefully put grout in between the tiles to seal your design… try to be neat so the grout doesn’t get all over your tiles! Allow to dry. Your assignment To create a picture or design using the mosaic tiles provided. Use a method learned in the presentation. You must glaze or paint the tiles to enhance your design. You will use grout to fill in between the tiles. Make it cool, not LAME!!!!!!!