Group Interview Method of Job Analysis Form

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					Data Collection Methods                                 January 14, 1998                                                        Page 1

        Method                                  Description                              Advantages             Disadvantages

 Dialogue/Discussion: The Dialogue is a session in which participants share             Highly                 Requires a high
                      relevant information in order to arrive at an informed,            collaborative,          degree of trust
                      mutually-agreed to commitment.                                     resulting in high       by all parties
                                                                                         “buy in” from
                          The goal is not to collect data but to share viewpoints.       all involved and       Requires a high
                          There is no “interviewer” or “facilitator” leading the         the creation of         degree of
                          discussion, although, there may be process consultant          deep                    individual skill
                          present to help participants build trust, listen with          partnerships            in both listening
                          respect, and speak with authenticity.                                                  with respect
                                                                                        A key feature of        and speaking
                                                                                         any “learning           with
                                                                                         environment.”           authenticity

          Face to Face An interview is used to obtain information from one              Brings to the          Time
            Interview: person about particular situations, problems or topics.           surface the             consuming
                       The interview can be structured or semi-structured.               deeper factors
                                                                                         about complex          Difficult to
                          The structured interview is designed to elicit specific        situations              schedule
                          responses to specific questions. Responses to a
                          structured interview will normally be easier to quantify      Helps build            Costly
                          and interpret since uniform questions tend to yield a          rapport with
                          narrower range of responses.                                   and buy-in form        Requires a
                                                                                         participants            skilled
                          The semi-structured interview uses open-ended questions                                interviewer
                          to explore broad issues in a non-directive, non-              Flexible.
                          threatening manner.                                            Interviewer can        Capturing data
                                                                                         adapt “on the           is difficult.
                                                                                         fly”                    Writing during
                                                                                                                 the interview
                                                                                        Interview               interrupts the
                                                                                         guides are              flow. Relying
                                                                                         easier to               on tape
Data Collection Methods                               January 14, 1998                                                    Page 2

        Method                                 Description                           Advantages             Disadvantages

                                                                                     develop than            recordings is
                                                                                     surveys. (Need          like doing the
                                                                                     for rigor is not        interview twice.
                                                                                     so high)
                                                                                                            Data collected
                                                                                    Can capture             from
                                                                                     (use) non-verbal        unstructured
                                                                                     information             interviews is
                                                                                                             difficult to
                                                                                    Interviewer has         quantify
                                                                                     the opportunity
                                                                                     to clarify             The population
                                                                                     questions               is small

                                                                                                            Respondents
                                                                                                             can not remain
                                                                                                             which may
                                                                                                             influence their

                                                                                                            Interruptions
                                                                                                             can occur

                                                                                                            Responses may
                                                                                                             be influenced
                                                                                                             by the

 Telephone Interviews Telephone interviews are like face to face interviews in      Less expensive         Requires a
                      that they are a one-on-one method for gathering                than live               skilled
Data Collection Methods                                 January 14, 1998                                                          Page 3

        Method                                  Description                               Advantages              Disadvantages

                          information.                                                    interview                interviewer

                          They are used often in highly structured surveys to gather     Easier to               No chance to
                          non-sensitive responses to questions that require specific,     schedule than            show visual
                          tightly focused questions.                                      live interview           information.
                                                                                                                   (unless it’s
                          They can also be used to validate information gathered         Interviewer can          through
                          by written surveys and questionnaires and for follow-up         follow a                 teleconference)
                          to focus groups and face-to-face interviews.                    prescribed
                                                                                          script and take         Less chance for
                                                                                          notes more               flexibility.
                                                                                          easily                   Interviewer
                                                                                                                   more likely to
                                                                                         Respondents              stay structured
                                                                                          may feel freer
                                                                                          to be more              No chance to
                                                                                          candid than in           read body
                                                                                          face-to-face             language

                                                                                         Less likely to be

        Ethnography/ Contextual inquiry (ethnography) is an extended                     Brings to the           Time
   Contextual inquiry: interview at the job site. The purpose is to gather data           surface the              consuming
                       designed from interviewees in the context of on-the-job            deeper factors
                       performance. In a contextual interview, the interviewer            about complex           Difficult to
                       observes the user at work and (by prior agreement) can             situations               schedule
                       interrupt at any time to ask questions.
                                                                                         Can help build          Costly
                          A difference between contextual inquiry and a job-site          rapport with
                          interview is that during a contextual inquiry the subject       and buy-in form         Requires a very
Data Collection Methods                                  January 14, 1998                                                         Page 4

        Method                                   Description                                Advantages             Disadvantages

                          continues to perform. Observations and questions arise            participants            skilled
                          out of the context of actual performance. An interview                                    interviewer
                          does not necessarily take place at the job site. Even if it      Gives
                          does, the subject is “off the job. ” Observations and             interviewers a         Requires an
                          questions arise out of the subjects examples of work.             deeper                  articulate,
                                                                                            understanding           helpful subject
                                                                                            of skills and
                                                                                            knowledge              Can disrupt the
                                                                                            needed to do the        work process
                                                                                            job and helps
                                                                                            identify job-site
                                                                                            social and
                                                                                            issues that

          Focus group: A focus group is a group interview with approximately 4             Advantages are         Costly and time
                       to 10 participants. A skilled facilitator leads the                  the same as for         consuming
                       discussion. It is used to gather, in a short time, valid             face to face            (although less le
                       information from members of the target population (such              interviews, plus        less so than
                       as subject matter experts) familiar with a problem or                the following:          with individual
                       situation.                                                                                   interviews)
                                                                                           Can reach more
                          The format can be highly structured, semi-structured, or          people in a            Difficult to
                          free form. The structured format is designed to elicit            shorter time            schedule (even
                          specific kinds of responses to specific, often closed-end         than with               more so than
                          questions; a semi-structured format is designed to gather         interviews              individual
                          information within certain parameters using open-ended                                    interviews)
                          questions, and free form is completely open and is               Participant
                          designed to allow participants to bring to the surface            interaction can        Capturing data
                                                                                            increase the            is difficult.
Data Collection Methods                                  January 14, 1998                                                       Page 5

        Method                                   Description                               Advantages             Disadvantages

                           issues that might otherwise stay hidden.                        amount and              Writing during
                                                                                           validity of the         the session
                           Focus groups are useful for gathering information on            information             interrupts the
                           what is actually going on, why things are that way, how         gathered                flow. Relying
                           participants feel about the situation, and what                                         on tape
                           possibilities for change exist.                                Can help build          recordings is
                                                                                           consensus for           like doing the
                           Focus groups are also sometimes referred to as “sensing         causes and              focus group
                           sessions” because the facilitator uses the focus group to       solutions               twice.
                           develop an intuitive sense of the problem or situation.
                                                                                          Can include            Data collected
                                                                                           short surveys           from
                                                                                           distributed             unstructured
                                                                                           during the              focus groups is
                                                                                           session to              difficult to
                                                                                           collect                 quantify.

                                                                                          Can include

            Structured Structured brainstorming is a group activity that uses one         Provides a large       Can be difficult
        brainstorming: of many techniques to focus group attention on a                    quantity of             to manage.
                       particular problem or situation. It is often used to inspire        information in a        Introverted
                       participants to think about and discuss a problem or                short time              types will need t
                       situation from different perspectives.                                                      be drawn out.
                                                                                          Can help                Extraverted
                           SWOT, for example, asks participants to name strengths,         participants            types may try to
                           weaknesses, opportunities and threats in order to provide       explore many            dominate
Data Collection Methods                               January 14, 1998                                                       Page 6

        Method                                 Description                               Advantages            Disadvantages

                          a balanced view.                                               viewpoints            Requires a
                          Structured brainstorm techniques help groups explore the      Can help a             facilitator with
                          interlocking constraints of problems that do not have a        group both             knowledge of
                          single “perfect” solution                                      expand and             the particular
                                                                                         bring focus to         technique
                                                                                                               Requires more
                                                                                        Can help the           advance
                                                                                         group see              preparation than
                                                                                         multiple               a focus group
                                                                                         viewpoints by
                                                                                         providing a
                                                                                         context for

                                                                                        Can be a means
                                                                                         to surface data
                                                                                         not raised in
                                                                                         focus group

                                                                                        Can give
                                                                                         insight into
                                                                                         individual and
                                                                                         group mental
Data Collection Methods                                January 14, 1998                                                        Page 7

        Method                                  Description                              Advantages            Disadvantages

         Task analysis: Task analysis uses one of several methods to determine          Can provide           Time
                        specific components of a job by identifying an                   quantifiable           consuming
                        employee's actual work activities. It specifies, in precise      data
                        detail and quantifiable terms, the skills, knowledge, tools,                           Difficult to
                        conditions, and requirements needed to perform the job.         May reveal             schedule
                                                                                         information           Costly

                                                                                        Brings to the         Can disrupt the
                                                                                         surface the            work process
                                                                                         deeper factors
                                                                                         about complex         Often highly
                                                                                         situations             detailed and
                                                                                        Can help build
                                                                                         rapport with          May require
                                                                                         and buy-in form        multiple
                                                                                         participants           methods of data
                                                                                                                collection to
                                                                                        Gives                  ensure validity
                                                                                         interviewers a
                                                                                         deeper                Requires
                                                                                         understanding          skilled, well
                                                                                         of skills and          trained observer
                                                                                         needed to do the      Requires an
                                                                                         job and helps          articulate,
                                                                                         identify job-site      helpful subject
                                                                                         barriers to
                                                                                         performance           Multiple
                                                                                                                observers (no
                                                                                        Can help               matter how well
Data Collection Methods                                January 14, 1998                                                     Page 8

        Method                                  Description                             Advantages            Disadvantages

                                                                                        identify social        trained) may
                                                                                        and                    use different
                                                                                        environmental          approaches that
                                                                                        issues that            reduce validity
                                                                                        affect                 of data
                                                                                                              Requires
                                                                                                               follow-up to
                                                                                                               ensure validity
                                                                                                               of data

                                                                                                              Subjects may
                                                                                                               not be
                                                                                                               of target

             Surveys Surveys and questionnaires are used to gather specific            The cheapest          The instruments
  and questionnaires: information from large populations about what they                method                 should be
                      think, feel, or do regarding specific job responsibilities,       available to           piloted to
                      problems, or situations. Surveys and questionnaires can           gather                 ensure validity
                      be either paper-based or electronic.                              information            and reliability

                                                                                       Can gather            It is not possible
                                                                                        large amounts          to clarify
                                                                                        of information         ambiguous or
                                                                                        from large,            misleading
                                                                                        geographically         questions
                                                                                        populations           There is no
                                                                                                               possibility for
                                                                                       Respondents            follow-up
Data Collection Methods         January 14, 1998                                              Page 9

        Method            Description                  Advantages             Disadvantages

                                                       can remain              questions
                                                       anonymous and
                                                       may be more            Difficult to
                                                       willing to share        construct.
                                                       negative                Requires a
                                                       viewpoints              skilled
                                                      Short surveys
                                                       are less               Tabulating and
                                                       disruptive to           analyzing data
                                                       work                    can be time
                                                      Respondents
                                                       can take time          Without
                                                       when                    adequate
                                                       considering the         safeguards,
                                                       response                respondents
                                                                               may not
                                                      A good method           represent cross
                                                       to gather data          section of the
                                                       from introverted        population.
                                                       personality             Difficult to
                                                       types                   assess the
                                                                               motivation of
                                                      Questions are           those returning
                                                       consistent              the survey.

                                                      Data analysis is       Importance of
                                                       quantifiable            responses can
                                                                               because of
Data Collection Methods                                 January 14, 1998                                                       Page 10

        Method                                   Description                              Advantages              Disadvantages

                                                                                                                   biases in the

          Job analysis Job analysis is the process of collecting, analyzing,             Provides insight        Will require
                       interpreting, and reporting information on work                    into on-the-job          multiple
                       performed in a particular job. It differs from task                skill and                methods of data
                       analysis in that it is about the job, not the performer.           knowledge                collection to
                                                                                          requirements             ensure validity
                           The purpose of a job analysis is to determine the duties
                           and tasks associated with the job. Examples of the uses       Provides                Requires
                           of job analysis are: to design training, to determine          multiple                 skilled, well
                           compensation, to develop a job description.                    viewpoints to            trained observer
                                                                                          on-the-job skill
                           Job analysis usually requires document review and              and knowledge           Requires an
                           interviews with supervisors (to determine what should          requirements             articulate,
                           be) as well as interviews with performers (to determine                                 helpful subject
                           what is).                                                     May bring to
                                                                                          the surface             Requires
                                                                                          social issues (as        follow-up to
                                                                                          between labor            ensure validity
                                                                                          and                      of data
                                                                                          affect                  Subjects may
                                                                                          performance              not be
                                                                                                                   of target

                                                                                                                  Differentiating
                                                                                                                   between “what
                                                                                                                   is” and “what
                                                                                                                   should be” may
Data Collection Methods                               January 14, 1998                                                  Page 11

        Method                                 Description                           Advantages           Disadvantages

                                                                                                           be difficult.

                                                                                                          May be difficult
                                                                                                           to build rapport
                                                                                                           with subjects if
                                                                                                           the job analysis
                                                                                                           is tied to
                                                                                                           and staffing.
                                                                                                           Data gathered
                                                                                                           my not be

  Skill and knowledge Skill and knowledge analysis provides a detailed              Provides a           Disadvantages
              analysis description of what performers should be able to do and       detailed model        of the methods
                       what they should know in order to perform their job. This     of what should        used. It is
                       type of analysis helps identify gaps between what             be                    worth
                       performance is and what it should be.                                               mentioning, for
                                                                                    Advantages of         emphasis, that
                       The analysis uses methods (interviews, surveys,               the methods           this is a difficult
                       observation, and literature review) described in this         used                  and time-
                       document as the means to gather information.                                        consuming

                                                                                                          The sources for
                                                                                                           the knowledge
                                                                                                           may not be

           Observation Observation is a data collection method that involves        A good method        Time
                       watching and documenting recording on-the-job                 to gather             consuming
                       observable behavior. Depending on the data to be              information in
Data Collection Methods                                January 14, 1998                                                    Page 12

        Method                                 Description                          Advantages             Disadvantages

                          collected, the performers being observed could be         context of the         Costly
                          exemplary, average, or entry level performers.            work
                                                                                    environment.           Difficult to
                                                                                   Less disruptive
                                                                                    to work process        Follow up
                                                                                    than contextual         interviews are
                                                                                    inquiry                 needed to
                                                                                                            validate data
                                                                                   Can yield               and gather
                                                                                    unexpected              information
                                                                                    results.                about
                                                                                   Can help                behavior
                                                                                    uncover                Requires a well-
                                                                                    shortcomings in         trained, skilled
                                                                                    existing                observer.
                                                                                    methods and
                                                                                    develop                Observer may
                                                                                    possible                affect
                                                                                    improvements            performance
                                                                                                            negatively or
                                                                                   More direct;            positively
                                                                                    tasks are not
                                                                                    filtered through
                                                                                    another’s words

     Document review Document review is a method of collecting information         Cost effective         Data may not be
                     from existing company records such as job manuals, job                                 complete
                     aids, methods and procedures, previous surveys, business      Allows data
                                                                                    collection with        Data may be out
Data Collection Methods                                  January 14, 1998                                                         Page 13

        Method                                   Description                               Advantages             Disadvantages

                           plans, business reports, and performance reports.               no disruption of        of date
                           Document review can provide a baseline understanding                                   Data could be
                           of what is skills and knowledge are needed to do the job.      Provides insight        biased by those
                                                                                           into the “should        who recorded it.
                                                                                           be” state
                                                                                                                  There may be
                                                                                          Reliable                file
                                                                                           documentation           compatibility
                                                                                           can reduce or           problems if
                                                                                           eliminate the           documents are
                                                                                           need of other           online
                                                                                           data collection

                                                                                          Can be
                                                                                           tabulated and

                                                                                          Often a source
                                                                                           of numbers and

     Literature Review A literature review involves reading material such as              Provides a             Information
                       journal articles, magazine articles, and research reports           broader                 may not apply
                       that have relevance to the project.                                 perspective than        to the client’s
                                                                                           using only              situation
                           Literature reviews help document market forces,                 internal
                           competitive activity, business trends, and best practices       documents              Client may
                                                                                                                   distrust the
Data Collection Methods                                January 14, 1998                                                       Page 14

        Method                                  Description                             Advantages             Disadvantages

                          in other companies.                                          Can bring help          information
                                                                                        identify leading        because it is not
                                                                                        edge practices          internal to the

                                                                                                               The information
                                                                                                                may not be

                                                                                                               Reports can be
                                                                                                                biased and
                                                                                                                skewed towards
                                                                                                                a particular
                                                                                                                point of view

         Developing a DACUM is a highly interactive group process of task              A visual               Requires a
 Curriculum (DACUM) analysis in which a skilled facilitator leads expert                process                 skilled
                      workers and supervisors through a process that identifies                                 interviewer
                      skills, knowledge, and attitudes needed to do a particular       Can generate a
                      job.                                                              large amount of        Requires
                                                                                        detailed                detailed
                          The output of a DACUM session can be used for                 information in a        preparation
                          curriculum development, job descriptions, job redesign,       relatively short
                          and cross-training strategies.                                time                   Requires
                                                                                       Can capture             articulate
                                                                                        data on a wide          participants
                                                                                        range of skills,
                                                                                        knowledge, and         Disrupts work
Data Collection Methods                                 January 14, 1998                                                    Page 15

        Method                                  Description                             Advantages           Disadvantages

        Algorithm/flow A method of task analysis that takes large, complex tasks       Visual               Requires
               charting and breaks them down into a series of smaller steps and                               problems with
                        yes/no decisions.                                              Helps bring a         clear, yes or no
                                                                                        model of order        answers.
                          It is the output that is different. The methods used to       to situations         Forcing yes/no
                          collect the data are usually document analysis and            that appear           answers on
                          interviews.                                                   chaotic               problems and
                                                                                                              situations that
                                                                                                              are ambiguous
                                                                                                              will yield
                                                                                                              invalid data

                                                                                                             Requires a

                                                                                                             Requires an
                                                                                                              helpful, skilled

                                                                                                             Data needs to
                                                                                                              be gathered
                                                                                                              from multiple
                                                                                                              sources to
                                                                                                              ensure validity

                                                                                                             Requires
                                                                                                              follow-up with
                                                                                                              subject matter
                                                                                                              expert to verify
Data Collection Methods                                  January 14, 1998                                                 Page 16

        Method                                   Description                           Advantages             Disadvantages


       Critical Incident Critical incident technique collects information on the      Collects               Requires an
             Technique critical behaviors that made a difference between success       information that        articulate,
                         and failure in a situation.                                   is apparently           skilled,
                                                                                       strongly                knowledgeable
                          The technique uses stories, anecdotes, reports, and          correlated with         observer
                          observations, related either orally or in writing, by        successful
                          individuals who observed the situation.                      performance            Observations
                                                                                                               may include
                          Critical incident analysis requires answers to the          The story-              assumptions not
                          following questions:                                         telling aspect          necessarily
                                                                                       may yield               associated with
                              What was done that led to effective performance?         unexpected              the performance
                              What was done that detracted from effective
                                                                                                              Difficult to
                              performance or led to ineffective performance?
                                                                                      Identifies both         tabulate and
                              What, if done differently, would have increased          positive and            quantify results
                              effective performance?                                   negative
                              What attitudes, values, abilities, knowledge, and        associated with
                              skills seemed to lead to effective performance?          performance

                              What attitudes, values, and knowledge seemed to
                              lead to lead to ineffective performance?

                              What attitudes, values, skills, abilities, and
                              knowledge were seem to be needed for effective
                              performance but were apparently missing?

         Competency Competency analysis and competency modeling is a                  Advantages of          Disadvantages
      Analysis/Models method mostly used to provide descriptions of desired            whatever                of whatever
Data Collection Methods                                January 14, 1998                                                     Page 17

        Method                                  Description                               Advantages            Disadvantages

                          behaviors associated with a particular job. Because it is       techniques are         technique is
                          relatively new, there is not yet widespread agreement on        used                   used
                          what constitutes a competency.
                                                                                         Identifies and        Lack of
                          Often, the competency describes both the skill or               describes              agreement may
                          behavior and its result.                                        behaviors              lead to
                                                                                          associated with        inconsistencies
                          Competency models can be developed from a number of             results                in data
                          data collection techniques including interviews, focus                                 gathered,
                          groups, document review, and critical incident reports.                                tabulated, and
Data Collection Methods                                January 14, 1998                                              Page 18


Comware. Undated. “Decision One” material developed for client project.

Korth, S. March 10, 1997. Handout for Executive Human Resource Development Master of Education Class, Xavier University,
Cincinnati, OH.

Senge, P () The Fifth Discipline:

Description: Group Interview Method of Job Analysis Form document sample