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9C Word Sheets
9Ca – A light reaction/Plants respire too

  Word                  Pronunciation       Meaning
  aerobic respiration   air-O-bick          Chemical reaction that releases energy from
                                            glucose. It uses up oxygen and produces
                        res-per-ay-shun     carbon dioxide and water.
  biomass                                   The mass of material (except water) that makes up
                                            an organism.
  chlorophyll           klor-O-fill         Green substance found inside chloroplasts. It
                                            absorbs light.
  glucose                                   Type of sugar made during photosynthesis.
  photosynthesis        foto-sinth-e-sis    Chemical reaction that plants use to make their own
                                            food. It needs light to work. Carbon dioxide and
                                            water are the reactants and glucose and oxygen are
                                            the products.
  raw material                              Something used up in a chemical reaction. Also
                                            called a reactant.
  reactant                                  Something used up in a chemical reaction. Also
                                            called a raw material.
  phloem tube           flow-em             Tube made from chains of living phloem cells.
                                            Carries glucose and other soluble substances up and
                                            down the plant.
  product                                   Something made in a chemical reaction.
  starch                                    Insoluble carbohydrate made from glucose and used
                                            as a storage material in plants.
  word equation                             Simple way of showing what happens in a chemical
                                            reaction.

9Cb – Leafy adaptations/Sugary food

  Word                  Pronunciation       Meaning
  adapted                                   When something has a particular shape to help it do
                                            a function (job). A root hair cell has a shape that
                                            helps it absorb water and is said to be ‘adapted to its
                                            function’.
  amino acids           am-mee-no ass-ids   The building blocks of proteins.
  biomass                                   The mass of material (except water) that makes up
                                            an organism.
  cellulose                                 A substance used to make cell walls.
  chlorophyll           klor-O-fill         Green substance found inside chloroplasts. It
                                            absorbs light.
  chloroplast           klor-O-plast        Green disc containing chlorophyll. Found in plant

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                                       cells. Where glucose is made by photosynthesis.
  diffusion            dif-few-shun    The random movement of particles from where
                                       there are a lot of them to where there are fewer of
                                       them.
  fat                                  Substance needed by living things to make cell
                                       membranes. Our bodies also use fats as a store of
                                       energy and to keep warm.
  function                             Something’s job.
  guard cells                          Cells which open and close the stomata.
  mineral salt                         Chemical found in soil that plants need to grow
                                       healthily.
  nitrate              night-rate      Mineral salt that plants need to make proteins.
  oil                                  Liquid fat, often found in nuts and seeds.
  palisade cells       pall-iss-aid    Cells found in leaves, containing many chloroplasts.
  protein                              A substance made from amino acids. Proteins are
                                       needed for growth and repair.
  starch                               Insoluble carbohydrate made from glucose and used
                                       as a storage material in plants.
  stoma                stO-ma          Singular of stomata.
  stomata              stom-mart-a     Small holes on the underside of leaves which let
                                       gases into and out of the leaf.

9Cc – The root of the matter
  Word                 Pronunciation   Meaning
  absorb                               Soak up.
  function                             Something’s job.
  mineral salt                         Chemical found in soil that plants need for healthy
                                       growth.
  nitrate              night-rate      Mineral salt that plants need to make proteins.
  phloem tube          flow-em         Tube made from chains of living phloem cells.
                                       Carries glucose and other soluble substances up and
                                       down the plant.
  root hair cell                       Cell found in roots. The root hair has a large surface
                                       area to help the cell absorb water quickly.
  wilting                              When a plant does not have enough water and
                                       droops.
  xylem tubes          zy-lem          Tube made from chains of dead, hollow xylem cells.
                                       Carries water and dissolved mineral salts up a plant.
  global warming                       The process of the Earth’s atmosphere warming up.
                                       It is partly caused by an increase in carbon dioxide
                                       in the air.
  methane                              The gas that is ‘natural gas’. Also formed in large
                                       amounts in the digestive systems of cows. Methane
                                       absorbs heat and so helps global warming.


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QUESTION 1

The drawing shows a fish tank. It has some waterweed and some fish in it.




      During the day waterweed gives off bubbles of oxygen.

      (a)    Give two ways in which the waterweed helps the fish to stay alive.

             1 ..................................................................................................

             2 ..................................................................................................
                                                                                                                            2 marks

      (b)    Tick the boxes by three things which both fish and waterweed do.


             They both use energy.                                       They both make their
                                                                         own food.

             They both reproduce.                                        They both eat.


             They both move from                                         They both grow.
             place to place
                                                                                                                            3 marks
                                                                                                                    Maximum 5 marks




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QUESTION 2

Andrew put his rabbit’s cage on the grass.




      A week later, the grass under the cage had turned yellow.

      (a)    Give one reason why the grass had turned yellow.

               ..........................................................................................................
                         ...........................................................................................................

      (b)    Andrew wanted to test why the grass had turned yellow. He put two sheets
             of plastic just above another patch of grass. One sheet was black and the
             other sheet was clear.

                              black plastic sheet                          clear plastic sheet




             A week later, the grass under the black sheet was yellow. The grass under the
             clear sheet was green.

             (i)       Explain why he used the clear plastic sheet as well as the black sheet.

                       ..................................................................................................

                       ..................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                       1 mark

             (ii)      Andrew left the black sheet there for several more weeks.
                       What happened to the grass under it?

                       ..................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                       1 mark




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      (c)    Tick the boxes by two things which both rabbits and grass plants can do.


                               they eat



                               they grow



                               they move from place to place



                               they reproduce



                               they breathe in and out

                                                                                                                                    2 marks
                                                                                                                            Maximum 5 marks
QUESTION 3

      Two pupils planted lettuce seeds at three different temperatures.
      They planted the same number of seeds at each temperature.




Their results are shown in the table.

                                                 total number of lettuce seeds germinated

        temperature, in °C                day 1         day 2           day 3           day 4         day 5         day 6

                    5                        0              0                               0            1              1
                                                                       ----------
                   15                        0              0               0               1            5              9

                   25                        0              2               8              13           17             19

       (a)   Complete the table to show how many seeds had germinated at 5°C by day 3.
                                                                                                                                     1 mark

      (b)    The pupils were trying to find out something about seeds.

             Write down the question the pupils were investigating.

             ............................................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                     1 mark




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      (c)    The pupils discussed their results and made the conclusions listed below.

             Look at their results in the table and decide whether each conclusion below is
             true, false or you cannot tell.

             Tick the correct box for each conclusion.

                        conclusions                true     false    cannot tell

             The earliest germination

              was at 25C.



             At 25C all the seeds

             germinated by day 6.



             5C was too cold for

             seeds to germinate.



             The best temperature for

             germination was 15C.
                                                                                              2 marks
                                                                                     Maximum 4 marks




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QUESTION 4

The drawing shows a plant called Tillandsia.




      (a)    (i)       The leaves of this plant absorb light.
                       Why do plants need light?

                       ..................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                    1 mark

             (ii)      Tillandsia plants grow on the high branches of trees in rain forests.




                                                                                                                     not to scale

                       These plants cannot grow well on the lowest branches.
                       Explain why.

                       ..................................................................................................

                       ..................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                    1 mark




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      (b)    Tillandsia plants do not have root hairs on their roots.

             What two substances do most plants absorb through their root hairs?

             1. ..................................................................................................

             2. ..................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                    2 marks

      (c)    Which diagram below shows a root hair?
             Tick the correct box.




                                  A                                                B




                                  C                                                D
                                                                                                                     not to scale
                                                                                                                                     1 mark
                                                                                                                            Maximum 5 marks




QUESTION 5


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(a)   The diagram shows a section through a flower from a cherry tree.




             (i)       Which part becomes the seed? ...........................................................
                                                                                                                            1 mark

             (ii)      Which part becomes the fruit? .............................................................
                                                                                                                            1 mark

             (iii)     What is the function of the anther? .......................................................
                                                                                                                            1 mark

      (b)    The drawings below show the fruits of two different plants.




             For each fruit, suggest how its structure helps the seeds to be scattered
             away from the parent plant.

             Goosegrass:.......................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................

             Goat’sbeard........................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................
                                                                                                                            2 marks




      (c)    Explain why it is an advantage to plants that their seeds are scattered far apart.


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             ............................................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                     1 mark
                                                                                                                            Maximum 6 marks
QUESTION 6

      The drawing shows an experiment to investigate photosynthesis in weed
      from a pond.


                          test-tube                                                        gas


                              beaker
                                                                                          water

                               funnel

                                                                                          pond weed
                         plasticine
      Bubbles of gas produced during photosynthesis were given off from the pond
      weed and collected in the test tube.

      (a)    Name the gas given off in photosynthesis

             ............................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                     1 mark

      (b)    What two substances are taken in by the plant and used for
             photosynthesis?

             1. ..................................................................................................

             2. ..................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                    2 marks




      Light of different intensities was shone onto the pond weed. The number of gas
      bubbles given off in one minute at each light intensity was counted. The results
      are shown in the graph.

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                           number of
                           bubbles per
                           minute




                                                          A          B           C        D          E
                                                                         light intensity


      (c)    Which letter on the horizontal axis shows the light intensity at which the
             rate of photosynthesis first reaches its maximum?

             ............................................................
                                                                                                                            1 mark

      Blue, green and red light were then shone, in turn, onto the pond weed. The
      number of bubbles of the gas given off in one minute was counted. The results
      are shown in the table.

                                   colour of light                 number of
                                                                 bubbles in one
                                                                    minute
                                           blue                             85
                                          green                             10
                                            red                             68

      The leaves of the pond weed contain a green pigment which absorbs light for
      photosynthesis

      (d)    (i)       Name this pigment.

                       ..................................................................................................
                                                                                                                            1 mark




             (ii)      Using the information in the table, tick a box by one colour of light
                       which is strongly absorbed by the pigment.




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                                           blue



                                           green



                                           red

                                                                                                                                  1 mark

      (e)    Sugar is also produced during photosynthesis.

             Give two ways in which the plant uses sugar.

             1. ..................................................................................................

                    ..................................................................................................

             2. ..................................................................................................

                    ..................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                 2 marks
                                                                                                                         Maximum 8 marks
QUESTION 7

      The diagram below shows a bee visiting a flower.




       (a)   (i)         Draw a line from the letter X to the part of the flower where the seeds are
                         produced.
                                                                                                                                  1 mark

             (ii)        Draw a line from the letter Y to a part of the flower where pollen is
                         produced.
                                                                                                                                  1 mark



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             (iii)     Draw a line from the letter Z to the stigma.
                                                                                                              1 mark

      (b)    Complete the sentences below by choosing words from the list:
                                                                                                             3 marks

             anthers                        fertilisation       germination              ovule

             pollination                seed production              sepal              stigma



             When a bee with pollen on it visits a flower, pollen rubs off the bee

             onto the ................................................ of the flower. This process

             is called .......................................... . A tube grows from each

             pollen grain until it reaches an ovule. A nucleus of the pollen grain

             joins with a nucleus in the ovule. This process is called

             .............................................. .
                                                                                                     maximum 6 marks
QUESTION 8

      Most pollen grains are transferred from one flower to another either by
      wind or by insects.

      Look at the drawings below which show pollen grains from three different plants.




             Using your observations:

             1.        State the method by which each of these pollen grains is transferred.

             2.        Give a careful explanation for the method you have chosen each time.

                       Write your answers in the table.




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                    name of                  method by                    explanation for method chosen
                     plant                  which pollen
                                           is transferred


                        pine




                    sunflower




                       lupin


                                                                                                                                    3 marks
                                                                                                                            Maximum 3 marks
QUESTION 9

      The drawing shows a ‘bottle garden’ which is kept in a brightly lit room.
      The cork in the neck of the bottle is not taken out.




      (a)    The plants in the bottle use oxygen for respiration.

             Explain why, over a week, the amounts of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the
             bottle stay about the same.

             ............................................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                    3 marks



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      (b)    Cross-pollination is the transfer of pollen from one plant to another.

             Give two reasons why cross-pollination is less likely to happen in this bottle
             garden than in an outdoor garden.

             1. ..................................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................

             2 ..................................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                    2 marks

      (c)    Micro-organisms in the soil break down the dead parts of plants.
             This releases minerals such as nitrates. Nitrates are a source of nitrogen for
             living plants.

             Why does a plant need nitrogen to grow?

             ............................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                     1 mark
                                                                                                                            Maximum 6 marks
QUESTION 10

      The drawing shows a bluebell plant. The plant grows from an underground stem
      called a bulb.
      Each year new leaves and flowers grow from the bulb.




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      (a)    Describe the process by which glucose is made in the leaves.

             ............................................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                    3 marks

       (b)   Many plants make starch from glucose.
             What group of nutrients do both glucose and starch belong to?

             .............................................................
                                                                                                                                     1 mark

      (c)    In the sixteenth century bluebell bulbs were dug up to obtain a starch-like
             substance that was used to make collars stiff.




             (i)       Digging up bluebell bulbs has caused a decrease in the number of
                       bluebells growing in Britain.
                       It is now against the law to dig up bluebells.

                       Suggest one other environmental reason why the number of bluebell plants
                       has decreased in Britain.

                       ..................................................................................................

                       ..................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                     1 mark

             (ii)      Every 10 years the trees and bushes in some bluebell woods are cut down
                       to ground level.

                       What effect does this have on the number of bluebells in the woods?
                       Explain your answer.

                       ..................................................................................................

                       ..................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                     1 mark
                                                                                                                            Maximum 6 marks


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QUESTION 11

      (a)    Alex poured some pond water into three beakers. She then put waterweed into
             each beaker. She put the beakers in different places.




                               black
                               box




        beaker A                                 beaker B                           beaker C
   in normal daylight                           in the dark                       in bright light

             (i)       In which beaker did the waterweed grow best? Give the correct letter.

                       …………
                                                                                                    1 mark

             (ii)      The waterweed in the box changed from dark green to pale yellow.
                       Why did this happen?

                       ……………………………………….………………………………
                                                                                                    1 mark

      (b)    In the school pond there were lots of water lilies with large leaves covering the
             surface.
             There were not many plants growing below the surface.
             Suggest a reason for this.

             ……………..……………………………….………………………………

             ……………..……………………………….………………………………
                                                                                                    1 mark

      (c)    In another experiment, Alex put similar pieces of waterweed into two more
             beakers of pond water.
             She added fertiliser to one of them.
             She kept them both by a window.



Smithdon High School                                                                                    18
                              beaker D                          beaker E
                              containing                       containing
                            waterweed and                    waterweed and
                             pond water                        pond water
                                                              plus fertiliser

             (i)       Alex added fertiliser to beaker E. Suggest the results of this experiment.

                       ……………..……………………………….…………………..……

                       ……………..……………………………….…………………..……
                                                                                                    1 mark

             (ii)      What do fertilisers contain to help plants grow?
                       Tick the correct box.

                         fat                           minerals


                         sand                          sugar
                                                                                                    1 mark
                                                                                           Maximum 5 marks




QUESTION 12

      Seeds were sown in two dishes, A and B.

      The seeds in A and B were the same type.

      The soil in A and B was the same type.

      The amount of water added to A and B was the same.

Smithdon High School                                                                                    19
      After six days they looked like this:

                                     dish A                                        dish B




                                the seedlings have                           the seedlings have
                                weak stems and smaller                       strong stems and
                                pale yellow leaves                           larger brighter green
                                                                             leaves

      After sowing, the dishes were kept in different conditions.

      (i)    Dish A was kept in ........................................................................................
                                                                                                                            1 mark

      (ii)   Dish B was kept in ........................................................................................
                                                                                                                            1 mark
                                                                                                                   Maximum 2 marks




QUESTION 13

The drawing below shows a dandelion plant.




Smithdon High School                                                                                                            20
      (a)    Each labelled part of the plant has a different function.

             In the table, write the name of the correct part next to its function.

                       function of part             name of part

                   It takes in minerals.

                       It absorbs light for
                         photosynthesis.

                                                                                              2 marks




      (b)    The drawing below shows a different type of dandelion plant growing in a lawn.




Smithdon High School                                                                               21
             (i)       Hardly any grass grows under the dandelion leaves. Give a reason for this.
                                                                                                    1 mark

             (ii)      Which word describes a grass plant?
                       Tick the correct box.

                                  herbivore

                                  predator

                                  prey

                                  producer
                                                                                                    1 mark
                                                                                        Maximum 4 marks




QUESTION 14

      Rhododendron plants grow bigger and faster than other plants.
      The drawing below shows a man cutting down rhododendron plants.




Smithdon High School                                                                                    22
      (a)    (i)       Scientists think the rhododendron roots might produce a chemical that
                       stops other plants growing nearby.
                       Why does this help rhododendrons to grow?

                       ..................................................................................................

                       ..................................................................................................
                                                                                                                            1 mark

             (ii)      Give another reason why hardly any other plants can grow under the
                       rhododendron bushes.

                       ..................................................................................................

                       ..................................................................................................
                                                                                                                            1 mark

      (b)    After the rhododendrons and their roots are cleared away there will not be any of
             the chemical in the soil.
             What will happen to the number of other plants growing there?

             ............................................................................................................
                                                                                                                            1 mark




      (c)    The drawing shows an insect called a weevil.




Smithdon High School                                                                                                            23
             Weevils feed on the leaves of rhododendrons.

             Draw a line from the rhododendron box to the word that describes the
             rhododendron.
             Draw a line from the weevil box to the word that describes the weevil.


                                                                       carnivore


             rhododendron (plant)


                                                                       herbivore




                                                                       predator


                weevil (insect)


                                                                       producer

                                                                                              2 marks
                                                                                      Maximum 5 marks




QUESTION 15

      Some pupils put three identical trays of young plants in a greenhouse.
      They gave the plants a little water each morning with a sprinkler.
      The drawing shows the plants three weeks later.


Smithdon High School                                                                               24
              electric                                                                                        electric
              light                                                                 sprinkler                 light




      (a)    (i)       Why did some of the plants in trays A and C not grow as well as the plants
                       in tray B?

                       ..................................................................................................

                       ..................................................................................................
                                                                                                                            1 mark

             (ii)      How would you move tray A to find out if your answer to part (i) is correct?
                       What result would you expect?

                       ..................................................................................................

                       ..................................................................................................

                       ..................................................................................................
                                                                                                                            2 marks

      (b)    The sprinkler adds water to the soil. What else could the pupils add to the soil to
             help the plants to grow well?

             ............................................................................................................
                                                                                                                            1 mark




      (c)    At the same time, the pupils grew another tray of the same type of plants.
             They put the tray in a dark cupboard and kept the soil damp.
             After three weeks, how were the plants grown in the dark different from the
             plants grown in the greenhouse?

             Tick two boxes.

             The plants grown in the dark had:



Smithdon High School                                                                                                             25
                                 larger leaves

                                 longer stems

                                 more leaves

                                 paler leaves

                                 more roots
                                                                                                                                2 marks
                                                                                                                        Maximum 6 marks
QUESTION 16

Anne looked at the trees on a school field. She saw that less grass grew under the
     trees than in the open spaces between them.




      Grass grows better in the open spaces than under the trees.
      Give two reasons why the grass grows better in the open.

      1. ............................................................................................................

      2. ............................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                2 marks




QUESTION 17

      Plants take in water from the soil. Lisa did an experiment to find out if there is
      anything else in soil that plants need for growth.

      The diagrams below show the results of Lisa’s experiment.




Smithdon High School                                                                                                                 26
      Lisa made the clear, brown solution in flask B by shaking a mixture of soil and
      water and then separating the solution from the soil particles.

      (a)    How could Lisa separate the brown solution from the soil particles?

             ............................................................................................................
                                                                                                                            1 mark

      (b)    Explain why Lisa grew one plant in distilled water.

             ............................................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................
                                                                                                                            1 mark

      (c)    (i)       What type of substance, dissolved in the water in flask B, is used by
                       the plant for growth?

                       ..................................................................................................
                                                                                                                            1 mark

             (ii)      How are roots adapted for taking in water?

                       ..................................................................................................

                       ..................................................................................................
                                                                                                                            1 mark

      (d)    Lisa set up a second experiment using three similar plants. The solution in
             flasks C, D and E was the same. She put all three flasks in a sunny position.
             The diagrams below show the results of Lisa’s second experiment.




Smithdon High School                                                                                                            27
             The plant in flask C was the only one which grew well in this experiment.
             Explain why.

             ............................................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                     1 mark
                                                                                                                            Maximum 5 marks




QUESTION 18

      Some pupils grew carrot plants for a project on plant growth. At the end of the summer
      they dug up the carrots. The drawings show two of their carrots.




Smithdon High School                                                                                                                     28
      (a)    Plant A came from a part of the garden which was covered with weeds. Plant B
             came from a part of the garden which had been kept free of weeds.

             Suggest two ways in which the weeds may have stopped plant A from growing
             as large and healthy as plant B.

             1. ..................................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................

             2. ..................................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                    2 marks

      (b)    Explain why the pupils’ plants produced bigger roots when they received more
             light.

             ............................................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                    3 marks
                                                                                                                            Maximum 5 marks

QUESTION 19

      The diagrams show two plant cells.




Smithdon High School                                                                                                                     29
                                       A

                                       B

                                       C

                                       D



                    cell X                        cell Y
                                                                              not to scale

      (a)    In which part of a plant would these cells be found?

             cell X …………………………
                                                                                                 1 mark

             cell Y …………………………
                                                                                                 1 mark

      (b)    Give the name of part B.

             ……………………………………
                                                                                                 1 mark

      (c)    (i)       Give the letter which labels the nucleus.

                       ……………
                                                                                                 1 mark

             (ii)      What is the function of the nucleus?

                       ………………………………………………………………………

                       ………………………………………………………………………
                                                                                                 1 mark

      (d)    (i)       How can you tell from the diagram that photosynthesis cannot take place
                       in cell Y?

                       ………………………………………………………………………

                       ………………………………………………………………………
                                                                                                 1 mark

             (ii)      Which process takes place in both cell X and cell Y?
                       Tick the correct box.

                                  egestion


                                  fertilisation


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                                         pollination


                                         respiration
                                                                                                                                     1 mark
                                                                                                                            Maximum 7 marks
QUESTION 20

      Mango trees are grown in hot, dry countries where the soil can be hard and tightly
      compacted. Farmers water the mango trees by spraying water onto the soil
      around them.

      (a)    (i)       Only a small amount of the water actually reaches the roots of the trees.
                       Suggest one reason why.

                       ..................................................................................................

                       ..................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                     1 mark

             (ii)      Suggest one other reason why mango trees do not grow well in soil which
                       is hard and tightly compacted.

                       ..................................................................................................

                       ..................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                     1 mark

      (b)    Give two reasons why mango trees and other plants need water.

             1. ..................................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................

             2. ..................................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                    2 marks




      (c)    There is a new method of watering mango trees. Trenches are dug between the
             trees and filled with small pieces of rock.
             Plastic pipes with small holes in them are placed on top of the pieces of rock and
             water is pumped along the pipes.
             Mango trees watered by this method produce 15% more fruit.




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             (i)       Suggest one reason why pieces of rock are placed in the trenches under
                       the pipes.

                       ..................................................................................................

                       ..................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                     1 mark

             (ii)      With the new method, farmers can also add nitrates to the water in the
                       pipes. Give one reason why plants need compounds which contain
                       nitrogen.

                       ..................................................................................................

                       ..................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                     1 mark
                                                                                                                            Maximum 6 marks



QUESTION 21

      Hydrogencarbonate indicator solution changes colour when the amount of carbon
      dioxide dissolved in it changes. This is shown in the table.

        colour of indicator
                                                   amount of dissolved carbon dioxide
             solution


           reddish orange                      same amount of carbon dioxide as in the air


                   yellow                             more carbon dioxide than in the air

                    purple                             less carbon dioxide than in the air

      Five test tubes were set up as shown below. Air was bubbled through
      hydrogencarbonate indicator solution, which was then poured into each test tube.


Smithdon High School                                                                                                                     32
      The test tubes were left in sunlight for two hours.

      (a)    (i)       What would be the colour of the indicator solution in tube A?

                       ..................................................................................................
                                                                                                                            1 mark

             (ii)      Name the process taking place in the cells of the snails which causes this
                       colour change.

                       ..................................................................................................
                                                                                                                            1 mark




      (b)    (i)       What would be the colour of the indicator solution in tube B?

                       ..................................................................................................
                                                                                                                            1 mark

             (ii)      Name the process taking place in the cells of the waterweed which causes
                       this colour change.

                       ..................................................................................................
                                                                                                                            1 mark

      (c)    The colour of the indicator solution in tube C did not change. Explain why.

             ............................................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................

             ............................................................................................................
                                                                                                                            1 mark

      Tube D is wrapped to keep the light out. It contains waterweed but no snails.




Smithdon High School                                                                                                            33
      (d)    After twenty four hours in the dark what would be the colour of the indicator
             solution in tube D?

             Tick the correct box.


                             Reddish orange



                             Yellow



                             Purple

                                                                                                  1 mark
                                                                                        Maximum 6 marks




9C Summary Sheets
Plants and photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
This is a chemical reaction and so can be written as a word equation:

     water       +     carbon dioxide (+ light energy)  glucose              +          oxygen

                 reactants               (light is not a substance           products
                                         and so is not a reactant)

Light energy and chlorophyll are needed for photosynthesis to happen. The light energy is changed
into chemical energy which is stored in the glucose that is made.

Getting the water
Water is taken out of the soil by the
roots. Roots are branched and spread
out to help them absorb water from a
large volume of soil. They also have
root hair cells which are adapted to
their function – they have a large
surface area to help them absorb water
quickly. The water flows up xylem
tubes (made of hollow cells) to the leaf.

Water is also needed because mineral salts are dissolved in it, which are needed to keep plants
healthy. Water also stops plants wilting and can keep their leaves cool.


Smithdon High School                                                                                  34
Getting the carbon
dioxide
Air, containing carbon dioxide,
diffuses into leaves through small
holes called stomata. Leaves are
thin so that the carbon dioxide does
not need to go very far before
reaching the cells that need it.
Photosynthesis can often be
speeded up by increasing the
amount of carbon dioxide around a
plant.

Getting the light
Many leaves are wide so that they have a big surface area to trap as much sunlight as possible. Most
photosynthesis happens in the palisade cells which are found near the upper surface of leaves.
Palisade cells are packed with chloroplasts. Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll which absorbs light
energy. Photosynthesis can often be speeded up by increasing the amount of light.




Smithdon High School                                                                              35
Respiration
Plant cells release the energy stored in glucose using aerobic respiration (another
chemical reaction):

                       glucose + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water (+ energy)

All living cells need energy and so all living cells respire. Respiration happens all the time but
photosynthesis can only happen when there is light.

Uses of glucose
Glucose is a type of sugar. It is used for three things:
     •      respiration
     •      making other substances that act as stores of energy (eg starch)
     •      making new materials for growth.

Glucose is turned into cellulose (for cell walls), fats and proteins. To make proteins, mineral salts
called nitrates are needed.

New substances made by a plant are carried around the plant in phloem tubes. New substances help
to build up a plant’s biomass (the mass of all the materials in the plant except water).


9D Summary Sheets
Plants as food
When green plants carry out photosynthesis they use carbon dioxide and water to produce glucose
and oxygen. Some of the glucose is used by the plants to release energy through respiration. Plants
can also convert glucose into starch to act as a store of energy. Humans can eat these stores of
starch to gain energy. Plants also use glucose to make other substances such as protein and
cellulose. Human food chains are short so that more of the energy originally stored by plants is
available as food.


                                                                     




             grass                                cow                                 beefburger

                                                  


                              potato                                    chips




Smithdon High School                                                                                    36
Improving plant growth
When growing crop plants for food, farmers want to produce the largest amount of useful material
(yield) possible. They use fertilisers to add important mineral salts to the soil so that the crops
have a constant supply of these important nutrients. This is necessary because the plants are
removed from the soil taking the mineral salts with them. The crop plants do not decompose in the
field, which would allow the mineral salts to get back into the soil. Farmers can use manufactured
or natural, organic fertilisers to improve the quality of the soil.




                       Manufactured fertiliser.           Manure is an organic fertiliser.




A problem can arise when other plants start growing in the fields as well as the crops. These are
called weeds and compete with the crop plants for the resources needed for healthy growth. Weeds
reduce the growth of crops so farmers use chemicals called weedkillers or herbicides to remove
them from fields. Some weedkillers are selective, and only kill weeds, not crops.

Pests and pesticides
Animals which eat crops to gain the stored energy are called pests. Farmers use chemicals called
pesticides to kill them. One problem with using pesticides is that they might kill harmless wild
animals as well or disrupt food webs in the environment. Specific pesticides can be used that are
only harmful to particular types of pests. Another problem with pesticides is that the poison can
build up in food chains and have unexpected and unwanted effects on larger predators. Modern
farming techniques now often take into account the possible harmful effects on the surrounding
environment.

Controlling environments to increase crop yields
The growth of crops in open fields is often affected by changes in the weather or season. Sometimes
crops are grown in carefully controlled conditions inside greenhouses. Here the plants can be
provided with the optimum temperature, light intensity, carbon dioxide concentration and supply
of water and mineral salts to ensure the best possible growth despite the changing conditions
outside.




Smithdon High School                                                                                37
Smithdon High School   38
                       The answers you give to this survey are confidential. You do
                       not have to answer any questions if you do not want to.




                  Please tick                 Strongly   Agree   Disagree   Strongly
                                               agree                        disagree
Standards
I am expecting to do well in this unit

I am on target to do better than I expected

Teaching
I have been taught well

I have been given enough help and
guidance

Expectations are high in this unit

I have been told regularly how to improve

I am clear about the progress I have made

Learning
I feel confident about the end of unit test

I feel prepared for the end of unit test

Attitudes
I take pride in my work

I am pleased with my practical work

I have enjoyed this unit


What do you like most about this unit?



What do you think we could improve on / or change?




Smithdon High School                                                                   39

				
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