Docstoc

Structure and Function of the Flower

Document Sample
Structure and Function of the Flower Powered By Docstoc
					Structure and Function of the
           Flower

     CXC Biology Syllabus
           Life Processes
    Specific Objectives 9.6&9.7




           Andromeda Botanic Gardens
             Educational Series: #2
                          Section A:
                      Flower Structure
Science Objectives:
Students should be able to
• Recognize specified floral parts on most flowers
• Relate each part to its function
• Distinguish between staminate, pistillate/carpellate and
   hermaphrodite flowers
Core Skills Objectives:
• Co-operation/Group work
• Drawing
CXC Practical Skills
• Drawing
                      Andromeda Botanic Gardens
                        Educational Series: #2
            Structure and Function of the Flower Quiz #1
1.     What is the male part of the flower called?
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.     What is the main function of a flower?
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.     What is the function of the carpel?
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.     Give one example of a hermaphrodite flower
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.     Name the flower structures which protect the young flower bud.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                Andromeda Botanic Gardens
                                  Educational Series: #2
Use the following to label the flower diagram below:
Style, stamen, sepal, filament, peduncle, ovary, anther, receptacle, carpel,
stigma, petal, ovule.




                                Andromeda Botanic Gardens
                                  Educational Series: #2
           What is a Flower?
• Plant organ for sexual reproduction

• Flowers produce gametes (sex cells)

• Flowers are necessary for fertilisation to
  occur

                 Andromeda Botanic Gardens
                   Educational Series: #2
Flower Diagram




   Andromeda Botanic Gardens
     Educational Series: #2
                          Parts of the Flower
•   Peduncle: flower stalk
•   Receptacle: part of stalk bearing the floral organs, at base of flower
•   Sepal:leaflike structures at flower base, protects young flower bud
•   Calyx: all the sepals together form the calyx
•   Petal: located inside and above the sepals, often large and colourful, sometimes
    scented, sometimes producing nectar
•   Stamen: male part of the flower, consist of the anther and filament, makes
    pollen grains
•   Pollen: grains containing the male gametes
•   Pistil/Carpel: female part of the flower, consist of the stigma, style and ovary
•   Ovule: located in the ovaries, carry female gametes
•   Staminate flower: flower bearing only male parts
•   Pistillate/Carpellate flower: flower bearing only female sex parts
•   Hermaphrodite flower: flower bearing both male and female sex parts


                                Andromeda Botanic Gardens
                                  Educational Series: #2
                              Method
1.   Collect specimens of the following flowers (your guide will
     show you where and which flowers to collect!)
•    Pride of Barbados
•    Hibiscus
•    Orchid
•    Flower of choice
2.   Make a labeled drawing of the Pride of Barbados and Hibiscus
     flowers (use the flower diagram as a guide, include
     magnification, labels in script)
3.   Dissect the Pride of Barbados flower ( a demonstration will be
     given)
4.   Make individual drawings of the petals, sepals, stamens, and
     pistils/carpels
5.   Dissect the pistil/carpel and make a labeled drawing of the
     ovary and the ovules lying within it
                         Andromeda Botanic Gardens
                           Educational Series: #2
                          Section B
                       Pollination
Science Objectives:
Students should be able to:
• Define pollination
• State the main ways in which plants achieve pollination
• Recognize flower adaptations associated with each mode
   of pollination
Core Skills targeted
• Drawing
• Information Technology
CXC Practical Skills
• Analysis and Interpretation
• Drawing

                     Andromeda Botanic Gardens
                       Educational Series: #2
                              Mode of Pollination
1.   Insect-pollinated flowers may have:
•    Brightly coloured petals
•    Strong sweet fragrance
•    Nectar producing glands
•    Guidelines to lead insects to Nectar
2.   Wind-pollinated flowers may have:
•    Large stigmas outside the flower
•    Little or no fragrance
•    Light non-sticky pollen
•    Lack showy petals

3.   Bird-pollinated flowers may have:
•    Long tube shaped flowers
•    Bright red and yellow flowers
•    No odour
                                  Andromeda Botanic Gardens
                                    Educational Series: #2
                       Mode of Pollination (Continued)

    4.    Mammal-pollinated flowers may
          have:
    •     White flowers
    •     Strong fruity odour
    •     Flowers opening at night




5.       Water-pollinated flowers may have:
•        Pollen which floats on water
         (this form of pollination is rare)



                                     Andromeda Botanic Gardens
                                       Educational Series: #2
                           Method
1.   Research and define the following terms in the Iris
     Bannochie library and on the Internet
•    Pollination
•    Self-pollination
•    Cross-pollination
2.   Note the ways in which pollination may occur
3.   Identify the various adaptations associated with each
     form of pollination
4.   Collect flower specimens from the gardens and
     determine their method of pollination through
     completion of the Mode of Pollination Table



                      Andromeda Botanic Gardens
                        Educational Series: #2
                            Mode of Pollination Table

Flower      Light non-      Sticky         Colourful     Sweet     Tube     Mode of
Name        sticky Pollen   Pollen         Petals        Scented   Shaped   Pollination




        denotes a positive response
                                     Andromeda Botanic Gardens
                                       Educational Series: #2
                              Assessment Scheme for Drawing
Element            Criteria                                           Sub-Total    Total
Clarity            Clean continuous lines of even thickness              Any 3=2
                   No shading or unnecessary detail                                2 marks
                   Reasonable size                                       Any 2=1


Accuracy           Faithfulness of reproduction                             1
                   Structures typical of specimen included                  1      3 marks
                   Reasonable proportions                                   1


Labeling/          Neat drawn with a ruler; in pencil; not crossing         1
Labeling lines     No arrowheads; touching labeled structure
                   Labels in script                                         1      2 marks


Labels accurate                                                                    1 mark


Acceptable title   Accurate description of specimen
                   In caps                                               Any 2=1   1 mark
                   Below drawing


Magnification                                                                      1 mark


Total                                                                              10 marks
                                        Andromeda Botanic Gardens
                                          Educational Series: #2
Use the following to label the flower diagram below:
Style, stamen, sepal, filament, peduncle, ovary, anther, receptacle, carpel,
stigma, petal, ovule.




                                Andromeda Botanic Gardens
                                  Educational Series: #2
     Structure and Function of the Flower Quiz #2 Pollination
1.   Write a short definition for the word pollination.

2.   Why is pollination important to plants?

3.   State three ways in which pollination can be achieved.

4.   State a plant adaptation associated with each mode of pollination above




                             Andromeda Botanic Gardens
                               Educational Series: #2
    Analysis and Interpretation of the Pollination Exercise
Background Information/Biological principles.         (3 marks)
Relationship to Investigation/Observation.
• State the significance of pollination
• Identify the flower structures which play the key role in pollination
• Note how these structures are adapted to their role

Explanation/Interpretations of result.                  (3-4 marks)
• Give reasons for interpretation of specified result

Conclusion based on observation/data
Related to Aim                                          (2 marks)
• Correct conclusions drawn

Limitations                                             (1-2marks)
• Limitations of the results/conclusions stated


                           Andromeda Botanic Gardens
                             Educational Series: #2

				
DOCUMENT INFO