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Local Shading Models - PowerPoint - PowerPoint


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									         More Object Representations
•   Parametric instancing
•   Hierarchical modeling
•   Constructive Solid Geometry
•   Sweep Objects
•   Octrees
•   Blobs and Metaballs and other such things
•   Production rules
               Parametric Instancing
• Many things, called primitives, are conveniently described
  by a label and a few parameters
   – Cylinder: Radius, length, does it have end-caps, …
   – Bolts: length, diameter, thread pitch, …
   – Almost anything you buy from a catalogue
• This is a modeling format:
   – Provide something that knows how to draw the object given the
   – Depends on the rendering style
   – Can be an exact representation
                 Rendering Instances
• Generally, provide a routine that takes the parameters and
  produces a polygonal representation
   – May include texture maps, normal vectors, colors, etc
   – OpenGL utility library (GLu) defines routines for cubes, cylinders,
     disks, and other common shapes
   – Renderman does similar things, so does POVray, …
• The procedure may be dynamic
   – Adjust the polygon resolution according to distance from the
                OpenGL Support
• OpenGL defines display lists for encapsulating commands
  that are executed frequently
             list_id = glGenLists(1);
             glNewList(list_id, GL_COMPILE);
                    draw some stuff

             And later

                     Display Lists (2)
• The list can be:
   – GL_COMPILE: things don’t get drawn, just stored
   – GL_COMPILE_AND_EXECUTE: things are drawn, and also
• The list can contain almost anything:
   – Useful for encapsulating lighting set-up commands
• The list cannot be modified after it is compiled
   – The whole point is that the list may be internally optimized, which
     precludes modification
   – For example, sequences of transformations may be composited
     into one transformation
                     Display Lists (3)
• When should you use display lists:
   – When you do the same thing over and over again
• Advantages:
   – Can’t be much slower than the original way
   – Can be much much faster
• Disadvantages:
   – Doesn’t support real parameterized instancing, because you can’t
     have any parameters!
   – Can’t use various commands that would offer other speedups
       • For example, can’t use glVertexPointer()
              Hierarchical Modeling
• A hierarchical model unites several parametric instances
  into one object
   – For example: a desk is made up of many cubes
• Generally represented as a tree, with transformations and
  instances at any node
• Rendered by traversing the tree, applying the
  transformations, and rendering the instances
• Particularly useful for rigid-body animation
   – Human is a hierarchy of body, head, upper arm, lower arm, etc…
   – Animate by changing the transformations at the nodes
       Hierarchical Model Example
                                              Vitally Important Point:
                                              •Every node has its own
xarm     left arm
                      rotate about shoulder   local coordinate system.
                      upper arm
l                                             •This makes specifying
                                              transformations much
                                              much easier.
                       translate (l,0,0)
                       rotate about (0,0,0)
                       lower arm
                    OpenGL Support
• OpenGL defines glPushMatrix() and glPopMatrix()
   – Takes the current matrix and pushes it onto a stack, or pops the
     matrix off the top of the stack and makes it the current matrix
   – Note: Pushing does not change the current matrix
• Rendering a hierarchy (recursive):
                   Apply node transformation
                   Draw node contents
           Regularized Set Operations
• Hierarchical modeling is not good enough if objects in the
  hierarchy intersect each other
   – Transparency will reveal internal surfaces that should not exist
   – Computing properties like mass counts the same volume twice
• Solution is to define regularized set operations:
   – Just a fancy name
   – Every object must be a closed volume (mathematically closed)
   – Define mathematical set operations (union, intersection, difference,
     complement) to the sets of points within the volume
   Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG)
• Based on a tree structure, like hierarchical modeling, but
   – The internal nodes are set operations: union, intersection or
     difference (sometimes complement)
   – The edges of the tree have transformations associated with them
   – The leaves contain only geometry
• Motivated by computer aided design and manufacture
   – Difference in particular is like drilling or milling
   – Other operations reduce the number of primitives required
   – A common format in CAD products
                  CSG Example
Fill it in!
     -                scale

                        cube                  
                                  scale           scale
                                 translate       translate

                                  cylinder cylinder
                      Rendering CSG
• Normals and texture coordinates typically come from
  underlying primitives (not a big deal with CAD)
• Some rendering algorithms can render CSG directly
   – Raytracing (later in the course)
   – Scan-line with an A-buffer
   – Can do 2D with tesselators in OpenGL
• For OpenGL and other polygon renderers, must convert
  CSG to polygonal representation
   – Must remove redundant faces, and chop faces up
       • Basic algorithm: Split polygons until they are inside, outside, or on
         boundary. Then choose appropriate set for final answer.
   – Generally difficult, messy and slow
   – Numerical imprecision is the major problem
                      CSG Summary
• Advantages:
   – Good for describing many things, particularly machined objects
   – Better if the primitive set is rich
       • Early systems used quadratic surfaces
   – Moderately intuitive and easy to understand
• Disadvantages:
   – Not a good match for polygon renderers
   – Some objects may be very hard to describe, if at all
• Geometric computations are sometimes easy, sometimes
• A volume representation (hence solid in the name)
   – Boundary (surface representation) can also work
                      Sweep Objects
• Define a polygon by its edges
• Sweep it along a path
• The path taken by the edges form a surface - the sweep
• Special cases
   – Surface of revolution: Rotate edges about an axis
   – Extrusion: Sweep along a straight line
                     General Sweeps
• The path maybe any curve
• The polygon that is swept may be transformed as it is
  moved along the path
   – Scale, rotate with respect to path orientation, …
• One common way to specify is:
   – Give a poly-line (sequence of line segments) as the path
   – Give a poly-line as the shape to sweep
   – Give a transformation to apply at the vertex of each path segment
• Difficult to avoid self-intersection
                   Rendering Sweeps
• Convert to polygons
   –   Break path into short segments
   –   Create a copy of the sweep polygon at each segment
   –   Join the corresponding vertices between the polygons
   –   May need things like end-caps on surfaces of revolution and
• Normals come from sweep polygon and path orientation
• Sweep polygon defines one texture parameter, sweep path
  defines the other
                 Spatial Enumeration
• Basic idea: Describe something by the space it occupies
   – For example, break the volume of interest into lots of tiny cubes,
     and say which cubes are inside the object
   – Works well for things like medical data
       • The process itself, like MRI or CAT scans, enumerates the volume
       • Data is associated with each voxel (volume element)
• Problem to overcome:
   – For anything other than small volumes or low resolutions, the
     number of voxels explodes
   – Note that the number of voxels grows with the cube of linear
            Octrees (and Quadtrees)
• Build a tree where successive levels represent better
  resolution (smaller voxels)
• Large uniform spaces result in shallow trees
• Quadtree is for 2D (four children for each node)
• Octree is for 3D (eight children for each node)
         Quadtree Example
                  top left   top right bot left   bot right

Octree principle is the same, but there are 8 children
                   Rendering Octrees
• Volume rendering renders octrees and associated data
   – A special area of graphics, visualization, not covered in this class
• Can convert to polygons by a few methods:
   – Just take faces of voxels that are on the boundary
   – Find iso-surfaces within the volume and render those
   – Typically do some interpolation (smoothing) to get rid of the
     artifacts from the voxelization
• Typically render with colors that indicate something about
  the data, but other methods exist
               Spatial Data Structures
• Octrees are an example of a spatial data structure
   – A data structure specifically designed for storing information of a
     spatial nature
       • eg Storing the location of fire hydrants in a city
• In graphics, octrees are frequently used to store
  information about where polygons, or other primitives, are
  located in a scene
   – Speeds up many computations by making it fast to determine when
     something is relevant or not
   – Just like BSP trees speed up visibility
• Other spatial data structures include BSP trees, KD-Trees,
  Interval trees, …

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