Hydrogen Sulfide for Association Members

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					           Hydrogen Sulfide
     Death and injury from H2S exposure is
         Even if you don’t work in the Patch
There is more to Cops and Robbers Game in
                              your training.

                                    P bar Y Safety Consultants
                                    Alberta Canada
 When the amount of gas absorbed into the blood
  stream exceeds that which is readily oxidized,
  systemic poisoning results, with a general action to
  the nervous system
 Labored respirations occur shortly and respiratory
  paralysis will follow immediately at higher
 Death will occur from asphyxiation unless the
  exposed person is removed immediately to fresh air,
  and breathing stimulated by artificial respiration.

Hazards & Characteristics
                                      P bar Y Safety Consultants
                                      Alberta Canada
   Other levels of exposure may cause the
    following symptoms individually or in

   Headache- Dizziness- Excitement
   Nausea- Coughing- Drowsiness
   Disorientation- Confusion
   Dryness and sensation of pain in the nose, throat
    and chest

   Detection of H2S, solely by smell, is highly
    dangerous as the sense of smell is rapidly
    paralyzed by the gas.

                                       P bar Y Safety Consultants
                                       Alberta Canada

   Extremely toxic, ranking second to Hydrogen Cyanide and
    five (5) to six (6) times more toxic than Carbon Monoxide.
   Colorless
   Offensive Odor, often described as that of rotten eggs.
   Heavier than air- vapor density (specific gravity) 1.189
    (Air = 1.00@ 60* F) vapors may travel considerable
    distance to a source of ignition and flashback.
   Readily dispersed by wind or air currents
   Flammability - Forms an explosive mixture with air
    concentration between 4.3 to 46% by volume.
   Auto-ignition point of 500* F – Cigarettes burn at 1400* F
                                           P bar Y Safety Consultants
                                           Alberta Canada
 Burns with a blue flame and produces Sulfur Dioxide
  (S02), which is less hazardous than H2S, but very
  irritating to the eyes and lungs, and can cause
  serious injury. Chemical pneumonia can develop in a
  few hours.
 Soluble in water and liquid hydrocarbons.
 Produces irritation to the eyes, throat, and
  respiratory system.
 Permissible exposure limit (PEL) (OSHA) Threshold
  Limit Value (TLV)- Maximum of 8 hours exposure
  without respiratory equipment- 10 PPM
 Corrosive to all electrochemical metals
 Boiling Point (-79*F)
 Melting Point (-117*F)
                                    P bar Y Safety Consultants
                                    Alberta Canada

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           Alberta Canada
   Permissible Limit / Threshold Limit-
    Concentration at which it is believed that all
    workers may be repeatedly exposed day after
    day without adverse effects.

   Hazardous Limit- Concentration that will cause
    death with short term exposure.

   STEL Short Term Exposure Limit- 15 PPM for a
    duration of no longer than 15 minutes.

                                      P bar Y Safety Consultants
                                      Alberta Canada
Physical Effects
              1% = 10,000 Parts Per Million (PPM)
         Concentration              Physical Effects
Present (%)    PPM   Grains/100’ std ft 3(1)
 0.000002       0.02      0.0013             Odor Threshold
 0.000005       0.05      0.0031             Obvious and
 unpleasant odor
 0.001           10       0.625              Safe for 8 hours
          Wear Respiratory Protection More Than 15 PPM

 0.01            100      6.48              Kills smell in 3 to 15
                                               may sting eyes and

 0.02            200     12.96              Kills smell shortly;
                                            P bar Y Safety Consultants
                                                        eyes and throat
                                            Alberta Canada
 Concentration                         Physical Effects
Present (%)    PPM      Grains/100’ std ft 3(1)

 0.05           500        32.96        Dizziness, breathing
ceases in a few
                                          minutes: needs prompt

 0.07             700      45.36        Unconscious quickly;
death will result
                                          if not rescued promptly

 0.1            1000        64.8        Unconscious at once:
followed by
                                          death within minutes.

Hydrogen Sulfide is a colorless and transparent gas and is
It is heavier than air and may accumulate in low places.
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1) At 15.00 psia and 60*F.                   Alberta Canada
Knowing the limitations of your detection devices can
 save your life. When testing, always be prepared for
 a high concentration of gas.
         Do not rely on your nose to detect H2S

Following is some common detection devices:
change colors in the presence of H2S. The Color
  change indicates the concentration. For use in low
  concentrations of gas. They should be used as
  alternate method of detection.
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                                     Alberta Canada
The units are usually hand held or belt mounted, and
  measure the H2S concentration at the sensor head
Monitors give an audible alarm, some readout, at the
level of H2S.
                 FIXED MONITOR SYSTEMS:
Monitors H2S concentration continuously at various
 locations where sensor heads are placed. Alarms are
 activated when concentration reaches set levels.
 Excessive exposure to water and acetylene gas can
 set off some systems.

                   TUTWILER METHOD:
Chemical analysis for determining H2S concentrations.
 The test can be run on very low and high
 concentrations, and is extremely accurate and
                                     and state
 recommended by various provincial P bar Y Safety Consultants
 regulatory agencies.                Alberta Canada
There are three categories of breathing equipment you
   will find on location.
1. Escape Unit (an air capsule)
2. Work Unit (air line with a escape bottle)
3. Rescue Unit (30 minutes which can also be used
   for work)

                 BREATHING EQUIPMENT!

Escape Unit are located near work stations. They
   have a
small, self contained air supply and are designed to
   give you enough air to reach a safe area in the
   event of an emergency.              P bar Y Safety Consultants
                                       Alberta Canada
Work Units allow you to work for an extended period
 of time in an H2S or poison environment. They have
 an air line from a supplied breathing air source. The
 unit also has an auxiliary self-contained air supply
 (bottle) for escape.

Rescue Units provide a self contained (30 minutes)
 supply of air usually carried on your back. The weight
 is about 35 pounds.
DO NOT COUNT ON A FULL 30 MINUTES since time will
 vary with breathing and work. Audible alarms warn
 when air supply is low and you have 5 to 7 minutes
 of air left. Rescue units may also be used as work

Read the instruction for care, use, maintenance and
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                                      Alberta Canada
 operation of the 30 minute units on location.

Facial hair- glasses- absence of dentures- could cause
  an improper face seal. Your future and the future of
  your family may depend on it. Contact lenses should
  not be worn in contaminated atmospheres with
  supplied air respirators.

Your breathing equipment will protect you only when
  you use it properly. You must care for it, maintain it,
  and insure you can get a good seal at all times. All
  breathing equipment, the escape unit, the work unit,
  and the rescue unit all use grade “D” or “E” breathing

                                      P bar Y Safety Consultants
                                      Alberta Canada
    Emergency Rescue
 Put on your proper respiratory equipment.
 Move the victim to fresh air at once…Up Wind or
  Cross Wind.
 If the victim is unconscious and breathing has
  stopped. Apply mouth to mouth ventilation
  immediately and continue until normal breathing is
 After reviving the victim NEVER LEAVE HIM ALONE.
 Make sure the victim is seen by a physician for
  possible underlying condition.

Cool headed action in a rescue is critical. It is the ONLY
 HOPE for the victim, and is the only hope for YOU,
 the rescuer, as well. YOU CAN NOT RESCUE HIM/HER
 IF YOU ARE NOT PREPARED!              P bar Y Safety Consultants
                                            Alberta Canada
 First Aid & Artificial
Artificial respiration must always be started as rapidly
possible because the average person may die in six (6)
 minutes or less if his/her oxygen supply is cut off. It
 is often impossible to tell exactly when a person has
 stopped breathing. He/she may be very near death
 when you first discover them.

                      ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION
                          (mouth to mouth)
Place the victim on his back. If a foreign matter is
  visible in the victim’s mouth wipe it out with your
  finger. Place the palm of one hand on the forehead
  and 2 fingers on the bony part of the chin. Lift the
  chin to open the airway.              P bar Y Safety Consultants
                                               Alberta Canada
                     Effects on Metal
Hydrogen Sulfide is very corrosive to all
 electrochemical series metals. It can also cause
 hydrogen embrittlement to steel pipe having a
 tensile strength of 95,000 psi or more.

Blistering and pitting are two other signs of corrosion
  that can indicate the presence of H2S.

Metal components used in H2S areas should be those
manufactured to resist Sulfide Stress Cracking (SSC).
 SSC is a corrosive action causing unsuitable metals
 to crack under normal operation.

                                      P bar Y Safety Consultants
                                      Alberta Canada
 Location Safety

“WARNING NO SMOKING” signs should be strategically
located around the rig location. The following locations are
appropriate: In the dog house, on the floor, around the
substructure, lower landing of all stairs to the rig floor, mud
  pits, shale shacker. Designated smoking area should be
  set up on all locations.

Poison Gas signs should be placed at strategic points on the
location, such as: entrance to location, lower landing of all
stairs to the rig floor, and all areas around the substance.

                                           P bar Y Safety Consultants
                                           Alberta Canada
WINDSOCKS-STREAMERS- Wind will disperse H2S very
rapidly. Windsocks or streamers should be installed around the
location for determining prevailing wind and present wind
direction. All Personnel On Location Should Develop Wind
Direction Consciousness.
BUG BLOWERS- Large blowers or fans may be used to
disperse H2S vapors. In calm and extremely light winds, bug
blowers are effective in reducing H2S concentration in the work
area. Bug Blowers should be non spark, explosive proof type.
FLARE GUN- In the event of an H2S gas release, and after all
measures to shut in the well or repair the source of release
have failed, and the public is in danger, then the flare gun could
be used to ignite the source of H2S. Also, in the event of failure
of the flare pilot light, the flare gun could be used.

                                              P bar Y Safety Consultants
                                              Alberta Canada
            and to

Don’t let H2S get you down
                     P bar Y Safety Consultants
                     Alberta Canada

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