Programmable Sculpture

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					             Programmable Sculpture
                                 Group #24

                           December 11, 2003



                                 Advisors:
Arthur Shapiro                                        __________________
Sumit Ghosh                                           __________________



                            Group Members:
Steven Lee, CPE                                       __________________
Robin Benson, EE                                      __________________
Cathy Chang, ME                                       __________________
Steven Lawrence, ME                                   __________________
Kelly Brandon, ME                                     __________________




        I pledge my honor that I have abided by the Stevens Honor System
                                     Table of Contents

I.      Abstract                                              1
        A.       Acknowledgement                              2

II.     Project   Final Design Plan                           3
        A.         Introduction                               3
        B.         Design Requirements                        4
        C.         System Design                              6
        D.         Financial Budget                           16
        E.         Project Schedule                           17

III.    Summary                                               19

IV.     References                                            20

V.      Appendices
        A.     Preliminary Ideas
               1.       Magic Eye Autostereogram            A-1
               2.       3D Moving Toy                       A-2
               3.       Waterfall Painting                  A-3
               4.       Rotational Vanes                    A-4
               5.       Water Sculpture                     A-5
        B.     Specifications for a Typical Indexer         B-1
        C.     Additional Specifications for Valves
               1.       Jumping Jet Valves                  C-1
               2.       Sphere Nozzle Valves                C-2


                                         List of Figures
Two Calder Mobiles                                             4
A Kinetic Sculpture by Jeffery Laudenslager                    5
Diagrams of a PLC                                              7
Step Motor System                                              9
Stream Produced by Jumping Jet                                 12
Spray Produced by Sphere Nozzle                                13
Calder Paintings                                           14-15
Final Design                                                   15
Construction Views                                             16




                                         List of Tables
Projected Budget for Actual Fountain and Maquette             17
Gantt Chart for Next Semester                                 18




                                                    i
2
                                                                                              1


I.       Abstract

         The objective of this senior design project entails the conceptual and detailed

design of a device exhibiting the artistic nature of motion and balance. Currently, kinetic

sculpture is an exciting new field in the art world. Until now, however, computer

programming has never been implemented as a means to control the movement of a

sculpture. The chosen sculpture design combines elements of computer engineering,

electrical engineering, and mechanical engineering to accomplish the controlled

movement inspired by the work of Alexander Calder.

         The design has elaborate motions, a carefully designed- in sense of balance, and

conveys a central theme or message. The final design was selected based on:

     •   The theme and its expression.

     •   Elegance and artistic aspect.

     •   The quality of engineering design, modeling, control, and the ability to construct a

         prototype.

The sculptures movement will be controlled via a package of compone nts, including a

programmable logic controller (PLC), multiple motors, and several types of valves.

         By the end of the spring semester, the group will build a maquette of the sculpture

design and submit a proposal to commission a full sized version to be built in front of the

Palmer dormitory. At this location, the design will function to beautify the area and serve

to create a fun place for students to study or relax outdoors.
                                                                                           2


I-A. Acknowledgement

       Our group would like to thank the following people for their various contributions

to our project:

       Arthur Shapiro is our Mechanical Engineering advisor. He is an avid sculptor,

Provost Emeritus and Dean of Faculty Emeritus. Professor Shapiro has donated

innumerable hours of technical expertise, artistic experience and overall guidance.

       Sumit Ghosh is our Electrical and Computer Engineering advisor. He is a

Hattrick Chair Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Stevens Institute of

Technology. Professor Ghosh has provided helpful advice on the technical aspects of

programmable, specifically programmable logic controllers (PLCs).

       Sara Murado is our artistic consultant. She has worked closely with the curators

at the New Museum of Contemporary Art in New York City and has a B.A. in Art

History from New York University. Ms. Murado currently works at Architectural Record

Magazine and has been a source of information of modern art and the role of kinetic

sculpture in today's market.

       Alexander Calder (1898-1976), a graduate of Stevens Institute of Technology, is

the most acclaimed and influential sculptor of our time. Calder is renowned in the world

of modern art as the founding father of kinetic sculpture. Famous for his mobiles, whose

abstract elements are suspended harmoniously through balanced move ment, Calder has

been an enormous source of inspiration for our project.
                                                                                              3


II.    Project Final Design Plan

II-A. Introduction

       The backgrounds of each group member varies through a range of fields and

interests, including computer engineering, electrical engineering, mechanical

engineering, carpentry, and art. After initially brainstorming, several ideas were

presented, including a programmable autostereogram, a 3D moving toy, and a water

sculpture (a detailed description of each idea is provided in Appendix A). Based on the

criteria for technical aspects, beauty, cost, feasibility and labor, the group chose to further

develop the water sculpture concept.

       Originally, this design included a fountain mechanism to create a uniform sheet of

fluid to work with as a medium. It would consist of many paths with computerized

valves that will change the direction of water flow to form a pleasant image for the

observer. Possibly, colored lights and/or musical notes would be added to correspond to

each vane of water to enhance the sculpture. The entire structure could, then, be

programmed according to light shows or musical compositions. This concept was

intended for a relatively small- scale sculpture with the potential to be mass-produced.

       Considering, however, the potential artistic significance of this project creating a

new type of kinetic sculpture, the group changed direction of the project to create a

design for single large-scale sculpture to potentially install on the Stevens Institute of

Technology campus.

       In this design, the group will combine a series of components to control the

intended movement of the sculpture. A PLC will be used to run a computer program

with instructions for the predetermined motion of the piece and send instructions to the
                                                                                             4


various motors. The motors will, in turn, control the rotation of valves, which will create

the desired changes in the water output.

       A full-size prototype of the programmable kinetic sculpture will not be feasible

due to its large size and cost. Consequently, the group plans to deliver a maquette, or

model, of our artwork at the end of the second semester.

II-B. Design Requirements

       In the 1930’s, Calder began the idea of kinetic sculpture when he created the first

“mobile” (Examples of his work are shown below). These designs were constructed so

that a slight breeze would cause them to move.

                                 Two Calder Mobiles
                  Jacaranda                                 Untitled




                                                     Courtesy of the Calder Foundation


Currently, artists are limited when creating kinetic sculptures to designs that can be

powered, or moved, by outside forces, such as wind. In a sense, they are restricted to this

type of movement because no technology is currently available to create a design that can

produce and control its own movement. A piece with the ability to move itself would be
                                                                                               5


ideal for installment in a building or in any other environment that lacks the forces

necessary to change the sculptures orientation.

       Through the development of the programmable controls, this project has the
                                                                        A Kinetic Sculpture
potential to introduce current technology into the design
                                                                      by Jeffery Laudenslager
of mobiles and other kinetic sculptures and, thus, create

new posibilities in art design. The specific schematic

and parameters of the components used for motion

control will not be applicable to multiple sculptures, but

the basic ideas, such as the necessary components, the

sequence of the components, and the types of motors

used, can be used as a model for the development of

similar systems. Modern sculptors, like Jeffery

Laudenslager, can potentially use this compiled data as

a reference to understand what is involved in creating a

programmable kinetic sculpture, and more easily create        Courtesy of a New Leaf Gallery Sculpturesite

a system individualized to meet their own needs.

       During this design process, there are factors limiting the possible results of the

project. In the quest to blend art, engineering, and innovation, designing a programmable

kinetic sculpture requires teamwork, coordination, and creativity. Choosing the most

desirable design was difficult due to the subjective nature of art.

       Also, properly analyzing each design with an emphasis on engineering varied

greatly from design to design. For example, a design involving hydraulics, such as the

water sculpture, required analysis involving pressure and volume. Solidworks is capable
                                                                                            6


of modeling most of the basic movement of each suggested design, but the simulation

does not determine the flow of the water making it difficult to visualize the pattern of

water. This deficiency will be most notable when programming the specific movements

of the sculpture without the ability to clearly see the pattern of water formed.

       Finally, constructing an actual prototype may present new difficulties due to lack

of experience in manufacturing. The group plans on enlisting the aid of the machine shop

as well as educating themselves in various methods of manufacture during the semester

to remedy this anticipated problem.

II-C. System Design
       Once it was determined that the final design would be a water sculpture, it was

apparent that the necessary components could be divided into three categories:

programmable logic controllers, stepper motors, and pumps and valves. Also needed,

would be the basic components involved in the structure of the sculpture and the

fountain. This observation allowed the group to research the technical aspects of the

design without a detailed CAD drawing of the sculpture. An overview of each

component, as well as the selections most appropriate to a water sculpture, follows:

Programmable Logic Controllers:

       One of the most common devices in industries requiring electronic and machine

control is the programmable logic controller (PLC). These devices were created as a

relatively inexpensive and less complex way to replace sequential relay circuits. They

are readily available and adaptable for virtually any electromechanical purpose. The

group’s fountain-sculpture design will rely on these devices to serve as a timer, and to

program the movement of the gears and motors.
                                                                                            7


        All PLCs consist of a central processing unit, memory and data storage areas, and

circuits that can handle data for input and output. (Please see diagram below.) PLCs are

able to simulate counters and timers, which makes it very useful for the final design.
                               Diagrams of a PLC

       A Simplified Depiction of                         How a PLC
      the Internal Parts of a PLC                    Appears Functionally




The sculpture will need to not only move mechanically, but at pre-programmed intervals

of time as well. Although many PLC’s have the ability to increment in milliseconds, that

level of precision is not necessary for this application. The PLCs that can increment

between 1 and 655.35 seconds (roughly 10 minutes) are sufficient. The sculpture will not

be in a constant state of movement, for both economic and aesthetic purposes.

Constantly moving gears wear down more quickly and require more power. It is also

desired for viewers to observe each new position of the sculpture, rather than to see a blur

of constant movement.

       PLCs are sometimes advertised with their response time. This is the sum of the

input and output response times, as well as the program execution time. A fast time is in

the microsecond range and can even be smaller. This will have little bearing on the

design, since such precise times will not be utilized in our programming.

       To operate, a PLC continually scans its inputted program. This program is

supplied to the PLC using outside software. Some can recognize the C language, while
                                                                                             8


others have their own programming language specific to the model and manufacturer.

Others are programmable in function block diagrams, instruction lists, or structured text.

Any of these programming languages, since purchase of most PLC packages include

tutorials of how to program them. Some PLC manufacturers even offer these PLC

programming tutorials for free on the Internet, which may be a deciding factor as to

which ones to purchase. Some examples are at http://www. microconsultants.com/

inx6.htm, and http://www.entertron.com. The most common PLC language involves the

use of ladder logic, so it is reasonable to assume this type of logic will be used in the

system the sculpture will use. PLCs using obscure logic will only make it harder to

troubleshoot later on, should any problems or difficulties be discovered.

       For all intents and purposes, PLCs of the same price range operate very similarly

and with the same reliability. A micro-programmable logic controller of under $50 may

be sufficient for a maquette of our design, while a more sophisticated PLC with more

memory is required for an outdoor full- scale version. These can cost upwards of $300.

       In order to control a stepper motor, an indexer and a driver are used to translate

the output of the PLC into the proper format for the stepper motor input. First the

controller sends commands from the program to the indexer. Next, the indexer sends

clock pulses and direction signa ls to the driver, which outputs the same information as

corresponding phase currents. A diagram of this process is:
                                                                                          9


                                 Typical Step Motor System




Examples of typical input and output data indexers are included in Appendix B. The

indexer and driver should come in a set with the step motors purchased, therefore,

ensuring the compatibility of the different components.

Stepper Motors

       There are a multitude of motors that exist on the market. The general ones are the

linear actuators, rotary motors, stepper motors, and servomotors. Each motor has a

different use and must be chosen according to the situation. This requires some

knowledge into what each motor does to select the most appropriate motor for the

situation at hand.

       Linear actuators are motors that move loads along a single axis. One needs to

know how fast the load needs to move back and forth, called the rate speed. Along with

the rate speed is the maximum rated force, which is the maximum load the rod can move,

the stroke, the distance the actuator can move the load, and continuous power output.

Also important is the backlash, which is the positional error, associated with the rod.

These loads can be moved using either an ACME screw or a ball screw. ACME screws
                                                                                           10


are used when using heavier loads and for shock loads; while, ball screws are more

efficient, have better backlash control, and last longer than ACME screws.

       Another important motor is the servomotor. These are any motors that allow

feedback. With standard motors, they receive an input and operate at that input.

Servomotors receive the input, and then send back the performance of the motor. The

user can adjust the input to reach the desired output. These allow for greater control over

the controlled operation.

       Rotary motors are for rotational movement at continuous speeds. One needs to

know how fast the load needs to rotate, to specify the rotations per minute, or rpm for the

rotary motor. Another critical specification is the torque. One needs to know how much

torque is required to rotate the load to determine an effective rotary motor. There are

quite a few methods to create rotational movement. One method is an electrical motor,

this uses magnetic cases around metal coils that when applied electricity causes the motor

to rotate. Another method would be a piston assembly, which drives a shaft up and down

connected mechanical to some rod that rotates.

       Stepper motors are similar to rotary motors except they do not operate at

continuous speeds and use small increments to mo ve the load a set angular distance.

Important parameters include the step increment (measured in degrees), the static holding

force, and the terminal voltage phase. These work similarly to the rotary motors except

there are fine teeth inside the case which can be magnetically induced, allow the coils

inside to line up with the poles, thereby having it rotate in increments. Another added

benefit to stepper motors is that the error is not cumulative. That is, each position is only
                                                                                             11


going to be off by an extremely small amount, and they do not add due to the switching

on and off of the poles.

         Stepper motors are required for this endeavor since the water fountain needs to be

rotated into certain specific positions. Assuming, from the final design discussed later in

the section, three hollow spheres of diameters approximately six, three and one feet,

made out of aluminum will give us a large force. This requires large stepper motors. A

stepper motor with an increment of 1.8° and a static holding force of 1755 in-oz with a

terminal voltage of 220 V weights about 12 lbs and is priced at $487. We will still need

to use a few of these in conjunction due to the large nature of the water fountain. This

motor is subject to change if another compatible motor can be found at a reasonable

price.

         For the maquette, assuming three hollow aluminum spheres with diameters

approximately two, one, and ½ feet gives us a much smaller force. A stepper motor is

found to have a torque of 264 oz- in at $185.

Pumps and Valves

         First, pumps, such as are generally used in fountains, fall into two classifications:

Dry and submersible (either single or multiple stage turbines). The general purpose of a

dry centrifugal pump is located in a cool dry pit or vault as near to the fountain pool as

possible. The suction entrance to the pump must be below the minimum water level of

the pool unless some other means of priming the pump is provided. The pumping system

is usually isolated from the pool by means of isolation valves (normally a gate valve in

the suction line and a ball valve in the discharge line). These serve as barriers to prevent

the back flow of water should it be necessary to remove the pumps. When in operation,
                                                                                           12


the suction valve should be fully open. Flow regulation is accomplished through

adjustment of the ball or butterfly valve in the discharge line.

       The submersible pump is built with a waterproof motor housing and is mounted

underwater and connected directly to the fountain through a ball or other regulating

valve. The power cord is fed into an underwater junction box through a brass cord seal.

While the submersible pump system is initially less expensive then a dry system, a great

share of the added cost is offset by lower pool construction and installation costs. The

long-range costs may exceed the dry system due to the fact that additional periodic

maintenance will be required on the fountain kit systems since no filter units are

designed. If the submersible pump ever needs to be serviced, then the pool or pond must

then be drained.

       Certain classes of motors require motor starters, and they are not normally

furnished by motor manufacturers or included in pricing of motors. Starters are available

in several types and characteristics and care should be taken to be certain that the proper

    Stream Produced by a           starter is specified.
         Jumping Jet
                                           Several types of valves will be attached to these

                                   pumps to create the desired water formation. Examples

                                   of valves, including jumping jets and sphere nozzles,

                                   are described below. The following fountain valves are

                                   products of Long Island Fountain Company, but they

                                   are products very similar to what our design needs or

                                   will model.

                                           There is no requirement for an air compressor
                                                                                            13


or high-pressure water pump, also known as a jumping valve, as the jet needs only the

dis-play pump and electrical connection for installation. Since the cutting device is

electronic, without using air or high water pressure, the jet operates almost silently. The

new jet is smaller and incorporates a larger laminar flow nozzle than other similar jets.

       Oase Pumps, Inc. Jumping Jets are available with internal lighting kits to

illuminate the water stream, and also are avail-able without the chopping mechanism for

a static laminar flow display. Construction is of all high quality stainless steel with PVC

stabilizer screens and a brass submersible stepper motor and brass light.

       The second type of valve that will be used in our design is the sphere nozzle. This

type creates sprays of water directed away from the center of the valve in the shape of a

sphere. A visual example and technical points of this nozzle are as follows:


                           Spray Produced by a Sphere Nozzle




       •   Water Spheres are constructed of Stainless Steel and incorporate Brass

           nozzles.
                                                                                         14


       •    Each "arm" is threaded in place by means of a male BSPP thread.

       •    All Water Spheres are water level independent.

       •    Nozzles are adjusted using an included feeler gauge.

       •    Designed for public installations.

       •    Vandals cannot easily remove the nozzles.

       •    Mounting base and hose connections are standard. Custom configurations are

            available.

Additional information and specifications for these valves are provided in Appendix C.

Artistic Aspect of the Final Design

       Below are the paintings that were the inspiration for our final design. The artist,

Alexander Calder (1898-1976) graduated from Stevens Institute of Technology in 1919

with a degree in mechanical engineering. This design is our interpretation of these

paintings that Calder created. They each have vibrant colors and a sense of life to them,

which is exactly the goal of our programmable sculpture fountain. The spheres in the

paintings seem to be floating or rotating in water and ponds – perfect theme for a
                                                     Boules, Rouges et Jaunes
fountain.

STARS
                                                                                           15




                                                                           RED SUN

       The design the group proposes to construct based on our interpretation is made up

of three spheres that are connected with the largest sphere on the bottom and the globes

get progressively smaller as they move away. Several CAD drawings showing this

design from alternate angles are shown below.

                                       Final Design

             Front View                                            Top View




Two additional top views of basic construction are given below to illustrate more detail

of the proposed design.
                                                                                           16


                                     Construction Views
            Top View One                                       Top View Two




The movement of the center piece would first be created by the rotation of the base

sphere. Added to this movement, each of the two other spheres move on tracks located in

a straight line on top of the previous sphere. Each of the spheres would have valves

similar to the sphere nozzle creating the appearance of three moving balls of water, and

four jumping jet valves would be installed in the fountain base. The jets will shoot water

at given periods of time to coordinate with the movement of the main piece.

II-D. Financial Budget
       The estimated budget for constructing the maquette and the full-size fountain

sculpture is as follows. Most of the funds are spent on stepper motors and metal for

construction. The maquette ends up costing about $1000, while a larger version costs

around $45,000. None of these cost estimates includes the price for maintenance or labor

yet, as those prices can vary a great deal.
                                                                                               17


                 Projected Budget for Actual Fountain and Maquette

    For Actual Fountain
    Part                                Quantity           $ per unit           Total $
    Pump                                               1                  365           365
    PVC pipe                               1 @ 2'' x 20'                23.99         23.99
    Stepper Motors                                    17                 2000        34000
    Rubber Hose                         1 @ 1/2'' x 120'                74.50          74.5
    PLC and software                                   1                  300           300
    Various metals for
    construction                                                        10000        10000
    Miscellaneous                                                                      1000
    Total                                                                          45763.49

    For Maquette
    Part                                Quantity           $ per unit           Total $
    Pump                                              1                 22.95          22.95
    PVC pipe                               1 @ 2'' x 20'                23.99          23.99
    Stepper Motors                                    4                    50            200
    Rubber Hose                         1 @ 1/2'' x 120'                74.50           74.5
    micro-PLC and Software                            1                    50             50
    Various metals for
    construction                                                          400           400
    Miscellaneous                                                                       200
    Total                                                                            971.44

The actual price of constructing the maquette may vary also due to the fact that the prices

given are only estimates. The actual costs will depend on if we find more economical

parts from the alternate vendors or if modifications are made in the design that either

reduces the number of parts needed or allows for a cheaper component.

II-E. Project Schedule
       This is the proposed Gantt Chart for Senior Design next semester. The majority

of work will involve the construction of a maquette of the group’s final water sculpture

design. This work will include researching component vendors and their prices. There

will likely be final adjustments to the design in the later weeks of the semester. Other

work includes the deliverables for Engineering Design VII class, namely the progress and

final reports, presentation, sponsor proposal, and website.
                                                                                                18


                                        Gantt Chart

Task                                 Wk 1   Wk 2   Wk 3   Wk 4   Wk 5   Wk 6   Wk 7   Wk 8   Wk 9   Wk 10   Wk 11   W

Reconfirm final design, components

Research vendor prices

Purchase components

Work on website

Progress report

Construction of maquette

Sponsor Proposal

Adjustments to design

Final Presentation and Report



Key:
Task Scheduled:
                                                                                            19


III. Summary
       The design the group proposes to construct is made up of three spheres that are

connected with the largest sphere on the bottom with the globes getting progressively

smaller as they move away from the base. Combining the circular rotation of the base

and the tracks for the two smaller spheres, there are an infinite number of possible

positions for the sculpture. In addition to the movement, the two types of valves, the

jumping jet and the spherical nozzle, will create an intriguing kinetic sculpture.

       Next semester, the group will begin construction of a maquette of the final design

as it has been described. There are two main goals of this sculpture. First, the Alexander

Calder, a member of the Stevens alumni, was the first to create kinetic sculptures almost

seventy years ago. Since that time, artists have continued to build on his ideas of what

kinetic sculpture can be, but despite the changes, the sculptures are still only moved by

outside forces limiting the locations of where this art can be erected. By incorporating

today’s technology into this genre of sculpture, the group hopes take his ideas in a new

direction.

       Second, as the reader can see from the group’s inspiration for the piece, the

sculpture design is meant to be fun and exciting. At the end of second semester as well

as having a model of the sculpture, the group will submit a proposal to Stevens Institute

of the design to be constructed in the circular paved area in front of Palmer Hall. With

this goal in mind, the sculpture was designed to create a fun and relaxing atmosphere in a

place where students would be able to relax or study. Not only will this help in

beautifying the campus, but it will make the area that currently has a few broken benches

and a small patch of flowers into an asset to student life.
                                                                                                     20


IV. References

Bellagio Hotel and Casino. Retrieved 11 October 2003.
         <www.martinandmartincivilengineers.com/ bellagio.htm>.

Brewitz, Tom. CornerMark Fine Art. Retrieved 4 October 2003. <www.cornermark.com/kinetic>.

Collins, Richard. Mobiles and Kinetic Sculptures. Retrieved 4 October 2003.
         <www.sculptor.org/Sculptors/mobiles.htm>.

Discount Las Vegas Hotels . Retrieved 11 October 2003.
        <www.lasvegas-discounthotels.com/ >.

Dreseitl, Herbert with Dieter Grau, Karl H. Ludwig (Eds.). Waterscapes: Planning, Building and Creating
          With Water. Birkhauser Verlag: Germany, May 2001.

Entertron Industries Inc. Home of Free Programming Software. Retrieved 25 October 2003.
         <http://www.entertron.com>.

Fox, Michael. MIT Kinetic Design Group. Retrieved 4 October 2003. <kdg.mit.edu/>.

Gray, Bruce. Sculpture by Bruce Gray. Retrieved 4 October 2003. <www.brucegray.com>.

Haslam, Steve. Paris, France. Retrieved 11 October 2003.
        <http://people.westminstercollege.edu/faculty/shaslam/MayTerm/Paris.html>.

Kamon, Matton. StereoExplain. Retrieved 4 October 2003.
       <rle-vlsi.mit.edu/people/matt/stereoexplain.html>.

Lawrie, Robert J. Understanding Modern Motors and Controllers. Retrieved 18 October 2003.
        <http://ecmweb.com/ar/electric_understanding_modern_motors/index.htm>.

Magic Eye. Retrieved 11 October 2003. <www.magiceye.com>.

Mann, Jeff. Art and Robotics Group. Retrieved 11 October 2003.
        <www.interaccess.org/arg/>.

Melore, Phil. Your Personal PLC Tutor Site. Retrieved 4 October 2003. <www.plcs.net>.

Ross, Douglas. Calder’s Work. Calder Foundation. Retrieved 4 November 2003. <http://www.calder.org/>.

Ryan, V. Cam – Examples and Questions. Retrieved 4 October 2003.
        <www.technologystudent.com/cams/cam3.htm   >.

Ryan, V. Gears and Gear Systems. Retrieved 4 October 2003.
        <www.technologystudent.com/gears1/gears3.htm>.

Shapiro, Bruce. The Art of Motion Control. Retrieved 11 October 2003.
         <www.taomc.com>.

SPLat Controls Pty Ltd. SPLat: Electronic Controls for OEMs. Retrieved 25 October 2003.
        <http://www.microconsultants.com/index.htm   .>

www.Sculpturesite.com Homepage. A New Leaf Gallery Sculpturesite. Retrieved 15 November 2003.
      <http://www.sculpturesite.com/artists/Laud.lasso>.
                                                                                        A-1


        Preliminary Idea #1: 3D Magic Eye Autostereogram
         Description: For this design, a “screen” or conveyor belt- like sheet would be used
to provide the colorful and visual noise used to mask the picture the customer is trying to
see. Behind this screen, a computerized system of dots similar to pixels in a computer
screen is located. These “pixels” may be moved or raised to create an image based on
information input through a computer chip. The image will change when the user
prompts it to or after a certain amount of time. New images can be purchased and
uploaded into the 3D Magic Eye through the computer chip, so the amount of possible
images is boundless.
         How It Works: Stereograms were originally developed to prove how our brains
perceive distance. Random dot stereograms proved that our brain does can perceive
distance by noting the difference between what our left and right eyes see. There is
mathematical relationship between how far you want your brain to think the dots are from
one another in depth and how much to move the dots on the page, involving the distance
between your eyes, the distance between the stripes on the page and the distance you'd
like it to appear. By separating the image seen by each individual eye OR crossing your
eyes, the random dot configuration behind the visual noise may be determined.




        Market Potential: Recently, stereograms have been popularized by the Magic Eye
book and calendar series. To capitalize on this fad, a 3D version of the autostereogram
may be designed with updatable features. The central theme of this sculpture is the
entertainment found in the visual exploration of autostereograms. Ultimately, this design
could be marketed as a toy for children of all ages or a desk accessory for business
executives. Possible distributors include The Sharper Image, Brookstone, Toys R’ Us,
and Skymall.
        Additional Information: Possible materials for this project may include gears,
motors, plastic, metal and batteries. When analyzing this design idea, subjects like
mathematics, noise reduction, microprocessor and computer programming are important.
                                                                                      A-2


                  Preliminary Idea #2: 3D Moving Toy
        Description: Several 3D objects will be attached to mechanisms, such as gear
trains and CAMs, which will move the objects according to a specific program to create
multiple formations that are balanced and beautiful. Using these mechanisms, changes in
the formation of these objects may be computer programmed. The sculpture may be
battery operated or solar powered. Finally, a motion sensor or timer may prompt the
formation changes.
        How It Works: The motion of the 3D objects will be determined by gears and
CAMs. Gear systems including gear trains and compound gears will be attached to
motors to generate rotary motion. CAMs are eccentric or curved wheels mounted on a
rotating shaft. The rotating shaft produces variable or reciprocating motion in another
engaged or contacted part.




     Simple Gear Train                 Compound Gear                Pear-Shaped CAM

        Market Potential: The central theme of this
sculpture would incorporate the elegance of motion
with the dancing beauty of balanced objects.
Ultimately, this design could be placed in the market as
a desk accessory for business executives. One
examples of a desk accessory is the trendy pendulum
toy. Possible distributors include The Sharper Image,
Brookstone, and Skymall.
        Additional Information: Possible materials for
this project may include gears, motors, CAMs, plastic,
metal, batteries and solar cells. When analyzing this design idea, subjects like machines,
mechanisms and noise reduction are crucial. Microprocessors, elementary computer
programming and solar cells will also be explored in this design.
                                                                                       A-3


                Preliminary Idea #3: Waterfall Painting
        Description: This design consists of 3-dimensional "painting" created by an
arrangement of clear tubes filled with water colored by lasers. Valves controlling the
movement of the water would open and close, thus changing the flow of water. Ideally,
when varying lasers are combined, the combination would result in a different
wavelength and different color.
        How It Works: The design consists of a water reservoir at the bottom of the
“painting” that pumps water to the very top. At the top are tubes that allow the water to
flow into them. Laser beams of different colors will be attached at the top to project the
beam into the tube of water, thereby lighting it up to give it a neon sign effect. These
varying colorful tubes of water then flow down the painting into valves, which would
control the flow of water into other tubes, allowing colors to mix and change directions.
These valves are on motorized pins that slide around on the back of the painting in a grid-
like fashion. This is computer controlled with a user interface at the bottom of the
painting. Also, the laser beams are computer controlled, as well as the flow of water.
There is complete control by the user over the flow of water and the laser beams. The
user is able to save certain situations for future reference.




        Market Potential: The central theme is the elegance of water and the “artistic
creations” of the user. If done well, the painting would be as beautiful as the user would
want it to be. Ultimately, this design would be marketed towards high-end art collectors
who are also interested in technology. This design would not be mass-produced so
potential distributors would include auction houses and art galleries.
        Additional Information: Possible materials for this project may include pipes,
valves, lasers, pumps and batteries. When analyzing this design idea, subjects like
physics and hydraulics are crucial.
                                                                                        A-4


                 Preliminary Idea #4: Rotational Vanes
        Description: A 3-D kinetic sculpture will be constructed of a central hollow rod.
Along a specified number of points along the rod, vanes will be attached with the ability
to rotate 360º parallel to the rod. The movement of these vanes will be controlled via
computer programming. Artistic possibilities will include varying the lengths of the
vanes, the degree of rotation, the attachment of objects to the vane, and the location of
these objects.
        How It Works: This proposal consists of a single rod with overlapping rods at
perpendicular angles. These overlapping rods would be able to full rotate about the
central rod at varying angles and lengths. The tips of these overlapping rods may be able
to support objects at the end giving more color to the work of art. The overlapping rods
are mechanically driven by an electric motor that is able to be user controlled with the aid
of a user interface. This allows certain designs to be saved and used for a future time.
This proposal would establish a sense of balance and user controlled creativity.
        Market Potential: The central theme is the elegance of balance achieved by the
varying angles of the rotational vanes. Ultimately, this design would be marketed as an
indoor or outdoor sculpture installation piece. This design would not be mass-produced
so potential distributors would include auction houses and art galleries.
        Additional Information: Possible materials for this project may include rods,
rotary motors, linear actuators and sheet metal. When analyzing this design idea,
subjects like physics, mathematics and mechanics are crucial.
                                                                                          A-5


                  Preliminary Idea #5: Water Sculpture
        Description: This idea is the least developed of the five conceptual ideas.
Basically, our goals for this idea are to incorporate water into a kinetic sculpture, possibly
a water fountain. We would like to use motors to move vanes that would direct the path
of water into different directions and angles and ultimately transform the water into the
actual medium of the artwork.
        How It Works: Although our conceptual idea is not finalized, we would
obviously need to develop a water and power source for the sculpture. Also, pumps must
be used to distribute the water throughout the sculpture and motors would be used to
generate a controlled movement of elements of the sculpture.
        Market Potential: The central theme of this design is the elegance of movement
of water through mechanical movement, computer programming, and art. Ultimately,
this design would be marketed as an outdoor sculpture installation piece. This design
would not be mass-produced so potential distributors would include auction houses and
art galleries. The potential for fountains are huge. Amusement parks and resorts invest
millions of dollars to build fountains that create special effects to attract visitors. Home
improvement centers and interior design firms market indoor fountains to provide a
calming effect in our spaces. Here are some examples of artistic fountains that are visual
advertisements of their locations.


                                                La Fountaine Stravinski
                                                       These various moving fountains and
                                                sculptures in the place Igor Stravinsky (a
                                                famous 20th century composer) were
                                                designed by Niki de Saint Phalle and Jean
                                                Tinguely




Bellagio Hotel
       Lights, computer-controlled water jets, music, even a little fog can go into a five-
minute fountain show outside the Bellagio in Las Vegas. The fountain, shown here has
1,200 nozzles that can keep as much as 17,000 gallons of water in the air at any one
time.
                                                                B-1


             Specifications for a Typical Indexer
Indexers:

  Output step pulses
  Reverse voltage                       30 V
  Switching current                     20 mA
  Pulse frequency                       50 kHz
  Pulse width                           4 up to 16 µs


  No-contact for activation of drives
  Switching voltage                     40 VDC, 30 VAC
  Switching current                     200 mA


  Control input
  Voltage, input 0                      -3,0 V up to +5,0 V
  Voltage, input 1                      +11,0 V up to +30,0 V
  Input current                         > 6 mA (switched on)
                                                                                     C-1


                      Additional Specifications for Jumping Jet Valves
            Jumping Valve:
              Jumping Jet Specifications
Flow                                  26GPM (100 LPM)
Pressure                                12'TDH (0.4 Bar)
                                                             A Typical Jumping Jet Valve
Connection                                      1" FNPT
Orifice Diameter                             0.7" (18mm)
Recommended Pump                             Nautilus 60
Alternate Pump                               Atlantis 150
Internal screen mesh                              0.8mm
Recommended filter                   600 micron bag type
Internal light                           12 volt / 75 watt
Outer drive                24 volt 2 amp dc stepper motor
Minimum reaction time                        0.3 seconds
Maximum water depth                      15.75" (400mm)
Material                                  Stainless steel
Vertical adjustment                             45" - 90"
Horizontal adjustment                                  5"
Maximum display height                        16' 3" (5m)
Maximum display throw                         20' 0" (6m)
Weight                                    155lbs. (70Kg)
Motor cable                   7x18ga. 0.315" O.D. (8mm)
Light cable                    2x14ga. 0.35" O.D. (9mm)
                                                                           Schematic Jumping Jet Valve
                                                             C-2


         Additional Specifications for Spray Nozzle Valves




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