ape_campaign_summary by nuhman10

VIEWS: 3 PAGES: 14

									                                                                                                                  EAZA Ape Campaign
                                                                                                                           Summary
                                                                                                                                                    September 2010

                                                                                                                                        www.apecampaign.org



To make a significant and lasting contribution to the continued survival of apes and their
habitats


CONTENTS

Outline and Aims .................................................................................................................................................... 2

Threats to apes ....................................................................................................................................................... 2

   Hunting & Trade ................................................................................................................................................. 2

   Habitat Loss ........................................................................................................................................................ 4

   Health & Disease................................................................................................................................................. 4

Introducing the apes ............................................................................................................................................... 5

   Gorillas ................................................................................................................................................................ 5

   Orangutans ......................................................................................................................................................... 6

   Chimpanzees & Bonobos .................................................................................................................................... 7

   Gibbons ............................................................................................................................................................... 8

Projects ................................................................................................................................................................... 9

   FFI Cao Vit Gibbon Conservation Project ............................................................................................................ 9

   Kinabatangan Orangutan Conservation Programme ........................................................................................ 10

   Awely Green Caps ............................................................................................................................................. 11

   Dja Biosphere Reserve ...................................................................................................................................... 12

Joining the Campaign............................................................................................................................................ 13
OUTLINE AND AIMS


Apes (the six species of great apes and 16 species of gibbons) are under threat from hunting,
deforestation and disease. Without our support these beautiful and iconic animals will become
extinct. All the apes are threatened and almost all are either Endangered or Critically Endangered.
For some species really urgent action is needed. The Hainan gibbon, for instance, is right on the
brink of extinction with fewer than 20 surviving, while there are fewer than 400 Cross River gorillas
left in the wild.
We need to ensure the apes survive and thrive not simply because they are iconic and we have a
moral obligation to do so. Tropical forest ecosystems are essential to humans and apes play a vital
role as keystone species in the ecosystems they inhabit. They help maintain the forest structure and
are important seed dispersers for many plant species. Their conservation is not an easy task, but we
do know that real strides can be made through focused attention applied to habitats and species.
The EAZA Ape Campaign focuses attention on the apes, the issues they face and the urgency with
which we must act. Through the support of EAZA membership and the campaign partners we will
work to improve their survival and leave a lasting legacy for ape conservation.
If we cannot save the apes and the ecosystems on which they depend, how can we save the rest of
the natural world?


Campaign Aim: To make a significant and lasting contribution to the continued survival of
apes and their habitats
Main Campaign Objectives:
 1.   To increase habitat protection and reduce habitat loss
 2.   To reduce hunting and trade of apes, both live and dead
 3.   To change consumer behaviour to reduce pressure on apes and their habitats
 4.   To raise €1 million to establish a lasting fund providing ongoing financial support to ape
      conservation

The Campaign covers all ape species; great apes and gibbons. It will achieve its objectives through
raising awareness of the issues apes face, lobbying decision-makers and key influencers about these
issues, and raising funds to support conservation projects. It will focus on the key issues of habitat
loss and trade, both within range states and internationally, and control of diseases affecting wild
apes.
Strategic partnerships will be developed with a range of organisations and projects, both to support
the campaign itself, and to deliver the main campaign objectives.
The Campaign will run from 1st October 2010 to 30th September 2011.



THREATS TO APES


HUNTING & TRADE


Hunting is a major cause of ape population decline, in both Africa and Southeast Asia. This is usually
driven by trade in their meat (bushmeat), and to a lesser extent in live infant apes or body parts; the
latter being used for ceremonial or medicinal purposes. Occasionally hunting results when humans
and (other) apes come into conflict, for example over crop-raiding by the apes, where agriculture
encroaches on, or is adjacent to, their natural habitats.
Hunting of all great apes and many gibbon species is illegal in their range states. In many countries,
however, legislation is often poorly enforced or easily circumvented, so hunting continues.
The bushmeat trade and other traditional uses of dead apes
The bushmeat trade is the commercial exploitation of wild animals for meat. This trade is enormous
in both Africa and Southeast Asia. Bushmeat hunting in most places has long ceased to be
subsistence hunting by indigenous communities. Instead much bushmeat hunting of apes is illegal,
unsustainable and highly commercialised. As a consequence of habitat loss, primarily due to the
timber industry, forests are increasingly opened up and fragmented. Professional hunters thus have
greater access into these habitats and to apes, ensuring an on-going supply of bushmeat for the
trade. Supply chains from rural areas to urban centres are well established, and it is not unusual for
them to cross international borders.
In many parts of Africa primates are eaten widely, and although apes make up a relatively low
proportion of the trade, hunting of apes is nevertheless a major conservation issue. Great ape meat
is reputed to give the consumer strength or cunning. In addition, as a high-value commodity it
confirms the status of the person serving it to guests. Ape parts are also used in traditional medicine.
The high value of the meat and other body parts is also an obvious incentive for hunters and others
in the supply chain.
Trade in live apes
The trade in live apes is also a major conservation issue, occurring both within country, mainly for
the pet trade, and also internationally. Illegal international trade in apes takes place for the pet
trade, for private collections and for some zoos in regions lacking regulation and with no managed
breeding programmes.
In Africa this live trade is largely a by-product of the bushmeat trade. Groups of apes are killed for
meat; any young that survive go into the pet trade. Confiscated pets are taken into sanctuaries. Very
few of these animals have been reintroduced due to the lack of identified, secure reintroduction
sites, inadequate social or survival skills among sanctuary animals, and the great expense of such
projects. It remains, however, a goal among many sanctuaries.
In Southeast Asia, the pet trade in orangutans has been a serious problem in the past. Between 1995
and 1999 as many as 1,000 infant orangutans were reported to have been imported into Taiwan.
Much of this trade has now been stopped, but the pet trade remains highly lucrative. Despite
Indonesian law protecting orangutan and gibbon species from hunting for 75 years now, population
declines of all these species show that hunting continues. As in Africa, confiscated apes arrive in
sanctuaries in large numbers.
CITES
International trade in wild animals is regulated through the Convention on International Trade in
Endangered Species of wild fauna and flora (CITES). Apes are listed on Appendix 1, which means that
it is illegal for signatories to this convention to import or export them, unless there are special
circumstances, in which case a licence is required. At the time of writing, all countries with endemic
ape populations are signatories to this convention, as are many European countries. However, most
trade is undercover and often associated will other illegal activities.
In spite of CITES controls, illegal international trade continues, including both meat into Europe and
live apes to the middle east and far east.
HABITAT LOSS


The loss of habitat is a major threat to the survival of apes. Ape habitat, i.e. tropical forest, is lost
through clearance for agriculture, urban development and logging, all involving the removal of the
trees and other plants which apes need to find food and shelter. These activities reduce the space
available for apes to live in but also reduce the quality of any remaining habitat, as it often
fragmented and polluted by the infrastructure necessary to support these industries. More roads
and people result in increased hunting pressure, disease and disturbance.
Ape populations isolated in fragmented forest pockets are at increased risk of extinction due to local
catastrophes, such as disease outbreaks or freak weather, which can destroy the entire group with
one event. In addition, small isolated populations are more likely to suffer genetic deterioration such
as inbreeding, resulting in reduced fitness and loss of genetic variation reducing their long term
ability to adapt to changing conditions.
In some cases managed forestry and reforestation projects further reduce habitat quality, by
planting non-native species or monocultures of species with high commercial value to replace those
removed. The resulting habitats are inappropriate and cannot sustain ape populations. Finally,
deforestation contributes to climate change, the ramifications of which endanger all apes – including
humans.
Them and us?
Agriculture and logging in ape habitats are carried out to meet the demands of local people and
foreign consumers. When local human populations are small, their activities (gathering food and
wood from the forest, growing crops and raising livestock) can be sustainable, i.e. they can live in
harmony with the rainforest ecosystems and ape populations. However, larger groups of people
using inefficient technologies (e.g. slash and burn agriculture, making charcoal) to sustain
themselves have a destructive impact on ape habitats.
When agriculture and logging take place on a commercial scale, they have the potential to destroy
ape habitat much more rapidly than small scale local forest exploitation. Products from commercial
agriculture and logging, such as palm oil and teak furniture, are usually exported, providing much
needed revenue to developing countries. Commercial agriculture has resulted in prime ape habitat
being replaced by vast monocultures of plants such as oil palm and soya, which are used in the
manufacture of a wide range of consumer products and biofuels. Large scale logging enables the
manufacture of affordable (for western markets at least) wooden furniture and other products,
whilst denuding huge tracts of primary forest.


HEALTH & DISEASE


Ill health in wild apes is a major threat to their future survival. It’s true that everyone (us and our ape
relatives) gets sick sometimes, but unfortunately the frequency and severity of disease experienced
by wild apes is increasing because of our actions. And, as with humans, it is better to try to ensure
that the apes remain fit and healthy than to have to cure ill health. Prevention is better than cure!
Habitat loss and hunting activities cause stress for apes and as a consequence make them more
vulnerable to disease and infection. Disease can sometimes be transferred between different
species. For example, it is suspected that the Ebola virus was transmitted from fruit bats to gorilla
and chimp populations as a consequence of close encounters during feeding at the same fruiting
trees. The restricted home range of western lowland gorillas (Republic of Congo, Cameroon and
Gabon) has enabled Ebola to spread quickly through the population. Currently it is thought that 25%
of the world’s gorilla population has died as a consequence of contracting Ebola; 90% of gorillas that
contract Ebola die from heavy internal and external bleeding. Though chimpanzees also contract
Ebola, the spread of the disease has been much slower as their populations are currently more
widespread.
The similarity between us and our ape relatives means that we too can share diseases; transferred
from us to them (anthroponosis) or from them to us (zoonosis). When the immune system
recognises common diseases it can fight them. However for apes, greater exposure to people and
their domestic livestock introduces a greater number and variety of diseases. Apes are not
accustomed to many of these diseases and are therefore more susceptible to them. When apes are
kept as pets or managed in rehabilitation centres they can sometimes contract tuberculosis and
hepatitis from humans.
Hope!
As the impact of disease on ape conservation becomes more widely recognised, identification of
what can be done to ‘prevent rather than cure’ diseases in these wild apes has been initiated. These
efforts either aim to:
  1. improve the habitat of the apes through reinstating or creating natural boundaries to reduce
     the speed of spread or prevent further spread of disease; or
  2. reduce human-ape interactions to prevent transmission of disease. The most obvious and
     successful steps towards this goal have been taken in eco-tourism situations. In such situations
     proximity between apes and humans is reduced, increasing the risk of disease transfer.
     Increasingly tourists are provided with strict protocols to ensure they pose as low a risk as
     possible to the wild ape population they are viewing (e.g. you’re not allowed to visit if you have
     a ‘common cold’).
Our understanding of disease and its transmission has been improved greatly by leaps in veterinary
medical science. In some unique circumstances veterinary treatment is being given to wild apes,
though this presents a logistical, political and financial challenge.



INTRODUCING THE APES


The EAZA Ape Campaign is focusing on all of the great ape species (excluding humans) as well as on
the gibbons.


GORILLAS


Where do gorillas come from? Western gorillas come from West Africa, Eastern gorillas come from
Central Africa
How big is a gorilla? Males grow up to 1,70m and weigh around 180kg, females grow up to 1,50m
and weigh around 100kg
How old can gorillas get? The record observed in zoos was 54 years
How do gorillas live? Generally one adult male lives with a number of females and depending
offspring of different ages
Are gorillas threatened? Eastern gorillas are listed as Endangered and Western gorillas as Critically
Endangered, their population trend is decreasing
There are two species of gorilla, Western gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) and Eastern gorilla (G. beringei). The
Western gorillas divide into two subspecies, namely Western lowland gorillas (G. g. gorilla) and cross
river gorilla (G. g. diehli). The Eastern gorillas divide into two subspecies as well, being the Eastern
lowland gorillas (G. b. graueri) and mountain gorillas (G. b. beringei). In European zoos, apart from
two Eastern lowland gorilla females in Antwerp, the only species presented is the Western lowland
gorilla.
Males and females are sexually dimorphic, with males weighing about twice as much as females. At
the age of 12-13 years males also develop a striking silver coloration from their shoulders to rump.
That’s why they are called ‘silverbacks’. All the adult males develop a silver back, not only the
dominant leaders of a harem. Of the great apes, gorillas show the most stable grouping patterns.
Behaviour within the group is centred towards the silverback. Especially in mountain gorillas a son
might take over the most dominant rank in the group, but an old silverback is never evicted from a
group. When the silverback dies, the group disbands and females join other groups.
Mountain gorillas live at the highest elevations, from 2200 to 4000m in the Virunga Volcanoes.
Western Gorillas live in lowland forest, swamp, and mountain forests from sea level to 1600m.
Gorillas are herbivores. It is possible that Western gorillas have a food culture, with learned
preferences passed on between individuals and generations. Use of tools has also recently been
observed the first time in the wild: a gorilla used a walking stick when entering the water of a Bai.
Only about 20% of gorillas live inside protected areas where, at least in theory, they are safe from
habitat modification by humans. The remaining 80% are severely threatened by human induced
habitat modification. The listing of western lowland gorillas as Critically Endangered is based on
exceptionally high levels of hunting and mortality due to disease (over 90% in some large remote
areas). Combined these factors are estimated to have caused a population decline of more than 60%
alone over the last 20 to 25 years (one gorilla generation). Most protected areas have serious
poaching problems and almost half of the habitat under protected status has been hard hit by Ebola.
Mining in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is also having devastating effects on the habitat
and gorilla population. The ore coltan is mined in DRC, as well as gold. Coltan is used in mobile
phones, smart phones and laptops.
These are the top three threats gorillas face:
 1. Bushmeat
 2. Disease transmission (Ebola)
 3. Habitat loss due to logging, mining and charcoal production


ORANGUTANS


Where do orangutans come from? Malaysia and Indonesia (namely Borneo and Sumatra)
How big is an orangutan? Males grow up to 1,40m and weigh between 60-90kg, females grow up to
1.15m and weigh between 40-50kg
How old can orangutans get? The record observed in zoos was 59 years
How do orangutans live? Semi-solitary, male’s territory overlaps with home range of a number of
females
Are orangutans threatened? Bornean orangutan: Endangered, Sumatran orangutan: Critically
Endangered, population trend: decreasing, wild population size estimates: Sumatra 7.000, Borneo
54.000 animals


There are two different species of orangutan: the Bornean (Pongo pygmaeus) and the Sumatran
(Pongo abelii).
The name orang utan means “person of the forest“ in Malay. However, the locals do not call those
apes orangutans, but have different names for them, like “mawas”. It is believed that the locals
living in the coastal regions of Borneo and Sumatra telling missionaries and explorers coming
centuries ago about “persons of the forest, a bit wild, not able to read” actually did not refer to
utans, but to forest-living people!
The orangutan is the largest arboreal animal. They are foraging, feeding and building nests in trees in
which to sleep. Orangutans are known to use tools to get difficult to obtain food items, and to
handle spiny and thorny fruits. For example they can make a sort of ‘oven cloth’ out of leaves to
avoid getting their hands hurt from spines. These kind of behaviour are acquired and show
characteristics of culture as they vary between populations.
Adult individuals spend most of their life on their own. As being so large and relatively heavy,
orangutans are not able to cover large distances in their habitat, but at the same time have to
consume large amounts of food. Thus living in bigger social groups is largely inhibited by resource
competition.
Orangutans are particularly vulnerable to extinction due to their very slow reproduction rate. Also,
their population densities are quite low, as they need large home ranges. In addition, they are
restricted to lowland rainforest areas. These are the top three threats they face:
      1. Conversion to plantations (palm oil)
      2. Other habitat destruction and fragmentation (logging, fires)
      3. Hunting (for bushmeat and trade in infants)


CHIMPANZEES & BONOBOS


Where do chimpanzees and bonobos come from? West- and Equatorial Africa
How big are they? Chimpanzees are around 1m tall; males weigh 50kg and females weigh 35kg (on
average)
How old can they get? 30 – 40 years in the wild (50-60 years in captivity)
How do they live? Chimpanzees live in large, multi-male-multi-female groups; For common
chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) males are dominant over all females; for bonobos (Pan paniscus)
females occupy high ranking places
Are chimpanzees threatened? Common chimpanzee: Endangered, population trend: decreasing,
wild population size estimates: between 172.000 and 301.000; Bonobo: Endangered, population
trend: decreasing, wild population size estimates: between 5000 – 50.000 individuals


There are two different species of chimpanzees: common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and
bonobos (Pan paniscus). The common chimpanzee is often described as the robust chimpanzee as
opposed to the bonobo, or gracile chimpanzee. Typically bonobos have a dark face with pink lips.
Chimpanzees are centred in tropical rainforest (primary and secondary) and also live in forest edges
and swamp forest. Chimpanzees appear to survive quite well in lightly logged forest and bush
farmland, which makes them less sensitive to moderate ecosystem disturbance but also increasingly
vulnerable to humans as many populations exist outside protected areas.
Wild chimpanzees live in multi-male-multi-female fission-fusion communities. This means they live in
stable communities, which count about 40-60 individuals. Chimpanzees are both arboreal and
terrestrial. They spend most of their days foraging and feeding. They mainly feed on fruits and leaves
and only occasionally they also feed on animal prey, including insects. They most often build nests in
trees for sleeping.
Populations of wild chimpanzees have declined by more than 66% in the last 30 years. The
vulnerability of the chimpanzee is further increased by a slow reproduction rate, which makes it
difficult for chimpanzee populations to recover. The reasons for the decline are well known, but
there is little hope that the trend downwards will change in the near future. Chimpanzees are
threatened by several factors that interlink and impact on each other:
      Intensive deforestation through logging and other extracting industries (oil and mining)
       disrupts the forest ecosystem.
      Disrupted forest habitat opened up to the effects of wind and sun is more vulnerable to fires.
     The increased access to logged areas opens up for bushmeat hunting and invasion of farmers
      (which again leads to further fragmentation of the forest and increased hunting pressure).
     Habitat disruption leads to increased contact with humans and poses an additional threat as
      great ape populations become more vulnerable to infection with human diseases. Also,
      zoonoses (diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans), like Ebola, pose a
      threat to great ape populations.
     Several populations are also threatened from the effects of armed conflicts resulting in habitat
      destruction and increased hunting pressure.


GIBBONS


Where do gibbons come from? Tropical and subtropical rainforests from northeast India to
Indonesia and north to southern China, including the islands of Sumatra, Borneo and Java.
How big are gibbons? 5-8kg, Siamangs: 12-15kg
How do gibbons live? They live in pairs with their offspring.
Are gibbons threatened? All gibbon species are listed on the IUCN Red List ranging from Vulnerable
to Critically Endangered.


There are sixteen different species of gibbon. They are divided amongst four different genera:
Hylobates, Nomascus, Hoolock and Symphalangus. Gibbons from the Hylobatus genus are spread
out amongst southern China (Yunnan) to western and central Java, whereas gibbons from the
Nomascus genus can be found in southern China (Yunnan), southern Vietnam, and also on Hainan
Island. The Hoolock gibbons’ habitat ranges from Assam in North-East India, to Myanmar. Small
populations (in each case few hundred animals) live also in eastern Bangladesh and in southwest
China. The Siamang (Symphylangus syndactylus) is the only species in the Symphalangus genus and
they are native to the forests of Malaysia, Thailand, and Sumatra. Half of the sixteen gibbon species
can be found in European zoos.
Gibbons have an arboreal livestyle, which means they live in trees. Brachiation describes the
gibbons’ typical way of moving through the treetops. They swing through the trees by grabbing hold
of branches, using one hand then the other. They use their hands like hooks, not grasping the tree
limb. At top speed, gibbons can easily move more quickly through the rainforest canopy than
humans can walk. Due to their suspensoric (= ‘hanging’) lifestyle gibbons have become specialised
foragers. They try to avoid competition for food with other animals by feeding on fruit and leaves on
the thin outer branches of the trees, which other animals have difficulty accessing.
Gibbons live in pairs with their offspring. They “mark” their territory with bouts of loud songs
(vocalisations), which usually last for a duration of 10 to 20 minutes (depending on the species).
Other functions have been associated with the gibbons’ songs, such as mate attraction, mate
defence and/or strengthening the bond between male and female. In most gibbon species, males
and females may combine their songs to produce elaborate duet songs. Gibbon species can easily be
recognised by their songs, because species-specific song characteristics are inherited.
In ancient times, gibbons had a large range in China, and played an important role in Chinese culture.
There are myths dating from about 150 years before Christ, that gibbons can transform into humans
and that they can live for hundreds of years.
Unfortunately humans are playing a role in the demise of this charismatic species. The top three
threats gibbons face are:
 1. Illegal pet trade
 2. Destruction of habitat
 3. Inbreeding
Young gibbons are in demand for pets. The bond between parents and their young is very strong and
an adult female gibbon will not willingly leave her infant when threatened. Therefore for a human to
get the infant, it is most likely that the female will be shot and killed. The adult male could also be
killed trying to protect his offspring and mate. As gibbons have a slow breeding rate the above issues
are causing huge problems.
Forest fragmentation is also having a profound effect on the gibbon population as it prevents
animals from migrating. This means they cannot go to new areas to form new unrelated pairs. As a
result of this there is the potential for inbreeding, which is detrimental to individual the gibbons
overall future and health.




PROJECTS



In addition to raising awareness about the major threats to the survival of apes in the wild, the EAZA
Ape Campaign also aims to raise funds to support ape conservation projects. In mid-2011 an open
invitation will be issued to ape conservation projects to submit applications for grants from the EAZA
Ape Conservation Fund. More information about the selection process, including a deadline for
applications, will be published here in early 2011.
The projects selected to receive grants from the EAZA Ape Fund will, together, cover all of the ape
species and address all of the issues the campaign is addressing. If we achieve our aim of raising €1
million, the EAZA Ape Campaign will be able to make a significant and lasting contribution to the
continued survival of apes and their habitats.
We have selected four projects as examples of the kind of work that will be supported by the EAZA
Ape Conservation Fund.
       FFI Cao Vit Gibbon Conservation Project – addressing threats to gibbon habitat in China
       Kinabatangan Orangutan Conservation Programme – working to ensure long-term survival
        of orangutans in Malaysian Borneo
       Awely Green Caps – addressing the hunting and trade of Bonobos in the Democratic
        Republic of Congo
       Dja Biosphere Reserve – addressing threats to chimpanzees and gorillas in Cameroon




FFI CAO VIT GIBBON CONSERVATION PROJECT


With less than 100 individuals left in the world, the cao-vit crested gibbon (Nomascus nasutus),
listed by the IUCN [2008] as Critically Endangered, is one of the most endangered primates in the
world and in dire need of conservation support. Alongside ecological research and direct protection
of the gibbon’s habitat, Fauna and Flora International (FFI) is helping local communities to develop
pig-manure biogas plants and fuel efficient stoves to reduce the demand for fuel wood, the
extraction of which poses a significant threat to the gibbon’s habitat along with livestock grazing.


What does the FFI Cao Vit Gibbon Conservation Project (FFI CVGCP) do?
FFI CVGCP has been working with local government forestry agencies and local communities in order
to reduce threats to the gibbon population and to provide some level of immediate protection in the
forest. In Vietnam, a preliminary protection zone was agreed upon by local authorities and
conservation agreements signed by local households. Community patrol groups have been
established in both Vietnam and China, supervised by local government forest protection agencies.
In Vietnam, biodiversity surveys, socio-economic surveys and stakeholder consultations led by FFI
CVGCP resulted in the establishment of the 1,600 ha Cao Vit Gibbon Conservation Area adjacent to
the Chinese border. In August 2009, formal approval was given expanding the area of forest
protected for the gibbon by another 6,500 ha.


What are the objectives of the FFI Cao Vit Gibbon Conservation Project?
 1. Protection of the gibbon population and its habitat;
 2. Support to local communities to reduce their dependency on forest resources and improve
    their livelihoods;
 3. Further understanding of gibbon ecology through scientific research;
 4. Raising awareness among stakeholders about the cao vit gibbon and the importance of its
    conservation;
 5. Rehabilitation of the habitat of the Cao Vit gibbon; and
 6. International transboundary cooperation for conservation.

How do FFI Cao Vit Gibbon Conservation Project’s goals align with the EAZA Ape Campaign aims?
The EAZA Ape Campaign addresses three main issues that are related to the decline of apes in the
wild:
  1. Habitat loss
  2. Hunting and illegal trade of apes
  3. Ape disease and health
FFI CVGCP’s goals tie in with the EAZA Ape Campaign aims as they address the issue of the
destruction and fragmentation of crucial gibbon habitat. The project aims to strengthen the
interventions with local communities which both reduce habitat degradation and support
livelihoods, to expand its detailed ecological monitoring efforts in China, and to further the
transboundary collaboration between Vietnam and China.




KINABATANGAN ORANGUTAN CONSERVATION PROGRAMME


The Malaysian state of Sabah, located in the northern part of Borneo, is home to 11,000 orangutans
(Pongo pygmaeus morio), making it one of the major strongholds for the conservation of the
species. However, orangutan numbers in Sabah have decreased dramatically over the past decades
because of habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation, primarily due to poor logging practices and
subsequent land conversion to agriculture. The Kinabatangan Orangutan Conservation Programme
(KOCP) addresses the severe threat of habitat loss to the survival of orangutans in the wild.


What does the Kinabatangan Orangutan Conservation Programme do?
KOCP promotes the importance of maintaining viable orangutan habitat through the sustainable
management of forests outside of protected areas. Therefore innovative environmental
management practices are necessary to be developed and to be linked with the local communities to
ensure the long-term survival of orangutans in Sabah.
The vision for this project embraces two different levels:
       Locally, KOCP aims at understanding how orangutans can survive in highly degraded forests
        and to further the re-establishment of the ecological integrity of the Lower Kinabatangan
        Wildlife Sanctuary (home to about 1,000 orang-utans).
       Regionally (State level), KOCP aims at designing and assisting relevant partners to implement
        land-use strategies that are respective of the ecological needs of orangutans and that are
        compatible with their long-term survival.


What are Kinabatangan Orangutan Conservation Programme’s objectives?


 1. To ensure the long-term survival of orangutans in Kinabatangan;
 2. To monitor trends over time of the major orangutan populations found in the state; and
 3. To develop policy documents that will promote orangutan survival in unprotected forests.

How do Kinabatangan Orangutan Conservation Programme’s goals align with the EAZA Ape
campaign aims?
The EAZA Ape Campaign addresses three main issues that are related to the decline of apes in the
wild:
             1. Habitat loss
             2. Hunting and illegal trade of apes
             3. Ape disease and health
Recent surveys by Hutan have established that 65% of the remaining orangutan populations are
currently found in unprotected areas – forests exploited for timber or plantations of acacias and oil
palms – which increases their vulnerability and the risk of further population loss. This new situation
results in several major issues: (1) increased conflicts between apes and human activities; (2) intense
population fragmentation and isolation jeopardizing a proper gene flow and resulting in local
extinction; (3) increased sensitivity to natural and man-made catastrophes. Embracing a wide
landscape conservation approach and addressing the fate of orangutan populations living in
unprotected areas are therefore a crucial need to ensure the long-term future of wild orangutans in
Borneo.


AWELY GREEN CAPS


In order to further the conservation efforts for the bonobo (Pan paniscus) in the Democratic
Republic of the Congo (DRC) Awely established its Green Caps programme. In the northeast of the
country bonobos face many threats such as hunting for bushmeat trade and the destruction of their
habitat.


What does Awely’s Green Caps programme do?
Awely set up the Green Caps programme in 2008 in the northeast of the DRC, in the province of
Equateur, south of the town Basankusu. It was established in partnership with Twycross Zoo and the
French clothing company Bonobo. The area includes 12,000 km2 of dense forest, Ikela and Lofale,
where bonobos live in a natural but unprotected habitat. As some of the world’s poorest people live
in the region bonobo meat is consumed by the local people as well as being sold on local bushmeat
markets and downriver in the provincial capital of Mbandaka.
The programme aims to reduce the dependency of local people on the bushmeat trade. The
participants of the programme originate from the remote villages of the project area and work
together with hunters, bushmeat sellers and local authorities. Through education and training
sessions they learn how to create alternative sources of income.


What are the objectives of Awely’s Green Caps programme?
 1. Survey of the bushmeat trade in the province of Equateur, DRC (ongoing);
 2. Establishing economic micro‐projects as alternatives to the bushmeat trade, alleviating
    pressure on the local biodiversity, including bonobos;
 3. Change attitudes towards bonobos and bushmeat hunting, through education and the
    “Bonobo Ambassador” scheme; and
 4. Set up a vet infrastructure for the livestock husbandry, thereby improving and enforcing
    livestock breeding and therefore decreasing dependency on bushmeat.

How do the programme’s goals align with the EAZA Ape Campaign aims?


The EAZA Ape Campaign addresses three main issues that are related to the decline of apes in the
wild:
  1. Habitat loss
  2. Hunting and illegal trade of apes
  3. Ape disease and health
Preserving the richness of biodiversity, and bonobos in particular, is the major objective of Awely’s
Green Caps programme. This objective can only be achieved with the continuous collaboration
between the local authorities and people whose essential survival depends on the forest’s natural
resources. In order to propose viable alternatives to bushmeat hunting, Awely is developing
economic micro-project schemes for this region of the DRC.
In particular the project aims to establish a veterinary infrastructure to help reduce the pressure on
bonobos through improving the health conditions of livestock. Currently vaccination is not or only
very rarely available, leading to discouraging losses of livestock.




DJA BIOSPHERE RESERVE


The Dja Biosphere Reserve contributes to the sustainable management of Cameroon‘s natural
resources and biodiversity, in particular great apes, for the benefit of the country‘s people, wildlife
and ecosystems. As the local people around the Dja Biosphere Reserve (DBR) live on an income of
less than $1/day illegal hunting of Critically Endangered western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla
gorilla) and Endangered chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes), amongst other species, is a
major problem in the region.


What does the Dja Biosphere Reserve project do?
This project is shaped by the need (identified by the local communities) to address the demand for
revenue-generating activities to replace unsustainable bushmeat hunting. The purpose of the
project is to advantage at least 35 communities north and east of the DBR and to ensure that their
livelihoods are compatible with a reduction of the impact of non-sustainable activities in the region,
in particular illegal hunting of apes.


What are the Dja Biosphere Reserve project’s objectives?
The main goals are to:
 1.   carry out scientific research;
 2.   implement participative sustainable hunting management and anti-poaching;
 3.   further local development and investigate alternative incomes;
 4.   carry out conservation education;
 5.   assess great ape conservation considerations in forest management; and to
 6.   support law enforcement and anti-corruption programmes.

How do the Dja Biosphere Reserve project’s goals align with the EAZA Ape Campaign?
The EAZA Ape Campaign addresses three main issues that are related to the decline of apes in the
wild:
 1. Habitat loss
 2. Hunting and illegal trade of apes
 3. Ape disease and health

The main issue in the Dja Biosphere Reserve is to prevent poaching and therefore it ties in with the
EAZA Ape Campaign aims. The key challenge areas in the region can be outlined as:


 1. the participation of forest dwellers around the northern and eastern areas of the DBR in
    programmes, initiatives and institutions that affect their lives is very limited;
 2. the understanding of ecological processes and inter-relationships between these and human
    actions is limited by lack of exposure to new ideas, alternative perspectives, scientific discovery
    and wider views on ecosystem protection; and
 3. unsustainable exploitation of wildlife resources is driven by a lack of perceived alternatives and
    there are indications that forest dwellers, realising the increasing scarcity of some species, are
    keen to explore those alternatives.

This project therefore addresses an issue that has constrained the impact of other mainstream
conservation projects, i.e., communicating effectively, understanding communities’ needs, concerns
and constraints sufficiently to develop practical, sustainable interventions.


JOINING THE CAMPAIGN


If you represent an EAZA member institution you can use the form on the campaign website to
register your institution as an official campaign participant. Participating institutions are expected to,
as a minimum, organise activities and displays that raise awareness of the campaign issues for your
visitors. We also hope all participants will aim to raise money for the EAZA Ape Conservation Fund by
taking “The 3333 Challenge”.
The EAZA Ape Campaign aims to raise €1 million to establish an EAZA Ape Conservation Fund,
enabling us to provide ongoing financial support to a range of projects. This is an ambitious target –
but if 300 institutions or individuals can each raise €3,333 then we will reach that target.
As usual with EAZA conservation campaigns, certificates will be awarded to institutions that reach
particular fundraising goals. Individual people or teams are also invited to take The 3333 Challenge,
and they too will qualify to receive certificates.
For the EAZA Ape Campaign the following awards will be made:
€3,333 – Bronze Award
€6,666 – Silver Award
€9,999 – Gold Award

It is important for the participants to have the full support and backing of the management of the
institution. For this reason, although the online form should be completed by the person who will be
main campaign contact for the zoo, we also require the submission, by fax or email, of a letter of
institutional support from the Director or CEO of the institution.
All participants will be given a password to access campaign materials via the campaign website.

								
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