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					                               Leonardo da Vinci program




       Geographic Information Systems and Agricultural Education in Europe




                               Trainer’s guide




    ENGREF – UMR 3S                                              Pierre BAZILE
 Maison de la Télédétection             december 2004           Marie DEMARCHI
F-34093 Montpellier cedex 05                                     Marie TERRIER
                                                                 Trainer’s guide


                                                                SOMMAIRE



1      Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 4

2      Analysis of GIS training requirements ............................................................................................. 6
    2.1     Approach and key personnel .................................................................................................. 6
    2.2     Context: the origin of the demand ........................................................................................... 7
       2.2.1 The historical context ......................................................................................................... 7
       2.2.2 The organisational context ................................................................................................. 7
       2.2.3 The GIS context ................................................................................................................. 8
    2.3     Specification of skill requirements........................................................................................... 8
       2.3.1 Defining the skills to be acquired ........................................................................................ 8
       2.3.2 Definition of the level of expertise to be acquired ............................................................... 9
    2.4     Target public ......................................................................................................................... 10
       2.4.1 Prior knowledge and prerequisites ................................................................................... 10
       2.4.2 Professions and functions ................................................................................................ 11
       2.4.3 Level of skills in the domain ............................................................................................. 11
       2.4.4 Mobility, availability, state of mind .................................................................................... 12
    2.5     Constraints (of the trainees and the training organisation) ................................................... 12
       2.5.1 Time constraints ............................................................................................................... 12
       2.5.2 Logistical constraints ........................................................................................................ 13
       2.5.3 Budgetary constraints....................................................................................................... 13
    2.6     Specifications of the training offer to be constructed: the „training‟ frame of reference ......... 14
    2.7     Survey of the students .......................................................................................................... 14

3      Construction of a GIS training offer ............................................................................................... 16
    3.1     Approach and key personnel ................................................................................................ 16
    3.2     Structuring the training offer ................................................................................................. 17
    3.3     Designing of sequences and activities .................................................................................. 18
       3.3.1 The objectives .................................................................................................................. 18
       3.3.2 The pedagogical activities ................................................................................................ 18
       3.3.3 The constraints ................................................................................................................. 19
       3.3.4 The selection of training modes........................................................................................ 19
       3.3.5 Requirements of tools and other supplies ........................................................................ 20
    3.4     Organising presential training programmes .......................................................................... 20
       3.4.1 Human resources ............................................................................................................. 20
       3.4.2 Equipment ........................................................................................................................ 21
       3.4.3 Documents – pedagogic material ..................................................................................... 22
    3.5     Organising distance training programmes ............................................................................ 23
       3.5.1 Human resources ............................................................................................................. 23
       3.5.2 Equipment ........................................................................................................................ 23
       3.5.3 Documents – pedagogical material .................................................................................. 23
    3.6     Choice of the training mode: face-to-face or distance........................................................... 24
       3.6.1 Comparison ...................................................................................................................... 24
       3.6.2 Mixed-mode training ......................................................................................................... 25
    3.7     Scheduling the training programme ...................................................................................... 26

4      Evaluating a GIS training offer....................................................................................................... 28

                                             Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 2 / 62
                                                                 Trainer’s guide
    4.1     Evaluation basics .................................................................................................................. 28
       4.1.1 Definition .......................................................................................................................... 28
       4.1.2 Evaluation: a necessary component of a quality-based approach.................................... 28
       4.1.3 Connection between objectives, pedagogical engineering approach, and the ability to
       evaluate a result ............................................................................................................................ 28
       4.1.4 Legitimacy of the evaluation ............................................................................................. 29
       4.1.5 How to proceed ? ............................................................................................................. 29
    4.2     Evaluation methods .............................................................................................................. 31
       4.2.1 Key personnel .................................................................................................................. 31
       4.2.2 Evaluation of acquired knowledge and know-how ............................................................ 31
       4.2.3 Evaluation of the offer by the concerned participants ....................................................... 32
       4.2.4 Evaluation during the training, at the end of the programme, and later ............................ 33

5      GISA2E pedagogical material ....................................................................................................... 34
    5.1     Access to and organisation of GISA2E resources ................................................................ 34
    5.2     Presentation of the tools ....................................................................................................... 34
       5.2.1 Mini-guides ....................................................................................................................... 34
       5.2.2 Booklets ........................................................................................................................... 35
       5.2.3 The presentations............................................................................................................. 35
       5.2.4 Bibliography ..................................................................................................................... 36
       5.2.5 Exercises, practical work and case studies ...................................................................... 36
    5.3     Assembly of pedagogical elements ...................................................................................... 37
       5.3.1 Table of pedagogical tools ............................................................................................... 37
       5.3.2 How to make a selection? ................................................................................................ 38
    5.4     Adaptation of tools ................................................................................................................ 39
       5.4.1 Changing the duration of activities ................................................................................... 39
       5.4.2 Contextualisation of tools ................................................................................................. 39
       5.4.3 Adaptation of the tools for desynchronised training modes .............................................. 40
    5.5     Creation of new tools ............................................................................................................ 41

APPENDICES




                                            Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 3 / 62
1 INTRODUCTION
This document‟s aim is to introduce the reader to the methodological approach necessary to design and
create a GIS training offer that best fits particular requirements. It is thus addressed to professionals in
the training and educational fields, more or less specialised in geographic information, and also to those
who, though having no particular knowledge of pedagogical engineering, have been entrusted with
designing and implementing a GIS training programme.

The GISA2E (Geographic Information Systems and Agricultural Education in Europe) project conducted
within the framework of the Leonardo da Vinci European programme has led to the development of an
open set of pedagogical resources designed, created and tested by the project partners (teaching
institutions, research and development institutions, software publishers, service providers).

This manual has been designed to complement these resources. It will guide the trainer in using and
adapting these resources to make new ones, as required, in a block-by-block assembly of pedagogical
elements deemed necessary for the proposed training.

The proposed method is based on an all-encompassing approach that permits the formalisation of
pedagogical practice and renders it more adaptative. In fact, the rapidly changing character of
knowledge and skills in the GIS domain is logically complemented by a complex interaction between the
advance of scientific know-how and the change in professional practices. The content matter to be
taught has to incorporate this duality. The proposed pedagogical engineering approach relies on two
major referent principles:

    -   The process of structuring the training offer is split up into four stages that precede the actual
        development of the proposed training programme: the analysis of skill requirements, the
        creation of the frame of training references, the structuring of the training course into different
        learning sequences of pedagogical mechanisms, and the creation of these mechanisms and
        other necessary pedagogical tools. This approach‟s success hinges, in large measure, on the
        frame of training references which will determine the training objectives in terms of knowledge
        and know-how.

    -   The search for a flexible approach that can suitably respond to the pedagogical objectives and
        to the constraints of the target public will be based on the choice of the „granularisation‟ of the
        training contents into elementary content units (ECUs). These granules, veritable core of the
        content matter, will allow, on the upstream side, to formalise a coherent structure of the skills
        aimed for, and, on the downstream side, to develop an open approach for the production of
        resources and the settlement of mechanisms.

Within this perspective, the use of educational technologies is seen as a way of developing new
learning situations (desynchronised mechanisms, pedagogical tools) that will most closely adapt to the
training objectives and the limitations of the trainees.

On this basis, it is therefore suggested to the trainer to structure and create his or her training offer by
going stage by stage through the chapters of this guide:

    -   The first phase (chapter 1) consists of analysing the training requirements using model
        questions and concludes with a definition of a granularised frame of references.

    -   The second stage (chapter 3) is when the training offer is actually put together: sequencing of
        pedagogical building blocks, development of sequences and the choice of logistic mechanisms
        for the training.

                               Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 4 / 62
-   The third stage (chapter 4) is devoted to the evaluation of the training offer.

-   In the last stage (chapter 5), we revisit the pedagogical material of the GISA2E project to
    describe in a practical manner how the trainer can appropriate and use its tools.




                           Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 5 / 62
2 ANALYSIS OF GIS TRAINING REQUIREMENTS
2.1 Approach and key personnel
The training requirement can be defined as being the „identification of a gap – which can be narrowed
by training – between the skills of an individual or a group at a given time and those he/she/they are
expected to have‟. (Source: AFNOR).

In the context of the creation of a training offer, we shall always start from a demand, whether it has
been explicitly put forward by a client, „co-constructed‟ with the requesting organisation or has even
emanated from the trainer himself who anticipates the public‟s requirements. In the first two cases, the
target public will more or less be already identified, whereas in the third, it will be less clearly so, though
an effort will be made to characterise it as accurately as possible.

To analyse the training requirements is therefore to enquire, in a systematic and structured manner,
about the skills to be acquired by the target public within a given context with the help, among other
means, of the proposed training.

The analysis of requirements can thus be said to revolve around four major points:

    -   Determination of the origin of the training request.

    -   Accurate identification of the skills to be imparted.

    -   Understanding the target public.

    -   Taking into account the constraints of the various participants.

These four points can be approached chronologically. But the analysis of requirements requires, above
all, a thorough collection of information. The project co-ordinator will often conduct this preliminary
research for each subject heading on the go, and will subsequently collate the information.

A standard survey form for needs analysis designed for the GISA2E project can be found in the
appendix (cf. appendix n° 2).

For the survey to be meaningful and significant, individuals who have relevant information and are liable
to participate in the analysis, i.e., the key personnel, have to be identified. The persons to be contacted
could be, for example:

    -   The client who expressed the demand.

    -   The financier of the training project.

    -   The trainees themselves – though they are harder to identify. We could pick people at random
        from the trainee group if such a group has already been selected or conduct an exhaustive
        survey at a given division or location, etc.

    -   Former trainees or students who have followed a similar training programme, possibly in a
        different professional or geographical context.

    -   The hierarchical superiors of the trainees.



                                Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 6 / 62
    -   The official of the Human Resource Development division of the organisation who is in charge
        of skills upgradation.

    -   Resource personnel, experts in the concerned field (knowledge of geomatics and its usefulness
        within the organisations that will benefit from the training).

    -   Etc.

2.2 Context: the origin of the demand
The first step in the analysis of GIS training requirements is to understand fully the origin of the demand
that has been expressed. Therefore, the trainer should gather information on a number of points that we
present here in the form of questions. As for all surveys, the trainer should endeavour to obtain well
thought-out, numbered and dated replies, supported by real examples.

2.2.1 The historical context
Does the demand require a medium term or long term approach or project? Or is it the case of a sudden
demand, resulting from a lack of skills not identified earlier?

Who is at the origin of the demand? Was the training decision a collective one?

Were there any earlier initiatives to conduct GIS training within the organisation? If yes, what were the
results? How did they relate to the set-up of Localised Information Systems in the organisation?

The historical context informs us of the antecedents of the training demand and of the client
organisation‟s experience in this regard. In studying these training experiences, we can retain and reuse
positive elements and build on earlier failures or shortcomings.

2.2.2 The organisational context

What is the size of the organisation? Does it have several units or centres? How are they geographically
distributed (foreign, overseas territories, national, etc.)? What is the general organisation chart? How do
the main hierarchical levels fit together?

How are skills normally transferred within the organisation? Have the beneficiaries of the training
already been identified? By who? What criterion was used for their selection?

At which hierarchical level did the training demand originate? Who was consulted? Was the recruitment
of participants voluntary?

This organisational context allows us to understand the profiles of the organisation‟s staff members, and
to discern major flows of information within the system: hierarchical links, transfers of data and skills,
communication protocols, etc. It is a block with which we shall start when we put together a plan for
training in the organisation. In addition, limitations specific to the organisation‟s structure can be
identified: geographical distribution of the participants, availability, etc.

Finally, specific reactions or behaviour vis-à-vis the training can be anticipated at the conclusion of this
survey and taken into account. In fact, training within the framework of one‟s professional activities
benefits the employee as well as his organisation. The training can be perceived in different ways: as a
privilege or reward accorded to the trainee by the management or, on the other hand, as a burden if the
training relates to a theme that is imposed on the employee and does not conform to his professional
career objectives. In general, a participative approach between the employee and his seniors
(immediate superior, Human Resource Department management) is preferred, one in which the training

                               Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 7 / 62
structure is not imposed but results from a discussion wherein each party can put forward proposals and
suggestions. Voluntary participation in the training can also be a solution. It ensures a higher level of
motivation in the trainees but the suitability of the volunteer‟s profile and the training theme will need to
be confirmed.

2.2.3 The GIS context

Is GIS used in the organisation? Does a GIS culture exist in the organisation? What type of spatialised
data is handled by the organisation?

If yes, does it form a major part of the organisation‟s professional activities, or is it marginal, limited to a
few people?

What are the current and future GIS activities? In the short and medium term?

Is geographical information part of the strategic planning of the organisation? Or is it in the process of
becoming so?

Which members of staff are involved in the use of geographical information? Within their professional
activities, are they suppliers or consumers of this information? To which division or department do they
belong? What is their hierarchical status?

If the geographical-information culture is almost non-existent, why was GIS training proposed? Does the
initiative come from an entity that is external to the organisation, or does it come from one that is it
internal? What led to the decision that GIS skills are necessary (regulatory reasons, national directive,
the fashionable thing to do, etc.)?

This analysis of the GIS context allows us to understand the place geographical information occupies in
the major activities of the organisation, and to understand the issues involved in the acquisition of skills
in this domain.

It allows us to contextualise the knowledge and skills necessary, both at the level of the training
programme‟s contents and the conditions under which they will be acquired. It also helps establish
objective criteria for the selection of prospective trainees. As an additional benefit, we are able to
prevent possible reactions of reluctance on the part of the trainees or others in the organisation.


2.3 Specification of skill requirements
2.3.1 Defining the skills to be acquired
The range of skills called upon in the GIS domain is vast. Depending on the context, the type of an
organisation‟s activities, and the role assigned to persons involved in the GIS field, these skills can be
more, or less, technical or managerial, generalised or specialised. In addition, the same basic skill can
be necessary for several different profiles. For example, „proficiency in standard GIS functions‟ can
apply to a GIS project leader, a technical cartographer and a specialist thematic user of professional
GIS applications.

To be able to list these skills, it is necessary, once again, to use surveys and open-ended questions with
the key personnel identified earlier. This list of skills should be developed and validated in consultation
with them. Whenever possible, one should interact with several key persons to obtain different points of
view and thus avoid lacunae and eliminate redundancies while fact gathering.



                                 Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 8 / 62
These basic skills are then organised and regrouped by thematic head. In fact, such a structuring of the
skill requirements into coherent groups is an essential aspect of the approach; it is beneficial both to the
trainer as well as to the training „requester‟ – who will thus be able to fine-tune his perception of the
training requirements. The trainer will have later to translate the required skills into pedagogical content,
then into training sequences.

Towards this end, the GISA2E project has created an „open frame of reference‟ of skills which allows
them to be classified into different domains and categories. Four major skill domains have been used:

Strategy and conduct of a GIS project, Managing GIS applications and data, Use of GIS tools, Related
technologies

These themes have then been gatehred in 3 parts structuring the pedagogical contents and the
approach for designing training offers :

    -   Strategy and conduct of a GIS project

    -   GIS cocnepts and methods

    -   Related technologies

Each of these skill domains is further broken up into clearly defined sub-categories or modules (cf.
appendix n°.3 ).

2.3.2 Definition of the level of expertise to be acquired

Each identified skill can be taught at different expertise levels depending on whether the trainee
requires immediate and quick information, an overall „general knowledge‟, basic proficiency, or in-depth
knowledge and know-how. Depending on the expertise level to be attained, the trainer will present the
subject in depth or more superficially; he will plan a more, or less, intensive introduction to and practice
with specific tools; and the use, or not, of certain specific software features.

We therefore proceed to the definition of the expertise level required for the skills. To save time and
effort, the trainer can rely on the open design created under the GISA2E project which suggests, as a
first step, to differentiate three broad „generic‟ expertise levels that help separate clearly the training
objectives. The trainer is free to adapt the number or boundaries of these categories depending on his
particular requirements. The three „generic‟ levels are:

    -   Beginner: This is, above all, an awareness-raising level. It is meant for persons who have had
        no contact with GIS and know little, if any, of its concepts or for persons needing some
        superficial knowledge of the subject to better understand the work of their colleagues and to
        communicate with them. It can also make the trainees conscious of the strategic issues that
        relate to the GIS domain and even open new perspectives of utilisation.

    -   Initiation: This is an intermediate level of GIS practice. It is targeted at persons needing to use
        GIS tools and concepts but whose core profession is not in the GIS domain. The trainees
        should be able to acquire a certain independence in the use of these skills and be capable of
        advancing their knowledge at a later stage, either by practice or by further training.

    -   In-depth: This is a level for specialist and expert skills. At this level, theoretical and practical
        skills to be taught are at the core of the trainee‟s profession.

On this degree of expertise will depend:


                                Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 9 / 62
    -   The number of hours necessary for the acquisition of the concerned skill, which in turn will
        directly affect the size of the overall training.

    -   The relative importance to attribute to this particular skill within the overall pedagogical
        objectives.

    -   The pedagogical path (tools and situations) chosen by the trainer in his training offer.

2.4 Target public
The target public has to be characterised before creating the training offer. In this regard, one of three
situations can apply:

    -   An initial list of candidates for the training has already been drawn up, either by the designation
        of concerned personnel, within the framework of a customised training plan, or by the voluntary
        registration of the prospective trainees themselves.

    -   No list has been drawn up; we will rely on the analysis of the organisational context to define
        the target public.

    -   The training is offered as a catalogue item without prior knowledge of candidates or their
        organisational affiliations. In such a case, the trainer relies on his knowledge of the professional
        environment to judge the standard requirements of the prospective target population.

2.4.1 Prior knowledge and prerequisites

Information on the trainees‟ educational/vocational qualifications (primary, secondary, tertiary),
professional degrees and diplomas, and fields of study (information technology, biology, statistics,
geography, management, etc.) has to be collected. Information on other training programmes
undergone by the trainees is also important for positioning their „level‟ but this information is often hard
to obtain in advance.

GIS is a technical field in which mathematics, logic, and information technology all play a major part.
One of the characteristics of GIS is that its practice lends itself to a wide range of profiles, to
geographers with literary sensibilities and backgrounds as well as to specialists with more scientific
orientations.

Thus it is often useful to update everyone, i.e., bring everyone up to the same level, before the training
begins. This allows all the participants to understand the vocabulary and concepts before acquiring a
skill. This „bringing up to speed‟ has the effect of improving the capacity of the students to understand
the course and new concepts. They are not left floundering from the beginning of the modules, nor do
they lose patience, attention and self-confidence during the training. But updating does increase the
organisational complexity of the training. Those with need have to be identified, as has the amount of
time necessary to conduct the updating programme. Moreover, different members of the group may
require different amounts of updating and will thus no longer follow the same „path‟ and will have to be
managed separately.

It is therefore important to get a good idea of the trainees‟ prior knowledge, both from a general point of
view and from the specific perspective of the skills to be imparted:

    -   The general level of prior training, whether acquired during initial or continuing education, will
        hint at the overall capacity of the individual to follow more theoretical types of courses and at
        the ability to grasp certain abstract concepts.


                               Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 10 / 62
    -   Practical training undergone earlier or skills acquired during the course of professional activities
        will allow the student to be more comfortable during the teaching of concepts and skills that
        form part of the training.

2.4.2 Professions and functions

The concept of profession or occupation is one that applies to an individual within the organisation, to a
group of individuals working in concert towards a common goal or to a whole organisation offering a
certain type of service to its clients. This „profession‟ can be broken up into basic functions that fit
together in a structured manner in the organisation of tasks.

One needs to understand the relative weightage of functions and tasks entrusted to an entity within its
overall activity to be able to place the skill requirements in the proper context.

In the absence of this detailed information for each trainee, the trainer will have to investigate the
enterprise‟s profession or the service it offers in a more general way.

The functions describe the daily tasks of the individuals.

For example, a GIS officer of a Natural Park could on average divide his time thus:

    -   20% in acquiring field data

    -   30% in managing data

    -   30% in thematic studies

    -   10% in making maps for other departments

    -   10% in administrative and leadership activities

However, if his team is large, he will probably not have to acquire field data himself. In this case, he will
have less interest in mastering the use of field tools (learning to use a GPS or a mobile GIS).

It is therefore important to list a trainee‟s functions. It will help us understand what new skills would be
suitable and thus allow us to fine-tune the skill requirements.

2.4.3 Level of skills in the domain

The trainee candidates could already have some GIS skills. The trainer should endeavour to
characterise this level by speaking to them or by going through their CVs. Key persons who could also
help him are the Director of Human Resources and departmental heads.

Several indicators on the skill level have to be quantified:

    -   The number of years of experience in the current (or similar) post

    -   The number of years of GIS usage

    -   The percentage of Full-Time Equivalent in the practice of GIS

    -   List of basic skills used

These indicators have to be reconciled with the list of basic skills that has already been drawn up and
with the defined expertise levels (beginner, initiation, expert, etc.).

                               Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 11 / 62
2.4.4 Mobility, availability, state of mind

Under this head, the trainer has to analyse the reaction of individuals who are going to undergo training
in general and GIS training in particular. Depending on the profile of the trainees, the proposed training
could present difficulties on several different professional or private fronts, which we list in the following
section.

These practical difficulties apart, other factors strongly influence the state of mind with which the trainee
will approach the training programme:

    -   Whether he was consulted before the decision for the training was taken.

    -   The way he integrates into the organisation (assuming of responsibility, status, recognition,
        confidence in his hierarchical superiors‟ decisions, etc.).

    -   Consistency between the training and his career plan and personal goals.

    -   The relationship between his immediate skill requirements and the scheduled date of the
        training.

    -   His workload at the time the decision for the training was taken and also at the scheduled time
        of the training.

    -   His assessment of training undergone in the past, the pleasure he derives from learning, his
        attitude towards pedagogical systems and teaching in general.

    -   Etc.

2.5 Constraints (of the trainees and the training organisation)
2.5.1 Time constraints

The problem of the trainees‟ availability is, without doubt, the greatest constraint in the implementation
of a training programme. So the time constraint has to be clearly identified for each trainee. The training
organisation is also subject to time constraints but to a lesser degree.

Some persons cannot absent themselves from their workplaces for several days; they are difficult to
replace because of their decision-making responsibilities within the organisation, of their particular
expertise, or because the distribution of tasks within the organisation is inflexible. To this can be added
private limitations when the training requires the trainee to leave his hometown, leading to disruption in
family or social life. It is important to apprehend these constraints, rarely mentioned explicitly, because
they often lead to reluctance that seems to be unrelated to the training itself.

Whatever be their nature, these constraints are rarely absolute and can be discussed with the persons
concerned. In fact, even though absence for training purposes often complicates the work of a
departmental head, it really is quite a normal occurrence in enterprises, similar to other types of official
absences or to leaves.

Nevertheless, when a trainee‟s absence will truly cause difficulty, the trainer can call on his
inventiveness and flexibility to come up with alternative suggestions. Depending on the particular
constraints of the trainees, he can take recourse to „distance‟ solutions such as the spreading out of the
training over time (one day a week for two months rather than daily for two continuous weeks) or even
over the day (e.g., evening classes). The distance can be geographical (the training is spread over
several sites) or temporal (the training is not conducted in real time).

                               Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 12 / 62
2.5.2 Logistical constraints

The training offer requires the setting up of the logistics necessary:

    -   for access to pedagogical contents,

    -   and for bringing together the trainees and the teachers.

In a traditional pedagogical environment (classroom learning), interaction between students and
teachers takes place during a physical meeting of the different participants at the same time at a
specified location. In such a situation, difficulties can arise in the selection of a location suitably
equipped for training and in the transport of the students and teachers to the location, especially if it is
not easily accessible. Information has to be collected about the shortlisted locations‟ accessibility: road
access, airline and train timetables, etc.

This interaction can also take place at a distance by videoconference, telephone, e-mail, Internet, etc.
Even as these tools become more and more widespread in the workplace, certain limitations remain:

    -   Computer systems that are not powerful enough (network bandwidth, Internet access, PC
        specifications: sound card, video card, screen size, etc.)

    -   Problems of computer security.

    -   Ease of access to telephones (availability in the office, sharing between several users)

    -   Relative rarity of videoconferencing facilities

Conditions of access to pedagogical resources have to be evaluated from the very start, even if the final
contents are not known or put together. We will draw up a list of hardware or infrastructure potentially
necessary for using the proposed pedagogical contents. For example, for training on the use of GIS
tools, sequences of practical work will be necessary. In such a case, it will be hard to do without
appropriate computer equipment as well as relevant software packages. Projection hardware for course
material is also often required and should be planned for.

Other pedagogical modalities such as field trips or visits to industrial locations can also lead to various
logistical challenges: regulatory permissions, physical condition or handicaps of the trainees, transport
of the group by bus, arranging for food, etc.

2.5.3 Budgetary constraints

Budgetary constraints should preferably be deferred to a later stage.

Of course, the approach will be iterative and cost aspects will also underlie the other constraints but it is
undesirable to eliminate pedagogical options on budgetary considerations alone. We would risk limiting
our search for solutions and may end up with choices that will inadequately satisfy requirements.

The proper approach therefore consists of putting together a training offer that is most suitable for the
requirements, to estimate its cost, and only then to try to reconcile it with the sponsor‟s budget,
recasting the project, if necessary, by considering only what is realistically feasible.

Accordingly it will be useful to know the financial manoeuvring space of the sponsor and his financial
backers, the budgetary allocation for training in previous years, and the aid that the organisation can
muster for one-time training programmes (social corporate plans, major change in strategy, new State
directive, new skills for the territorial community, etc.).

                               Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 13 / 62
2.6 Specifications of the training offer to be constructed: the ‘training’ frame of
    reference
At this stage of the analysis, a summary document, called the „training frame of reference‟, will
enunciate the general specifications of the proposed training and will serve as the basis of the detailed
construction of the offer itself.

This document translates the training objectives into unambiguous pedagogical content using:

    -   skills to be acquired within the organisation,

    -   and characteristics of the target public,

    -   by taking into account practical, financial and pedagogical constraints.

This „training frame of reference‟ should be „granularised‟ into pedagogical elementary content units
(ECUs). These granules should be:

    -   structured, from the point of view of the targeted skills,

    -   calibrated as a function of the desired expertise level,

    -   with managerial constraints (material and pedagogical) of the training organisation taken into
        account.

A standard sheet form for the granule description designed for the project can be found in the appendix
(cf. appendix no.4). Numerous examples of granule descriptions can be found in the pedagogical tools
produced for GISA2E.

Each granule, carrier of a clear objective of the acquisition of knowledge and know-how, will then be
implemented using pedagogical sequences assembled into the final training offer (cf. next chapter).

The design of the frame of reference should be validated by the entity that requested the training. This
validation can be a process that is more, or less, interactive and iterative, but is more often a formal act
at this final stage. This approach will represent a true co-construction of the training offer.

2.7 Survey of the students
It is important that the future trainees participate in the design of the training frame of reference. This
keeps them informed, often helps the trainer improve the training contents and, above all, involves
them, whenever possible, in „their‟ training project.

In some cases the list of trainees hasn‟t been finalised at this stage. But even in such cases, the precise
criteria for the trainee group are now established. If these criteria require input from the organisation‟s
employees (case of voluntary inscription, for example), the survey can be an opportunity of doing so. It
must be mentioned, however, that the later the trainees are identified during the construction of the
training offer, the smaller will be the opportunity to customise the offer‟s contents to each participant‟s
specific requirements and constraints.

The survey of the future trainees will consist of several items:

    -   An introductory section presenting the general goals of the training plan as well as the skills to
        be acquired.


                               Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 14 / 62
    -   A section for the verification of the trainee‟s individual information: confirmation of his current
        skills, of his level, of his requirement of new skills, of his organisational constraints.

    -   A section for open-ended questions which will allow the trainee to convey his expectations vis à
        vis the training, to fine-tune the requirements, and to possibly suggest improvements in terms of
        the contents.

Once all this is done, the trainer has the information necessary to put together, block by block, the
training offer. training offer.




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3 CONSTRUCTION OF A GIS TRAINING OFFER
3.1 Approach and key personnel

The construction phase consists of defining in detail the offer‟s implementation.

As listed in the frame of reference, there are a number of content granules that have to be imparted to
the trainees. For each of these items or „granules‟, the trainer will enlist the means required to
implement an optimum pedagogical sequence.

Each sequence will be made up of a set of training activities arranged into a clearly defined pedagogical
objective: to impart to the students the contents of the corresponding granule, the specified knowledge
and know-how.

To implement these activities, the trainer will rely on:

    -   Various pedagogical situations: lecture courses, individual or group work, various
        desynchronised mechanisms, interaction with actual users, visits, field trips, etc. These
        situations will be designed taking into account the constraints of the trainees and of the training
        organisation (cf. chapter 2).

    -   Various pedagogical tools adapted to these situations: written documents, presentations,
        exercises, practical work, case studies, quizzes, case histories, etc.

The trainer will assemble these items by activity and by sequence:

    -   by drawing on existing resources,

    -   by adapting existing tools,

    -   and by creating new ones.

Key personnel to be consulted during this phase are more likely to be geomatics professionals and
those who teach it rather than from the organisation whose employees will be trained:

    -   Teachers of geomatics (universities, technical institutes): They have an institutional
        background, have a working knowledge of pedagogical contents, and are in touch with research
        in the field and the latest developments.

    -   Experts: Specialists or researchers who are experts in a field or technology connected to GIS,
        they are used to presenting their knowledge and findings before an audience (conferences,
        courses). Their participation will be specially important for training at the „expert‟ level.

    -   Geomatics professionals, if possible thematic experts in the same domain as that of the target
        organisation (GIS department of agricultural co-operatives, natural parks, communities, service
        providers): they can present their professional use of GIS, similar in nature to the trainees‟
        future GIS activities.

    -   Heads of training centres specialising in geomatics situated in the same area as the target
        organisation, in the country, even abroad: Continuing-training professionals, they have the
        pedagogical resources and tools, teachers, and infrastructure (material, halls) for the intake of
        the trainees. They also have experience in pedagogical engineering in the GIS domain.
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    -   Director of HRD or the training sponsor: They are internal to the organisation or to the training
        project and remain, in this phase, a link between the trainer and trainee group.

3.2 Structuring the training offer
The structuration approach can be summed up by the diagram below :




                           Figure 1 : Flowchart of the construction of a training offer




As said before, the trainer has to structure the set of adopted activities; he (she) will thus organise them,
taking into account logical transitions and regrouping of activities, following the tree-diagram below:




                               Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 17 / 62
     Training path

                           Modules

                                                  Sequences

                                                                          Activities




                                Table 1 : structuration model of training offers

3.3 Designing of sequences and activities
3.3.1 The objectives
The trainer should be able to identify the learning goals associated with the acquisition of a basic skill,
i.e., what the student should know and be able to do in order to be declared competent in a given skill,
always keeping the expertise level to be reached in mind. For example, a student called upon to
conduct GIS studies should acquire, among others, the basic skill of „selecting and acquiring geographic
data‟ (ECU or sequence). This skill involves the following goals:

    -   Teaching the student what type of data is useful for a particular study

    -   Showing him the main sources of geographic data

    -   Making him aware of the data-quality issues

    -   Making him think about the data quality/cost relationship

    -   Introducing the legal and formal aspects of data acquisition

3.3.2 The pedagogical activities

Teaching methods have to be implemented for the listed objectives. They correspond to activities during
which the student will learn or understand a concept, practice using a tool, enlarge his horizon on
subjects he may already know.

During such an activity, one must ensure that the student puts in an effort leading to his acquisition of
one or more skills. Accordingly, the trainer will endeavour to vary the type of activity based on the
objective and to avoid monotony: listening, physical effort, talking, discussions, thinking, usage of tools,
etc.

A large number of activities can be envisaged:

    -   Lecture classes

    -   Sessions of practical work with GIS software

    -   Site visits

    -   Conferences involving specialists

                               Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 18 / 62
    -   Meetings with professionals in a question-answer format

    -   Exercises conducted in small groups: case studies, role playing

    -   Ground surveys

    -   Watching films, reading books, journals, documents

    -   Exercises to do alone (homework, mini-projects)

    -   Quizzes

    -   Student presentations

    -   Etc.

To help the trainer create and assemble these activities and pedagogical aids, the GISA2E project
offers a coherent set of elementary „building blocks‟ (training granules, basic pedagogical tools, etc.)
that are context-independent. These elements have been tested and proven in actual pedagogical
situations and are open to adaptation and enlargement should a specific training project require it. A
complete presentation of the GISA2E resources is included in chapter 5.

3.3.3 The constraints

The selection of learning activities has to take in account several different types of constraints:

    -   Temporal: Availability of personnel involved in the activity (teachers, professionals for visits, co-
        ordinators), training limited by time, calendar of external events (season for field surveys,
        professional conferences, other training projects, etc.), duration of the activity itself, etc.

    -   Logistical: Available installations, suitable rooms (size, acoustics, layout, capacity), projection
        hardware, computer hardware, transport, reception of trainees (meals, possibly lodging).

    -   Budgetary: teachers‟ and co-ordinators‟ participation fees, rental of rooms and of transport, cost
        for supports designing, external services.

It is also important to consider the constraints of the trainees themselves: the traditional mode of training
brings together the trainees and their trainers for a limited duration at the same location (together in
space and time) but is often unsuitable for the following two reasons:

    -   The impossibility of ensuring, for a given group, this synchronisation in time or in space, either
        because some or all of the trainees cannot travel or are not available at the same time for
        attending the training programme.

    -   The need, in the case of a heterogeneous group, of customising each trainee‟s pedagogical
        situation. This heterogeneity can arise from differences in prior knowledge, from constraints
        during the training period, and from differences in learning speed and ability.

In either case, the desynchronisation of one or several pedagogical activities can provide a solution that
adapts the training programme to the trainees‟ constraints.

3.3.4 The selection of training modes
The selection of training modes will depend on the constraints discussed above and the pedagogical
situations that the trainer can or should employ in response to them.

                               Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 19 / 62
These pedagogical situations will have to be adapted to the need for desynchronising and customising
the learning activity.

This adaptation can be made at the level of the activity or of the pedagogical sequence within the
framework of „open‟ training courses that mix presential arrangements and desynchronised situations
(distance training).

The modes selected will be decide the training programme‟s configuration and organisation. Sections
3.4, 3.5 and 3.6 are devoted to the study of these solutions.

3.3.5 Requirements of tools and other supplies
Finally, when the training mode has been selected and the pedagogical activities finalised, a list of tools
and supporting material should be drawn up so that they can be made ready (acquired, checked,
adapted, even produced) in good time.

These items can be of several types:

    -   Documents (paper maps, plans, photocopied articles, bibliography, etc.)

    -   Presentations (PPT)

    -   Worksheets for practical work

    -   Case studies (including the presentation of the case, and co-ordinated worksheets for practical
        work)

    -   Feedback from experience

    -   Trainer‟s guide

    -   Accessories: GPS, PocketPC, cameras, stereoscopes, field spectroradiometer, etc.

    -   Consumable supplies: Carry cases, files and file holders, pens, transparencies, note pads,
        water bottles, anaglyph spectacles, etc.

    -   Computer hardware: PC, printers, scanners, CD or DVD, etc.

These requirements of tools and material depend in large measure on the selected training mode and
are covered in detail in the following sections.

3.4 Organising presential training programmes
3.4.1 Human resources
a) Principal co-ordinator of the training programme:

The principal co-ordinator‟s has to be the session‟s driving force and the focal point as far as the
students are concerned:

            -   He is responsible for introducing the general training programme, its goals, the
                pedagogical approach, the tools and data sets used.

            -   At the start of each sequence, he places its contents within the context of the overall
                programme by recalling the material already covered.

                               Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 20 / 62
            -    He also leads any discussions (initial roundtable, final discussion, evaluation, etc.).

            -    He introduces each new contributor.

            -    If he is going to call on external lecturers or trainers, he should preferably contact them
                 in advance to specify the contents of their course material, to draw up the list of
                 documents expected form them, and to inform them of the available equipment.

            -    He installs or checks the installation of the data sets on the computers that the students
                 will use for practical work and he tests their use.

            -    He confirms that the students have all necessary documents in good time.

b) The contributors (classroom):

Their number will depend on the training, the location, the organisational structure, etc.

One general rule for the principal co-ordinator to follow is to ensure a high degree of co-ordination
between the different contributors to avoid repetitions and lacunae (cf. above).

The contributor can „punctuate‟ his lecture with short breaks which improve the interaction with trainees.
He‟s asked to indicate those moments in the slides of his over-head presentation. Those breaks could
be illustrations or group discussions. The teacher will be watchful in controlling time needed for those
activities, that won‟t exceed a few minutes in general.

Concerning the lecture, the contributor will try to keep a clear diction and to adapt the volume of his
voice with the size of both the classroom and the attendance.

c) Lab instructors for the practical work:

One lab instructor has to be provided for every three or four computers. Every instructor has to be
familiar with the GIS software (and any extensions and plug-ins), the data sets and the case studies that
will be used for the practical-work exercises.

It is important to maintain good co-ordination between the practical-work instructors and the teacher
who conducted the theory course that relates to the practical work. The ideal situation would be for the
theory teacher to oversee and guide the practical work.

3.4.2 Equipment
Here are the recommendations for an optimal configuration of equipment:

a) For the trainer:

            -    A Pentium 4 (or equivalent) PC with 512 MB of RAM, CD-ROM drive, 32-MB graphics
                 card, monitor size 17" minimum

            -    GIS software (and any necessary extensions and plug-ins)

            -    PowerPoint software

            -    A video projector

            -    Connectivity: Internet, networking with student PCs


                               Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 21 / 62
b) For the students:

            -   One PC for two students of type Pentium 4 (or equivalent) with 512 MB of RAM, CD-
                ROM drive, 32-MB graphics card, monitor size 17" minimum

            -   GIS software (and any necessary extensions and plug-ins)

c) The room:

The ideal would be to have two separate rooms close together: a classroom and a practical-work room.

Ensure that the room used for video projections can be darkened using drapes or curtains if the outside
lighting is strong.

In the practical-work room, avoid positioning the computer monitors facing the windows; image
processing work requires high display quality and visual concentration.

Both rooms should be equipped with a blackboard or whiteboard and a projection screen for
presentations, slide shows or demonstrations.

If Internet demonstrations are planned, ensure the availability and proper functioning of a connection in
the room.

3.4.3 Documents – pedagogic material

Different types of supporting documents can be provided to the students:

            -   The detailed schedule

            -   The list of participants and their contact details

            -   The list of interveners and their contact details

            -   The training-feedback form (to be filled in at the end of the session)

            -   Course notes

            -   Copies of presentations (2 slides per page is a good volume/legibility compromise),
                sometimes neglected but often asked by students, who can take notes on, thanks to
                oral explanations of the speaker

            -   Practical-work worksheets

            -   Supplementary documents (web sites, addresses of companies and organisations,
                bibliography, etc.)

These documents can be provided already arranged in a file folder; the students can then easily access
any particular document during the training or even subsequently. Providing all or some of these
documents to the students in digital format (CD-ROM, for example) at the end of the session can also
be considered.




                               Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 22 / 62
3.5 Organising distance training programmes
3.5.1 Human resources

Note: To assume that distance training is synonymous with significant savings in human resources is to
subscribe to a common misconception.

In fact, this mode of training requires the mobilisation of human resources, not only upstream of the
training programme (skills in managing a web site, in the design and creation of multimedia content) but
also during it when interaction with the students and the monitoring of their progress is required.

Accordingly, this training mode requires teachers who can correct the students‟ work, advise them and
answer their questions in real time or by the use of e-mail and forums. Their presence is also required
during sequences of distance training that use videoconferencing.

We can safely state that, even if the upstream activities can be compressed in time, at least partially,
the coaching activities during the training programme will be strictly in proportion to its duration and to
the intensity of the pedagogical monitoring of the students‟ progress.

3.5.2 Equipment
It is necessary for all students to have an Internet connection (broadband recommended) as well as all
necessary software. The software‟s cost can be a source of some worry if the department of the
organisation where the students are physically located does not already possess GIS licences. For
some skills at the beginner level, it is possible to use free viewer software as a satisfactory solution.
Using these utilities (obtainable by downloading, for example), it is possible to view, but not change,
geographical data. The use of full GIS software that is free should also be explored as a solution.

A server (and possibly access to a training platform) will be required to make the pedagogical material
available to students and teachers. The training platforms incorporate a wide range of services for the
use of trainers and students (resource libraries, forums, e-mail, calendar of activities, etc.).

3.5.3 Documents – pedagogical material
Compared to that used in presential training, the pedagogical material available for distance learning
should be both more accessible (even maybe lighter in tone) and more comprehensive. A face-to-face
presentation is subtly complemented by the presenter‟s demeanour (facial expressions, live interaction
with the audience). At a distance, the student is alone in front of a computer screen or his paper
documents; they have to provide him with the maximum amount of information, all the while remaining
easy to read and attractive.

On the other hand, some types of pedagogical content lend themselves better to solitary distance
learning by exploiting the computer‟s multimedia features (sound, flash animation, video clips, fill-out
forms, interactivity provided by keyboard and mouse).

But these types of pedagogical products, even if they are becoming common for popular disciplines
(such as the teaching of languages, for example), remain rare in the GIS world. The human resources
necessary for their creation and development remain to be mobilised from the GIS teaching community.




                               Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 23 / 62
3.6 Choice of the training mode: face-to-face or distance
3.6.1 Comparison

We can draw up a comparative list of some items that emphasize the advantages and drawbacks of
each of the two modes of training:

a) – Distance training

      The drawbacks:

           -   Those persons reluctant to adopt the new Information and Communications
               Technologies (ICTs) take with difficulty to this mode of learning.

           -   Technical problems, when they arise, are more difficult to handle since they have to be
               diagnosed and solved over a distance. Moreover, troubleshooting needs to be rapid for
               the trainee not to lose confidence in the system.

           -   There is a lack or loss of interaction (at least, immediate interaction) with the trainers.

           -   The development of attractive content requires significant investments.

      The advantages:

           -   The student can flexibly allocate time for the training; his temporal constraints are
               overcome. Of course, this works only when the level of personal motivation is high.

           -   The student can use quizzes, particularly suitable for the web, for self-assessment.

           -   The training can be spread out over time in a manner that is most convenient for the
               student – in contrast to a short, intensive training programme.

           -   Distance training motivates the trainee to explore on-line resources whenever
               necessary.

           -   The system allows subjective prejudices linked to personalities to be overcome.

Note: Remember not to harbour misconceptions (‘distance’ is not necessarily synonymous with lowered
         costs, nor with reduced interaction between trainers and trainees).

b) Presential training

      The drawbacks:

           -   A physical presence is necessary implying organising and paying for travel, absences
               at the workplace.

           -   Verbal presentations are less easily „controlled‟ than those on digital media.

      The advantages:

           -   The level of concentration is higher.

           -   There is total immersion into the subject.


                             Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 24 / 62
            -   The trainees can ask questions; no concept needs to remain un-understood.

3.6.2 Mixed-mode training

Mixed-mode training combines face-to-face situations with those that are desynchronised in a sequence
that is more, or less, complex depending on the trainees‟ and trainer‟s constraints.

In fact, between a „classic‟ face-to-face training programme and one that is completely „at a distance‟
there exist a continuum of solutions that can be broken up thus:

            -   Enhanced Presential: This mode conserves the training programme‟s overall unity of
                space and time but simply introduces a desynchronised working time for the students
                within the training centre (remote intervention of trainers or professionals, individual or
                group work outside of fixed schedules).

            -   Advanced or Light Presential: For example, conducting pre-training distance
                programmes (updating the trainees and acquisition of differentiated pre-requisites) or
                post-training distance programmes (follow-up on the students after the main training
                programme, supporting continued skill-acquisition activities).

            -   Reduced or Quasi Non-Existent Presential: The main training programme is conducted
                at a distance and face-to-face sequences are reserved for either initial orientation
                sessions or for activities that require the trainees‟ physical presence (trips, meeting with
                an external speaker or professional, etc.).

These mixed-mode solutions allow the trainer to draw the best features from each of the two types of
training and to limit the negative effects or costs of one or the other.




         Figure 2 : Mixed training modes with presential activities (yellow) and distance activities (blue)
                                               Source : Competice


Varied experience feedback and assessments show that in a reduced presential mode, a face-to-face
sequence at the beginning of the set is largely valuable and appreciated by trainees in order to :
           - ensure that they assimilate GIS theoritical basic knowledge before doing activities at a
                higher level, and feel free to ask any questions in real time


                                Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 25 / 62
            -   understand the philosophy and game rules of open sets, the platform instructions and
                get an overview of the whole training path
            -   have a direct contact with persons (trainers), he(she) will have contacts with during the
                distant sequences by mail and thus to reduce the „impersonal side‟ of this training
                mode.

3.7 Scheduling the training programme
Once the sequence of activities have been designed and assembled, they have to be incorporated into
a detailed training schedule. And once again, the trainees‟ and interveners‟ temporal constraints will
have to be taken into consideration.

Each activity that is part of the training programme has a particular duration. We can thus add up all the
activities‟ durations to arrive at the training programme‟s overall length.

This overall duration inserted into the schedule will allow us to divide the sequences over hours, days
and weeks.

Adjustments may have to be made to the activities to respect discrete time units. For example, if the
total duration of a programme is 11 half-days, we could try to reduce some activities to bring the total
down to 10 half-days, thus fitting the programme into a full week.

However, no changes should be made to the order of activity sequences. The order has to respect a
logical progression in the activities of and learning by the students, a progression that is defined by the
sequence of the educational content granules to be taught.

Finally, for deciding the exact dates of the programme, the trainer will have to find a compromise
between the preferences of the sponsor, the already identified constraints of the trainees and the
availability of tools and interveners. The trainer will discuss these modalities with all participants.

The exact dates should not be fixed too early in the process (the analysis of constraints will risk
remaining incomplete), nor too late (the participants and specially the interveners may lack the time to
prepare for the training session).

Once the dates are fixed with some certainty, the trainer will start marshalling the logistical resources
required for the training programme. He will concentrate on resolving the most intractable problems first;
these will depend on the training mode selected.

In presential training, the most important aspects are the availability of equipment and locations (PC,
software, rooms) and the availability of the instructors and interveners, whose appointments schedule
the trainer should endeavour to know as early as possible.

For distance training, the most important points will be the creation of the distance mechanism, the time
necessary to develop the on-line tools, the synchronisation of the calendars of the trainees and trainers
for the group sessions (on-line meetings).




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Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 27 / 62
4 EVALUATING A GIS TRAINING OFFER
4.1 Evaluation basics
4.1.1 Definition

The evaluation of a process consists of estimating, using criteria defined in advance, if – and in what
measure – the goals of the process have been attained. In the case of a training programme, this
comes down to analysing its results vis-à-vis the objectives assigned to it.

This evaluation can be conducted at different times and by different entities (trainees, trainer, client
organisation, etc.). We can distinguish, for example, between the evaluation of the trainees‟ satisfaction,
of the training programme‟s contents, of the acquired knowledge and of the effectiveness of its eventual
transfer to a work environment. (Source: AFNOR.)

4.1.2 Evaluation: a necessary component of a quality-based approach

Evaluation has to form part of a quality-based approach because its goals are to ensure that the
requirements of the training project‟s participants are met:

  -   First, the beneficiaries of the training: the trainees, and with their intermediary, the sponsor of the
      training programme.

  -   The trainer (and the head of the training programme): An evaluation brings out the positive and
      negative aspects of the programme. They draw the greatest possible benefit from it by using it to
      stabilise and fine-tune their pedagogical engineering methods, to capitalise the training
      programme‟s contents and to improve pedagogical resources from one programme to the next. It
      thus allows them to validate (or not) the process of the formulation and conduct of the training
      programme and, above all, to progressively improve the effectiveness and the relevance of future
      training offers.

It is therefore essential that the trainer incorporates the evaluation phase in his offer, by including time
slots in the schedule and by planning for the implementation of evaluation methods (assessment tools
and resources). Considered in this context, it is obvious that the evaluation of an offer forms an
important part of pedagogical engineering methods.

It is equally important to involve as much as possible the client organisation in designing the evaluation
mechanism. In fact, these two actors have, in the evaluation process, objectives that are common and
those that are specific to each of them; both types have to be taken into account.

4.1.3 Connection between objectives, pedagogical engineering approach, and the
      ability to evaluate a result

Evaluation has to be approached by calling upon the service-client concept because we are trying to
quantify the client‟s and trainees‟ satisfaction with the training programme, its contents, its conduct, the
skills imparted, etc.

At the same time, the opinion of the trainer is important in evaluating the acquisition of knowledge and
know-how by the students, the difficulties they encountered during the programme, and their causes
and possible remedies. He can also possibly put into proper perspective „immediate‟ reactions of the
trainees to measure both the level achieved by them and the pedagogical quality of the training offer.


                               Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 28 / 62
As to the trainees‟ ability to put the acquired skills into practice in a professional environment, it can be
evaluated only some time after the training.

The evaluation criteria are more difficult to select here; they are dependent on parameters largely
outside the control of the trainer: the length of time between the training and the use of acquired skills in
practice, difference in IT platforms between the practical work sessions in the training programme and
the trainee‟s professional work environment, actual working conditions of the trainee within his
organisation, etc.

4.1.4 Legitimacy of the evaluation
The question of the evaluation‟s legitimacy relates mainly to the selection of persons capable of
evaluating different aspects of the training offer.

The sponsor has, no doubt, a right to evaluate the training offer based on his need for an overall
improvement in his staff‟s professional know-how and on his status as a client. It is only logical for him
to want to quantify the benefits arising from his investment in the training programme. But, as we have
seen, the precise effects of the training in a professional environment are numerous and are often
difficult to measure using simple criteria.

The students who have followed the training programme cannot distance themselves sufficiently to be
able to be the only judges of the quality of their progress and the effects of the pedagogical activities
they have undergone. Nevertheless, their legitimacy is not in question, mainly because they are the
primary actors in their own skills acquisition and because of its potential value in their professional
practices.

Finally, the trainer who has designed the offer, starting from the analysis of the requirements and ending
with its implementation, will be best placed to understand why some concepts or practices were better
absorbed than others. But he will also have to rely on the opinion of the trainees themselves. Their
advice will complement his: their perception of some activities, of some pedagogical choices, the
difficulties they encountered – more so because the trainer himself does not participate in all the
activities of the training programme.

4.1.5 How to proceed ?

The trainer should keep four key questions in mind while designing an evaluation procedure that is best
suited to a given training offer:

a) What has to be evaluated ?

As mentioned above, the aim of the evaluation is to appraise if the expected results were achieved.

These results can be defined in terms of knowledge and know-how acquired by the trainees during the
training, but should also concern, on a longer time scale, the incorporation of the acquired knowledge
and know-how into operational skills in the trainees‟ professional activities.

In this perspective, the evaluation of the training offer itself (in its conduct) can also be viewed as a
verification of the conditions in which the planned modalities (organisation, conduct, pedagogical
implementation) were put into practice.

We shall evaluate:

- The conduct of the training programme and its perception by all participants.


                               Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 29 / 62
- The knowledge and know-how acquired by the students.

- The „permanence‟ of these acquisitions and their „transformation‟ into effective skills. This last aspect
is, obviously, the most indicative but also the one most difficult to measure.

b) Who should evaluate ?

This question refers to the training project‟s goals and at its participants: the sponsor, the students, the
trainers.

If the need for the training arose from a sponsor with a clearly defined skills requirement (upgradation of
activities within the enterprise, new project in an organisation) who, additionally, is also financing the
training, we must discuss with him the validation of knowledge and know-how acquisition and possibly
its verification in the professional environment.

Evaluation by the students is essential, even more so when they have been the motive force behind the
training (voluntary inscription, optional courses selected, no other sponsor because the context is that of
basic training).



Finally, the instructors and training programme‟s head have to themselves evaluate, not only the
acquisition of knowledge and know-how by the students but also the practical conduct of the
programme (structuring of the sessions, choice of activities and pedagogical tools used, interactions
with the group, etc.).

The combination and overlap of all these opinions will lead to a more detailed appraisal, one that is
more focused on the training offer and its results. In all cases, a minimum level of evaluation is strongly
advised for the benefit of the training programme‟s head, if just to correct any errors in the pedagogical
contents and to avoid the possible repetition of difficulties in future training programmes.

In addition, we have to identify what aspect, and when, each participant is in a position to evaluate.

c) What evaluation tools to use ?

Evaluations can take several forms: oral discussions, written feedback sheet submitted by the students,
tests or exercises to evaluate acquisition of knowledge and know-how, highly formatted multimedia
quizzes on the computer.

The choice of these evaluation mechanisms depends on::

    -   The mode of the training itself: presential or at a distance.

    -    Time constraints of the different participants.

d) When to evaluate?

Depending on the aspect to be evaluated, several different periods can be appropriate :

    -   The training offer itself should be evaluated in real-time, during and at the end of the
        programme.

    -   The knowledge and know-how acquired are validated after the end of the training programme, if
        possible after some time has elapsed (from a few days to a few weeks).


                               Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 30 / 62
    -   The verification of the new professional skills acquired can only be done after several weeks to
        several months have elapsed, which can complicate the evaluation process.

4.2 Evaluation methods
4.2.1 Key personnel
Key personnel, therefore, are:

    -   The students: for the evaluation of acquired knowledge and know-how and for the evaluation of
        satisfaction.

    -   The sponsor of the training programme: also for the evaluation of satisfaction.

    -   Departmental heads or HRD: for an evaluation of the transfer of acquired knowledge and know-
        how into the work environment.

    -   The teachers and/or the training programme‟s head: to test the students‟ acquired knowledge
        and know-how and to evaluate the overall conduct of the training sessions.

4.2.2 Evaluation of acquired knowledge and know-how

Acquired knowledge and know-how can be evaluated in several different ways which we shall try to
adapt to the targeted student public.

The testing of knowledge and skills is a delicate activity. For example, a graded test can lead to student
stress which is counter-productive and which takes us away from our goals. At the same time, it is
expensive in terms of time because it requires a time-slot to be freed up. Finally, a grade may not
always be representative of a student‟s true level. An average over several tests is more accurate but it
is not possible to hold several tests during short training programmes.

However, testing does have a major advantage: the student is forced to prepare for it and put in
personal effort to revise the session contents outside of planned activities. The prospect of testing can
also make him pay more attention during training activities.

In distance training, quizzes – lighter in tone and presentation – are well suited for multimedia and Web
technologies. At the same time, the student will feel less „judged‟ than in conventional testing, avoiding
the risk of feeling low self-esteem; some students will accept such evaluation better. We can also let the
student retake a test several times and allow him to self-evaluate his progress. All this leads to a better
acceptance of the testing of the acquired knowledge and know-how.

Other methods of evaluation that are less „academic‟ can be planned: for example, making the students
work on a mini-project that requires the use of concepts acquired in the training, and to ask them to
present the results to the group. These types of evaluation methods will be very well received by the
students or trainees thus put into „professional‟ situations, but will be costly in terms of time.

Evaluation of the acquired knowledge and know-how can only take place after the student has
undergone the pedagogical sequences that the evaluation will test. This may seem evident but in cases
of complex training mechanisms, ones that are highly customised where the students did not all follow
the same sequences in the same order, the evaluation will become complicated while still remaining
absolutely necessary. Such an evaluation should always be based on pre-defined criteria. The training
programme head should draw up a table of the evaluation tasks in collaboration with other instructors
and teachers. He will ensure that the evaluation questions concentrate on the essential concepts, in
concordance with the main goals of the impartation of skills.

                                 Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 31 / 62
4.2.3 Evaluation of the offer by the concerned participants

Apart from the evaluation of acquired knowledge and know-how, the offer itself will be evaluated on
other, more qualitative, criteria. Here we will evaluate the methods, the elements that constitute the
offer, and not the results or the skills acquisition. We will have to obtain opinions from all those
participating in the training programme: the students on the one hand, the instructors on the other.

The survey of the students will bear upon:

    -   The quality of the material taught: indirectly or directly, this opinion bears upon the quality of the
        instructors‟ teaching.

    -   The density of the activities: overall duration, ratio of number of activities to the available time,
        amount of effort required, etc.

    -   The quality of the pedagogical tools used: are the resources attractive, easy to use, effective?

    -   General organisation of the sequences: logical linkages, consistency, information on changes in
        programme, etc.

    -   Aspects that need improvement.

This survey can be in the form of a questionnaire with close-ended questions (to be able to extract
statistical results for comparison purposes) and open-ended ones (at least for suggestions for
improvements and also for elucidating expressed opinions). In all cases, we will mention the exact
schedule of activities so that the student does not forget any. A sample questionnaire is included in the
appendix.

The survey of the instructors will bear upon:

    -   The value of the material taught: opinion can originate from the instructor himself for the
        contents he created, or from the training programme head who should collect all the contents
        and go through it once, at least briefly.

    -   The density of the activities: the question is the same as for the students. The instructor can
        check out the difficulties in teaching different concepts in a limited time or, on the contrary, have
        a course that has too much slack. He can also observe if the students feel overwhelmed or too
        relaxed.

    -   The performance of the pedagogical tools used: their attractiveness to the students, their ease
        of use, the degree of accompanying support necessary depending on the difficulties
        encountered, etc.

    -   Aspects that need improvements, as an open-ended answer.

In most cases, the instructors cannot comment on all the activities. The head of the training programme,
who is likely himself to be part of the teaching team, will undertake to summarize the opinions of the
instructors of the separate sequences.

The final evaluation should be a synopsis of both opinions and should lead to:

    -   Proposals to improve the tools.

    -   Advice for the trainer for the creation of future training offers.

                                Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 32 / 62
4.2.4 Evaluation during the training, at the end of the programme, and later

All that remains is to determine the best time or times to conduct the evaluations.

The easiest and the most obvious time is at the end of the training programme if the training is
presential. It is easy to get each student to fill in a questionnaire while they are still all together in one
room.

Nevertheless, immediate reactions from the students risk skewing the results. If the students are just
exiting a test, or if the activities were specially crowded at the end of the programme, fatigue and stress
can alter an assessment we would want to be as objective as possible.

In addition, if we want to refine the evaluation of the acquisition of knowledge and know-how, we have
to test their permanence, their retention. It is therefore preferable to let some time elapse between the
end of the programme and the evaluation.

So, a delayed evaluation will be better than one at the end of the training programme, but it will pose
serious organisational difficulties: will we have to bring the students back for a test? Send them out
questionnaires to fill in and return? It may be best to consider solutions that can be applied over a
distance.

However, an evaluation during the training programme could be good idea if it is a long programme.
Adjustments and adaptations (organisation, contents, etc.) can always be made mid-course. If an
evaluation by questionnaire seems too formal or if the responses will take too long to appraise, why not
obtain some verbal feedback at the beginning or middle of the training programme to take into account
the students‟ opinions?




                               Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 33 / 62
5 GISA2E PEDAGOGICAL MATERIAL
5.1 Access to and organisation of GISA2E resources
The general public can access the GISA2E Internet site at the following address:
http://www.gisa2e.educagri.fr. A visitor can use the „Pedagogical tools‟ link to navigate to area of the site
devoted to the GIS2AE pedagogical resources and their downloads.

The pedagogical resources on offer are based on the principle of the granularisation of the contents to
be taught. As discussed above in this guide, all the contents are structured into three major domains
called „Parts‟. Each Part is divided into „modules‟ (type of sub-domains), themselves further sub-divided
into elementary content granules: the „E.C.U.‟ (Elementary Content Unit).

This structure should be considered an „open‟ package of resources by the trainer, not cast in stone to
be used as is. Each trainer can (and should) structure his own offer based on an analysis of training
requirements, as we have been saying all along in this guide.

This structuring includes a differentiation of skill levels for the targeted student population: basic level
(B), intermediate level (I), advanced level (A). These three levels have not been systematically
declinated in terms of the products developed but the structure of the resources mentions the level(s)
considered and their importance.

We thus have access to „ready-to-use‟ pedagogical tools to construct training offers.

Their relevance resides in the fact that they are open, i.e., adaptable and declinable. It is each trainer‟s
responsibility to make a proper selection, to combine them together, to adapt them to his own context,
to complement them with material from other sources and to assemble the whole into a training offer
suitable for his target population.

5.2 Presentation of the tools
The tools conform to a nomenclature explained below, allowing the user to easily locate a particular file
in the structure (concerned ECU, skill level, tool type).

All the products were created using the same visual structure and format (mini-guides, text documents,
presentations): Word, HTML and PowerPoint templates.

5.2.1 Mini-guides

A mini-guide serves as a gateway to the GISA2E pedagogical resources. It lists the tools developed for
an elementary granule and for a given skill level. At the bottom of the mini-guide Web page is a link that
allows the user to download (in compressed ZIP format) all the tools listed.




                               Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 34 / 62
Meant for the trainer, the mini-guide lists, as can be seen in the example below, an overview of the
ECU‟s contents, available resources, and the duration necessary for each activity or tool offered.




                                                                                                  General presentation:
                                                                                              -      ECU
                                                                                              -      Target skill
                                                                                              -      Total duration
                                                                                              -      Learning
                                                                                                   objectives




                                                                                                  Details of the
                                                                                                  available tools




                                                                                                  Download



   Figure 3: Structure of the mini-guide – example of the granule ‘Building and updating geographic databases’

5.2.2 Booklets

Booklets are text documents describing the notions and concepts relating to an elementary skill. Their
format resembles that of chapters of pedagogical literature.

These documents cannot be used directly in presential courses. The students, as well as the trainers,
will find therein supplementary information that will help in the acquisition of the necessary knowledge
on a given subject. Moreover, these texts are meant to be studied or consulted outside of interactive-
learning activities which are of limited duration. They are complemented by recommended further
reading (cf. below).

The nomenclature of the booklets follows the coding „n‟_tx_„ecu‟.doc, where „n‟ corresponds to the
student‟s skill level (a, i or b) and „ecu‟ corresponds to the name of the concerned ECU or module.

5.2.3 The presentations

Presentations are in the form of a collection of Power Point slides that put forward notions and
concepts relating to a „granule‟ of skill. They rely not on running text but on graphics, animations and
short text items (titles, key words, short phrases).

In general, this type of document is not in itself sufficient for learning; it supports (and requires) a
trainer‟s lecture to connect logically the material introduced and to complement textual elements. It is a
very effective visual medium in presential mode. At the same time, the message becomes less formal

                                Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 35 / 62
and more contextualised on these presentations than on the booklets which, in any case, have a more
general bearing on the topic.

The nomenclature of the presentations follows the coding „n‟_„g‟.ppt, where „n‟ corresponds to the
student‟s skill level (a, i or b) and „g‟ corresponds to the name of the concerned granule or skill set.

5.2.4 Bibliography

A bibliography is a text document that lists some recommended bibliographical references relating to a
given granule, sometimes to a specific basic skill, and suitable for the level of the target public. The
student can, if he so likes and based on his needs and expectations of the training, delve deeper into
the supplementary information contained in the listed resources.

References could be to:

    -    Books or articles.

    -    Internet links to web sites of universities, institutions or private entities (software suppliers, for
         example).

The nomenclature of the bibliographies follows the coding „n‟_by_„ecu‟.doc, where „n‟ corresponds to the
targeted skill level (a, i or b) and „ecu‟ corresponds to the name of the concerned ECU or module.

5.2.5 Exercises, practical work and case studies

Exercises, practical work and case studies can be in one or more of several forms: text handouts,
slides, interactive exercises in HTML format, data for use with GIS software, student guide, etc.

These three types of activities have a common factor: they require an explicit effort from the student
during or after the phase of assimilation of knowledge. They are differentiated one from the other by
their durations:

    -    The exercise is work of short (to very short) duration which is usually part of a course or
         presentation.

    -    Practical work activities have a longer duration, over several hours. They concern, for example,
         use of software or specific material.

    -    Case studies are more comprehensive tasks; they can span several ECUs and be spread over
         several days. They concern several (sometimes all) pedagogical sequences of a training
         programme. Case studies play an important role in bringing coherence to a training offer by
         linking, in practice, the contents presented in the different granules. They often require an effort
         from the students to combine the different skills recently acquired.

The nomenclature of these documents follows the coding „n‟_„tt‟_„ecu‟.doc, where „n‟ corresponds to the
student‟s skill level (a, i or b), „tt‟ corresponds to the type of activity („ex‟ for exercise, „pw‟ for practical
work, „cs‟ for case study), and „ecu‟ corresponds to the name of the concerned ECU, the ECU group or
module.




                                 Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 36 / 62
5.3 Assembly of pedagogical elements
5.3.1 Table of pedagogical tools

The surveys of requirements at the beginning of the GISA2E programme allowed us to assign
hierarchies, based on the training goals, to the skills to be imparted. We have thus been able to identify
the degree of importance, for a given level, of mastering the skills of each granule. The following table is
the result:


Priority codes                                        Very important
                                                  Medium importance
                                                      Less important


                                                                          Basic     Intermediate   Advanced
Contents elements
                                                                        awareness       skills       skills

STRATEGY AND GIS PROJECT LEADING

GIS strategy in the organisation
      Strategic diagnosis
      Geographic Information in the organisation‟s Information System
      Partnerships in GIS projects
GIS projects’ management
      Project concept and organisational implications
      Needs analysis
      Designing and finalising technical solutions

      Managing a GIS project team
      Financial and legal aspects
GIS studies leading
      Specification of a GIS study
      Selection of specialized GIS consultants
      Assessment of proposals submitted for GIS studies
      Monitoring and evaluation of a GIS study
      Selection and purchase of geographic data

GIS CONCEPTS & METHODS

Fundamentals in G.I.
      General Information
      Basics
      Geographic data
Handling standard GIS features
      Building and updating geographic databases
      Managing external databases
      Performing spatial analysis - vector mode
      Performing spatial analysis - raster mode
Visualisation

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      Thematic mapping
      3D displays
      Cartographic documents
Technical support
      Technical support
Developing and programming in GIS
      GIS programming

RELATED TECHNOLOGIES

GPS
      GPS: technical basis
      GPS data in GIS applications
      GPS for navigation, tracking and guidance
      GPS & field data collection
      Topographic surveys and ground plottings
Image processing and remote sensing
      Aerial photos and satellite imagery in GIS
      Displaying and analysing images
      Computer Assisted Image Interpretation
      Time series analysis
DEM
      Altimetry data: basic information, role in GIS
      Derived parameters (slope, exposure, inter-visibility, etc.)
      Thematic analysis using DEM data
GIS & Internet
      Introduction to Internet GIS
      Setting up and maintaining on-line geographic data bases
      Connecting and using GIS Web services
      Setting up and maintaining GIS Web services

Spatial statistics

      Interpolating point data
      Errors and uncertainty
      Performing advanced spatial analysis

                                 Table no. 2: Table of learning priorities for given skill levels

5.3.2 How to make a selection?

For each coloured cell of the priority table, a certain number of tools have been developed within the
framework of GISA2E, and are offered as downloads to the trainer. Of course, a selection has to be first
made from the entirety of these resources for constructing a GIS training offer.

A first selection of tools should be derived from the „training frame of reference‟ (cf. section Error!
Reference source not found.Erreur ! Source du renvoi introuvable.). In fact, this document already
describes, in a structured manner, the granules to select and the skill level suitable for each of them.


                                      Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 38 / 62
Most of the granules identified in the frame of reference should find a counterpart in the contents of the
GISA2E ECUs, even if the headings differ or if many skills are grouped together or, on the contrary,
spread out over different levels. To help the trainer, training goals have been listed for each ECU. They
can be found in the mini-guides. We can thus discard ECUs that are not consistent with the offer being
constructed.

Amongst the ECUs of interest, we will select the skill level corresponding to the one identified in the
frame of reference.

Finally, the mini-guides indicate the approximate total duration of the proposed activities in an ECU at a
given level, as well as the duration of each separate activity. This information is also a selection criterion
for the trainer; he can decrease or increase the number of proposed tools depending on temporal and
financial constraints.

5.4 Adaptation of tools
The modification of tools can take the form of the declination of the proposed pedagogical sequences
(duration, density), the adaptation of the contents and illustrative examples to suit the students‟ context,
and the adaptation of the tools for desynchronised training modes.

5.4.1 Changing the duration of activities

The duration and density of an activity or a pedagogical sequence can be changed depending on the
desired skill level, available time or other organisational constraints.

A change in the skill level could be a non-trivial undertaking and could require the restructuring of the
content granules, pedagogical sequences and thus lead to a partial re-design of the tools used.

When the change is minor, it will often be sufficient to adapt the tools only in terms of density and
volume. The tools on offer here have been intentionally designed for the highest skill level to facilitate
later modification by the trainer (it is easier to reduce, simplify and winnow than to broaden the scope,
complicate, or add items or details).

5.4.2 Contextualisation of tools

Pedagogical tools are based on real situations (illustrative themes, localisation and context of practical
activities proposed to the students). The products offered here refer to the context of the project
partners who developed them and to their target populations.

A trainer could want to adapt these tools to the needs and interests of this target population.

This adaptation could bear on two points:

    -   The illustrations in the booklets and presentations: they could be modified depending on the
        needs and the resources available to each trainer (choice of examples, images, etc.).

    -   The practical-work activities proposed to the students: data sets and themes of the exercises
        could be modified.

This is an important point because contextualisation of learning situations is a powerful motivator for the
target public and for the acquisition of knowledge, even more so when the students have a low level of
professional qualifications and/or the request for training was well specified.


                               Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 39 / 62
5.4.3 Adaptation of the tools for desynchronised training modes

The trainer will have to consider the training offer to be implemented in its entirety within the context of
the chosen pedagogical goals and constraints: fully desynchronised, mixed mode?

As described in sections 3.5 and 3.6, in desynchronised mode, the pedagogical material has to be more
accessible, lighter in tone and presentation, and more comprehensive.

Resources created within the ambit of the GISA2E project are „generic‟ resources; they are well-suited
to use in presential mode but cannot be used directly in desynchronised mode.

The trainer will, therefore, have to transform the GISA2E tools to adapt them to the context of his
student population and to respond to the constraints of their IT architecture (training platform, etc.) and
the available resources (bandwidth, access to hardware, etc.). At the same time, to sustain their
motivation and maintain their attention during desynchronised-mode training, it will be absolutely
necessary to diversify the activities and make them short. Finally, the trainer should take special care in
drafting the goals and instructions of each activity.

We can specify the problems of adaptation depending on the type of activity and tool:

a) The lectures:

The trainer will split up the GISA2E activities and resources into sub-divisions with common goals with a
maximum duration of 15 to 20 minutes each.
Example: The ‘Performing spatial analysis in vector mode’ PowerPoint presentation consists of 20 slides
   for a total presential duraton of 1h15m. This lecture presented at a distance could be split up into 3
   parts:
        - Part 1: 6 slides defining the attributary requests and metric spatial operators (0h15m)
        - Part 2: 11 slides describing the topological operators (0h20m).
        - Part 3: 5 slides for the statistical and stochastic operators (0h10m).

Other activities will complement this theoretical online part.

The important points of the lecture will be highlighted in the objectives and in the body of the lecture
using exercise questions, online quizzes and Internet searches.

Rewriting by the students is necessary to evoke interest in the course and, above all, so that the student
can capitalise the notions, without a classroom teacher‟s help or comments; in distance training, there is
no immediate student-teacher interaction.

b) Exercises and practical work:

As mentioned in section 5.4.2, contextualisation is essential in maintaining the interest of the students.
Practical work that forms part of the GISA2E project could be split up, without forgetting to recalculate
the duration of each worksheet. The trainer could, for example, add questions on manipulating the
software to verify that the activity was done properly and the work was meaningful. Finally, the trainer
should ensure that the students have access to „results‟ data sets at different stages of the progression
to help the student continue and not lose heart when he gets stuck due to one difficulty or another.

c) Self-evaluation:

In the same manner as for practical-work activities (see section immediately above), it is strongly
recommended that self-evaluation activities be included in all desynchronised sequences (between

                                Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 40 / 62
different parts of the session, for example) to reassure the student that he is successfully grasping
concepts and acquiring related skills.

5.5 Creation of new tools
In case the trainer wants to create new tools, he could do so by:

    -   developing new content granules (advent of new technologies, new concepts, new features) or
        re-assemble existing granules on offer,

    -   introducing diversified pedagogical activities (field trips, interviews with experts) that are
        appropriate for incorporation in pedagogical situations, themselves diversified,

    -   producing new pedagogical tools: documents, data sets, exercises, practical work, case
        studies, etc.


In this work of creating new tools, he could base his efforts on the tools already existing (format,
structure, presentation) but should never lose sight of the overall approach repeatedly advocated in this
user guide: his teaching activities and pedagogical tools have to relate to the training requirements and
to the constraints of his target population.




                               Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 41 / 62
                      APPENDICES




                                                        PAGE

1   GLOSSARY                                               2
2   TRAINING NEEDS‟ SURVEY                                 5
3   STRUCTURING PEDAGOGICAL CONTENTS                      14
4   ELEMENTARY CONTENT UNIT FORM                          16




         Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 42 / 62
1 – STRUCTURING OF EDUCATIONAL OFFERS

1.1 – STRUCTURE OF A TRAINING OFFER :

      Curriculum
            Learning path (modules)
                  Leaning sequences
                        Learning activities :
                              Lectures
                              Exercises / practical works / case study
                                       R.: a case study concerns more than one sequence
                              External feedback
                              Visits
                              Etc.

1.2 - TRAINING TOOLS :

        -   Document
        -   Bibliography
        -   Presentation
        -   Exercise sheet / worksheets for practical works
        -   Case study including :
              Presentation of the case study
              Set of worksheets
        -   External feed-back
        -   User guide (trainer guide, trainee guide)




                             Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 43 / 62
2 - EDUCATIONAL ENGINEERING : ENGLISH TERMS DEFINITION

Sources :
   1- http://www.bureaudelatraduction.gc.ca/pwgsc_internet/fr/publications/gratuit_free/lex_apprent_l
      earn_e.htm : Public Works and Government Services Canada
   2- http://www.swap.ac.uk/Learning/Glossary.asp?Inital=A
   3- http://www.sep.org.uk/sepabout2.htm
   4- http://dbweb.liv.ac.uk/ltsnpsc/guides/designing_assessment/labs.htm
   5- http://www.tedi.uq.edu.au/teaching/toolbox/glossary.html
   6- http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/glossary.html
   7- ENGREF / ENESAD


                                                                                            Source
Term                  Definition
structure                                                                                     6
                      The complete set of relationships between parts of a learning
                      program as displayed in a course map or a learning plan.
curriculum                                                                                    6
                      The aggregate of courses of study given in a learning                   1
                      environment. The courses are arranged by sequences. It can              7
                      run     for    days,     weeks,      months,     or    years.
                      Learners may enter it at various points depending on their job
                      experience and the needs of the business.
learning path         A set of learning sequences                                             7
module                A separate and coherent block of learning. Part of a modular            2
                      programme of studies where the curriculum is divided into a
                      range of similar sized segments.
                      A stand-alone instructional unit that is designed to satisfy one or     6
                      more learning objectives. A separate component, complete
                      within itself, that can be taught, measured, and evaluated for a
                      change or bypassed as a whole
learning sequence Set of learning activities aimed at acquiring knowledge and                 7
                  skills and related to a specific learning objective

learning activity     Event intended to promote trainee learning.                             6

learning objective A statement of what the learners will be expected to do when               6
                   they have completed a specified course of instruction. It
                   prescribes the conditions, behavior (action) and standard of task
                   performance for the training setting. Sometimes referred to as
                   performance, instructional, or behavioral objectives.




                             Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 44 / 62
exercise            Refers to any task, problem, or other effort performed to            2
                    develop or increase a particular skill.
practical work      Exercises undertaken in class aimed at applying the theoretical      2
                    and general knowledge gained during a sequence.                      3
                    The practical work is not just about „hands-on‟, but about           7
                    „minds-on‟ as well, ensuring that trainees are „active learners‟
                    and not passive receivers of information.
                    Practical work is “learning by doing”                                4
case study          The presentation of “cases” or scenarios based on actual             5
                    practice which students can discuss to explore possibilities,        6
                    probabilities and/or solutions. The learners encounter a real-life
                    situation under the guidance of instructors in order to achieve
                    instructional objectives.
                    Case studies are used to develop student abilitiy to solve
                    problems using new and existing knowledge, skills and
                    concepts.
external feedback                                                                        7
                    Synchronous or asynchronous intervention from a professional
                    aimed at completing the knowledge and know-how that trainees
                    have acquired in other activities.
handbook                                                                                 6
                    A document prepared specifically to provide guidance
                    information. Handbooks are used for the presentation of general
                    information, procedural and technical use data, or design
                    information related to commodities, processes, practices and
                    services.
workbook                                                                                 6
                    A handout that contains procedures and exercises designed to
                    assist the learner in achieving the learning objectives.




                           Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 45 / 62
1 - RESPONDENT FORM


 Respondent :                                 Address :


 Organisation :                               Tel :


 Function :                                   Email :




 Date interview :                             Location :
 Duration                                     Pollster(s) :




 Domains of skills in
 Geographic Information




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1.1 - IDENTIFYING ORGANISATIONS CONCERNED BY INCREASING TRAINING NEEDS IN GIS


1.1.1. To your knowledge, which organisations are already commonly using GIS ?




1.1.2. To your knowledge, which organisations will potentially be concerned by GIS in the near future ?




1.1.3. Is documentation about GIS use available in those organisations ?

References, URL., etc.




                              Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 47 / 62
2 - ORGANISATION FORM (1 form per organisation or per type of organisation)




Organisation
Number of Staff




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2.1 - ORGANISATION CHART


                  Number        Name and description
1st Department


2nd Department


3rd Department




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2.2 – EMPLOYEES’ EDUCATION AND RESPONSIBILITY LEVEL IN A DEPARTMENT (PLEASE PROVIDE
INFORMATION ABOUT ALL EMPLOYEES IN THE ORGANISATION)




Function          Management              Training/Educational level
                  Level/Responsibility




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2.3 - GIS DEVELOPMENT INSIDE THE ORGANISATION (OPEN QUESTIONS/FREE FORM)



How does GIS grow inside the organisation?




Describe the level of GIS use inside the organisation




Strategy to be adopted to adapt a training package to fulfill the organisation‟s GIS needs




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2.4 - EMPLOYEES WITH CROSS-DEPARTMENTAL FUNCTIONS CONCERNED BY GIS



Function          Number      Managemen Specifications of the function
                              t level




2.5 – Activities of each department in relation to GIS



                                                   Uses of GIS
Departments       Functions involved     Number       Manage-               Description
                                                      ment level




                             Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 52 / 62
2.6 - Staff profile in relation to GIS (summary of 2.4 and 2.5)



      Profiles       Management level       Education level                 Role in GIS
1-
2-
3-
4-




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3 – STAFF SKILLS FORM (1 form per organisation or per type of organisation)




3.1 - General details of each staff profile (cf. 2.6) to be trained



                         Profile 1             Profile 2                Profile 3   Profile 4


Function


Possible
duration of a
training session
Staff availability


Technical
constraints
(ICT, Internet
access, etc.)


Location of
training sessions


Training targets


Preferred types
of training
(*)


(*) e.g.traditional, distance learning, on-line groups, self-learning




                                Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 54 / 62
3.2 - Skills to be acquired in Geographic Information



                                                                   Profile    Profile   Profile   Profile
                                                                     1          2          3        4


Skills encoding :          B : basic awareness
                           I : intermediate skills
                           A : advanced skills


Strategy and GIS project leading
S1. Diagnosing strategic contribution of GIS in the organisation
S2. Integrating the geographic component in the organisation‟s
    Information System
S3. Preparing the organisation for partnerships for GIS
    projects
S4. Organising an operational technical GIS department
    (dimensions, investments, staff training)
    S4.1. Carrying out ananalysis of needs
    S4.2. Setting up a provisional budget
    S4.3. Leading a study for choosing technical solutions
    S4.4. Setting up a training program for the staff
    S4.5. Setting up hardware and software solutions
S5. Writing specification for a GIS study
S6. Selecting specialized GIS consultants
S7. Assessing proposals submitted for GIS studies
S8. Monitoring and evaluation of a GIS study
S9. Selecting and purchasing data
S10. Collecting standardized geographic information
S11. Leading a team and managing a GIS project




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MANAGING GIS APPLICATIONS AND DATA
M1. Developing and maintaining specific applications
M2. Carrying out GIS data base maintenance
M3. Structuring geographic data
M4. Managing geographic data quality
M5. Exchanging data
M6. Metadata
M7. Carrying out a technical support for GIS users




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USING GIS TOOLS
P1. Handling standard GIS features
    P1.1. Building and updating graphic layers
    P1.2. Building and updating alphanumeric data bases
    P1.3. Knowing about geographic data quality
    P1.3. Managing existing data bases
    P1.4. Performing graphic queries
    P1.5. Performing spatial analysis
    P1.6. Performing thematic mapping
    P1.7. Producing cartographic documents
    P1.8. Publishing maps
P2. Handling specialized applications
P3. Knowing about and keeping up with software market news




Related technologies
T1. GPS
    T1.1. Selecting and purchasing equipment
    T1.2. Using GPS for navigation
    T1.3. Using GPS for vehicles‟ monitoring and guidance
    T1.4. Integrating GPS data in GIS applications
    T1.5. Performing topographic surveys and ground plottings


T2. Image processing and remote sensing
    T2.1. Integrate aerial photos and satellite imagery in GIS
    T2.2. Displaying and analysing images
    T2.3. Performing Computer Assisted Image Interpretation
    T2.4. Performing time series analysis




                              Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 57 / 62
T3. DEM
    T3.1. Integrating altimetry data in GIS
    T3.2. Using derived parameters (slope, exposure, inter-
          visibility, etc.)


    T3.3. Performing thematic analysis using DEM data


T4. GIS & Internet
    T4.1. Setting up and maintaining on-line geographic data
          bases
    T4.2. Connecting and using distant geographic data bases
    T4.3. Setting up and maintaining GIS Web services


T5. Spatial statistics
    T5.1. Interpolating point data
    T5.2. Performing advanced spatial analysis


T6. Others




                               Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 58 / 62
                       The content is divided in parts, modules and ECUs



STRATEGY AND GIS PROJECT LEADING

    GIS strategy in the organisation
          Strategic diagnosis
          Geographic Information in the organisation‟s Information System
          Partnerships in GIS projects

    GIS projects’ management
         Project concept and organisational implications
         Needs analysis
         Designing and finalising technical solutions
         Managing a GIS project team
         Financial and legal aspects

    GIS studies leading
          Specification of a GIS study
          Selection of specialized GIS consultants
          Assessment of proposals submitted for GIS studies
          Monitoring and evaluation of a GIS study
          Selection and purchase of geographic data


GIS CONCEPTS & METHODS

    Fundamentals in G.I.
         General Information
         Basics
         Geographic data

    Handling standard GIS features
         Building and updating geographic databases
         Managing external databases
         Performing spatial analysis - vector mode
         Performing spatial analysis - raster mode

    Visualisation
         3D displays
         Virtual reality
         Thematic mapping
         Cartographic documents
         Map publishing

    Technical support
        Knowing about and keeping up with software market news



                          Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 59 / 62
          Carrying out a technical support for GIS users

    Developing and programming in GIS
        Developing and maintaining specific applications
        GIS programming


RELATED TECHNOLOGIES

    GPS
          GPS: technical basis
          GPS data in GIS applications
          GPS for navigation
          GPS & field data collection
          Topographic surveys and ground plottings
          Using GPS for vehicles‟ monitoring and guidance

    Image processing and remote sensing
        Aerial photos and satellite imagery in GIS
        Displaying and analysing images
        Computer Assisted Image Interpretation
        Time series analysis

    DEM
          Altimetry data: basic information, role in GIS
          Derived parameters (slope, exposure, inter-visibility, etc.)
          Thematic analysis using DEM data

    GIS & Internet
         Setting up and maintaining on-line geographic data bases
         Connecting and using GIS Web services
         Setting up and maintaining GIS Web services

    Spatial statistics
         Interpolating point data
         Errors and uncertainty
         Performing advanced spatial analysis




                            Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 60 / 62
Part :

Module:

Title :

Keywords (5 max) :


Pedagogical aim(s):
(20 lines max)




Themes (& subthemes) concerned : (detailed outline)
(20 lines max)




Setting up training modules :

                            Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 61 / 62
For each theme (and/or sub-theme), describe concerned levels and needs of practical exercises and study
cases in concerned sequences.

Themes                            Concerned levels              Tutorials            Study cases
Theme 1
       Sub-theme 1.1
       Sub-theme 1.2
       Sub-theme 1.3
Theme 2
       Sub-theme 2.1
       Sub-theme 2.21
Theme 3
…


Content description :
( 4 pages max).


Bibliography :
(Author, Title, Publisher, Year, Nb of pages




                                 Leonardo da Vinci – GISA2E Project - 62 / 62

				
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