Pedagogical entrepreneurship Interskola-conference 07.07.26 Ove Pedersen Bodø University Collage Pedagogical + entrepreneurship • Pedagogical: learning, socialisation and upbringing • Entrepreneurship: – Starting new businesses – New ways of thinking/innovation/creativity The concept of entrepreneurship in school and education ”Entrepreneurship in education must have a wider definition than just starting new enterprises, and have to include both social and cultural contexts: Entrepreneurship is a dynamic and social process, where individuals, alone or in cooperation, identify possibilities, and do something with it by transforming ideas to practical and purposeful activity – in a social, cultural or economic context Entrepreneurship in education includes development both of personal qualities and attitudes as well as formal knowledge and skills. (“Look upon the possibilities..”, p.6) Pedagogical entrepreneurship Personal Knowledge and attitudes skills -the willingness -what, how, why? and ability to take initiatives • pedagogical - innovation and enterprises creativity • practical problem - willingness to solving take risks • competence in -self-confidence research -teambuilding and cooperation Pedagogical entrepreneurship.. Why? • A learning strategy: theory + practice? • A more meaningful school for children? • Society changes with new challenges? • A strategy for surviving in rural areas? The times they are a-changin’.. Our kids are meeting: * A new media world with new challenges * New technology * Rural areas in need of new jobs * Need of more expert knowledge and education to get a job * Need of competence to create new jobs * More migration to central areas and towns * Threats against environment and climate * An increasing conflict situation in the world * Globalization But: many kids have (or want to have) a new and different competence to meet this situation – compared with the grown up generation What responsibility has the school for preparing the pupils for this? Development of professional life in Norway % 75 50 primary 25 secondary tertiary 1900 1925 1950 1975 2000 2007 (Statistics Norway) Population statistics. Internal migration. 2006 Centralisation is increasing ”Every year we see a net flow of relocations to the most central parts of the country. The trend in recent years has been increasing out-migration from the least central municipalities and a noticeable increase in in-migration to the most central municipalities.” (http://www.ssb.no/english/subjects/02/02/20/flytting_en/ ”The Rise of the Creative Class” (Richard Florida, 2002) • The distinguishing characteristic of the creative class is that its members engage in work whose function is to "create meaningful new forms." The super- creative core of this new class includes scientists and engineers, university professors, poets and novelists, artists, entertainers, actors, designers, and architects, as well as the "thought leadership" of modern society: nonfiction writers, editors, cultural figures, think-tank researchers, analysts, and other opinion-makers. Members of this super- creative core produce new forms or designs that are readily transferable and broadly useful---such as designing a product that can be widely made, sold and used; coming up with a theorem or strategy that can be applied in many cases; or composing music that can be performed again and again. • Beyond this core group, the creative class also includes "creative professionals" who work in a wide range of knowledge-intensive industries such as high-tech sectors, financial services, the legal and healthcare professions, and business management. These people engage in creative problem-solving, drawing on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems. Doing so typically requires a high degree of formal education and thus a high level of human capital. People who do this kind of work may sometimes come up with methods or products that turn out to be widely useful, but it's not part of the basic job description. What they are required to do regularly is think on their own. They apply or combine standard approaches in unique ways to fit the situation, exercise a great deal of judgment, perhaps try something radically new from time to time. (http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/features/2001/0205.florida.html) Who are the most creative? This is what farmers in Norway are doing - supplementary to the main work at the farm – and on the farm! (not working in the industry or as a teacher). • Different forms of leasing-work related to driving and farming: 28% • Renting out hunting- and fishing rights: 27% • Firewood, biofuel: 21% • Overnight stay: 5,6% • Food; wholesale, catering, markets: 3,8% • Health & care: 3,4% • Tourism, adventure, guiding: 2,7% • Courses and pedagogical activities: 2,4% • Serving food at the farm: 1,6% (Many of the questioned are falling into more than one category, so the sum of the percents will not be 100) From a study of Oddveig Storstad: “Nettavisen”, 07.07.23 The school in a new society reproduction identity production The cultural The pupils/students The future heritage life – here and now The global community The nation/region The local community Starting a new business kindergarten school professional life reality (and learning) pedagogical enterprises learning in starting a new business a real context professional enterprises playing (and learning) The pupil enterprise: "KRØKEBÆRSAFT - LIVETS KILDE” (Syrup of cowberries - the spring of life) • School: Kongsvik Skole • Business idea: The pupils will learn how local raw materials can be used for food production. They will learn all sides in the process of starting an enterprise: market inquiry, financial plan, production, prizing, marketing and sale. In case of profit, it will be used to finance a study excursion to Poland with ”The white buses”. • Address: Kongsvik 9436 Kongsvik • Net side: http://home.no.net/kongskol/ • E-mail:email@example.com The pupil enterprise: FJØSJENTENE ”The Cowshed Girls” • School: Bindalseidet friskole • Business idea: We want to work at farms needing help. We work with all kinds of animals and we work for everyone who owns a farm. • Address: Skoleveien 3 7982 Bindalseidet • Net side: http://www.bindalseidet.net • E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org • The pupil enterprise: "BOKNAFESKEN" (The little dried stockfish) • School: Skrova skole • Business idea: The secondary school is buying cod (skrei) from our region - Lofoten - every winter. All the bones will be taken out of the fish so all that remains, will be the clean fillet. When this has been done, both fillets stacked together in the “spord” will be hanged at the “hjells” for about three weeks. Than we take it down, cut it clean and vacuum it. After this process, it will be frozen in packets of about one kilo. The product has a very high quality and we have good mentors during the process. We have done this for about four years. • Address: postboks 70 8320 Skrova • Net side: http://www. • E-mail: email@example.com Why? Personal Personal attidudes skills and ped. entreprises knowledge research/projectwork practical problemsolving Building a whole entrepreneuriell identity From children to adults skills and knowledge attitudes small children youths adults the local culture to build on, develop the local regions traditions and business life and look upon the local recourses new possibilities In the classroom.. Education must focus on and have regard to: • Personal abilities: – Self-confidence – Social ability – The energy of the pupil – The motivation for achievement – Intuition – The ability to take risk (Røe Ødegård, 2003) In the classroom.. Education must be organized and designed remaining to: • Use of methods: – Practical training of skills combined with academic knowledge – Focus on increasing of values based on understanding of resources and solidarity (awareness of the importance not only for ”the producer”) – Relevance for all subjects Outside the classroom.. • Education must have a relation to the local community – The local culture and history – Traditional working life – Significant values – Local enterprises in partnership with the school Academic subjects can be learned in different settings and under a local horizon The school must take more responsibility for an overall education – not only for the academic subjects theory • Dewey: The theory of inquiry • Vygotsky: The sosio-cultural school / Social constructivism • Piaget: Cognitive constructivism • Illeris: The project method (Kolb’s learning circle, Kolb 1984) Concrete entrepreneurs experiences Active Observation and experiments reflection Abstrakt idea making scientists Entrepreneurial theory in practice (learning through experiences): – Experience and practise entrepreneurship – Reflect and build models – Do experiences over again – Repeat From formal knowledge to operativ competence for the future Competence: knowledge, abilities and attitudes in a pedagogical context of significance,accomplishment and identity building. and with pedagogical entrepreneurship as a goal, working methods and contents for operative competence - meeting the challenges of the future.