Pedagogical entrepreneurship

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					Pedagogical entrepreneurship

             Ove Pedersen
         Bodø University Collage
Pedagogical + entrepreneurship
• Pedagogical:
  learning, socialisation and upbringing

• Entrepreneurship:
  – Starting new businesses
  – New ways of thinking/innovation/creativity
The concept of entrepreneurship in school and education

 ”Entrepreneurship in education must have a wider definition than just starting
 new enterprises, and have to include both social and cultural contexts:

 Entrepreneurship is a dynamic and social process, where individuals, alone or
 in cooperation, identify possibilities, and do something with it by transforming
 ideas to practical and purposeful activity – in a social, cultural or economic

 Entrepreneurship in education includes development both of personal qualities
 and attitudes as well as formal knowledge and skills.
                                    (“Look upon the possibilities..”, p.6)
Pedagogical entrepreneurship

Personal              Knowledge and
attitudes             skills
-the willingness      -what, how, why?
and ability to take
                      • pedagogical
- innovation and
                      • practical problem
- willingness to
take risks
                      • competence in
-teambuilding and
    Pedagogical entrepreneurship..
•   A learning strategy: theory + practice?
•   A more meaningful school for children?
•   Society changes with new challenges?
•   A strategy for surviving in rural areas?
 The times they are a-changin’..
Our kids are meeting:
   *   A new media world with new challenges
   *   New technology
   *   Rural areas in need of new jobs
   *   Need of more expert knowledge and education to get a job
   *   Need of competence to create new jobs
   *   More migration to central areas and towns
   *   Threats against environment and climate
   *   An increasing conflict situation in the world
   *   Globalization

But: many kids have (or want to have) a new and different competence    to
   meet this situation – compared with the grown up generation

What responsibility has the school for preparing the pupils for this?
    Development of professional life in


50   primary

25   secondary

       1900      1925   1950   1975   2000   2007
                                         (Statistics Norway)
  Population statistics. Internal migration. 2006

Centralisation is increasing

    ”Every year we see a net flow of
    relocations to the most central
    parts of the country. The trend in
    recent years has been increasing
    out-migration from the least central
    municipalities and a noticeable
    increase in in-migration to the
    most central municipalities.”

                  ”The Rise of the Creative Class”
                      (Richard Florida, 2002)
•   The distinguishing characteristic of the creative class is that its members engage in
    work whose function is to "create meaningful new forms." The super- creative core of
    this new class includes scientists and engineers, university professors, poets and
    novelists, artists, entertainers, actors, designers, and architects, as well as the
    "thought leadership" of modern society: nonfiction writers, editors, cultural figures,
    think-tank researchers, analysts, and other opinion-makers. Members of this super-
    creative core produce new forms or designs that are readily transferable and broadly
    useful---such as designing a product that can be widely made, sold and used; coming
    up with a theorem or strategy that can be applied in many cases; or composing music
    that can be performed again and again.
•   Beyond this core group, the creative class also includes "creative professionals" who
    work in a wide range of knowledge-intensive industries such as high-tech sectors,
    financial services, the legal and healthcare professions, and business management.
    These people engage in creative problem-solving, drawing on complex bodies of
    knowledge to solve specific problems. Doing so typically requires a high degree of
    formal education and thus a high level of human capital. People who do this kind of
    work may sometimes come up with methods or products that turn out to be widely
    useful, but it's not part of the basic job description. What they are required to do
    regularly is think on their own. They apply or combine standard approaches in unique
    ways to fit the situation, exercise a great deal of judgment, perhaps try something
    radically new from time to time.
      Who are the most creative?
    This is what farmers in Norway are doing - supplementary to the
    main work at the farm – and on the farm! (not working in the industry
    or as a teacher).

•   Different forms of leasing-work related to driving and farming: 28%
•   Renting out hunting- and fishing rights: 27%
•   Firewood, biofuel: 21%
•   Overnight stay: 5,6%
•   Food; wholesale, catering, markets: 3,8%
•   Health & care: 3,4%
•   Tourism, adventure, guiding: 2,7%
•   Courses and pedagogical activities: 2,4%
•   Serving food at the farm: 1,6%

   (Many of the questioned are falling into more than one category, so the sum
   of the percents will not be 100)
From a study of Oddveig Storstad: “Nettavisen”, 07.07.23
The school in a new society

reproduction           identity         production

 The cultural     The pupils/students
                                        The future
  heritage        life – here and now

                The global community

                 The nation/region

                The local community
    Starting a new business
kindergarten                 school         professional life

                                            reality (and learning)
         enterprises        learning in
         starting a new business
                           a real context
  playing (and learning)
    The pupil enterprise: "KRØKEBÆRSAFT - LIVETS KILDE” (Syrup
                     of cowberries - the spring of life)

•    School: Kongsvik Skole

•    Business idea: The pupils will learn how local raw materials can be used for food
     production. They will learn all sides in the process of starting an enterprise: market
     inquiry, financial plan, production, prizing, marketing and sale. In case of profit, it will
     be used to finance a study excursion to Poland with ”The white buses”.

•    Address: Kongsvik
     9436 Kongsvik
•    Net side:
           The pupil enterprise: FJØSJENTENE
                ”The Cowshed Girls”
•   School: Bindalseidet friskole

•   Business idea: We want to work at farms needing help. We work with all kinds of
    animals and we work for everyone who owns a farm.

•   Address: Skoleveien 3
    7982 Bindalseidet
•   Net side:
•   E-mail:
The pupil enterprise: "BOKNAFESKEN" (The little dried stockfish)

•   School: Skrova skole

•   Business idea: The secondary school is buying cod (skrei) from our region - Lofoten - every
    winter. All the bones will be taken out of the fish so all that remains, will be the clean fillet. When
    this has been done, both fillets stacked together in the “spord” will be hanged at the “hjells” for
    about three weeks. Than we take it down, cut it clean and vacuum it. After this process, it will be
    frozen in packets of about one kilo. The product has a very high quality and we have good
    mentors during the process. We have done this for about four years.

•   Address: postboks 70
    8320 Skrova
•   Net side: http://www.
•   E-mail:

Personal            Personal
attidudes           skills and              ped. entreprises

                                        practical problemsolving

       Building a whole entrepreneuriell identity
            From children to adults

                                                    skills and knowledge


small children                           youths                 adults
   the local culture                                to build on, develop
   the local regions traditions and business life   and look upon
   the local recourses                              new possibilities
             In the classroom..

Education must focus on and have regard to:
• Personal abilities:
  –   Self-confidence
  –   Social ability
  –   The energy of the pupil
  –   The motivation for achievement
  –   Intuition
  –   The ability to take risk
                                 (Røe Ødegård, 2003)
          In the classroom..
Education must be organized and designed
  remaining to:
• Use of methods:
  – Practical training of skills combined with
    academic knowledge
  – Focus on increasing of values based on
    understanding of resources and solidarity
    (awareness of the importance not only for ”the
  – Relevance for all subjects
        Outside the classroom..
• Education must have a relation to the local
  –   The local culture and history
  –   Traditional working life
  –   Significant values
  –   Local enterprises in partnership with the school

      Academic subjects can be learned in different settings
      and under a local horizon
      The school must take more responsibility for an
      overall education – not only for the academic subjects
• Dewey: The theory of inquiry
• Vygotsky: The sosio-cultural school / Social
• Piaget: Cognitive constructivism
• Illeris: The project method
              (Kolb’s learning circle, Kolb 1984)
   entrepreneurs                  experiences
                        Active             Observation and
                        experiments        reflection
                                  Abstrakt idea

Entrepreneurial theory in practice (learning through experiences):
    – Experience and practise entrepreneurship
    – Reflect and build models
    – Do experiences over again
    – Repeat
From formal knowledge to operativ
    competence for the future
knowledge, abilities and attitudes

  in a pedagogical context of
  significance,accomplishment and identity

and with pedagogical entrepreneurship
  as a goal, working methods and contents for
  operative competence - meeting the challenges
  of the future.