Other Students With Special Needs Chapter 8 Section 504 All students with special needs who do not meet the eligibility criteria for receiving services through IDEA are considered disabled as defined by Section 504 Understanding Section 504 1- What is disability according to Section 504? In Section 504, any condition that substantially limits a major life activity, such as the ability to learn in school, is defined as a disability. Same examples of students that are eligible for assistance through section 504: Students that are photophobic; Students with significant attention problems; Students with chronic health problems. 2- No funds are provided to school districts to carry out the requirements of Section 504. The expectation is that schools should take whatever steps are necessary to eliminate discrimination as defined through this statute. 3- The responsibility for making accommodations for students who qualify as disabled through Section 504 belongs to general education personnel. The types of accommodations required vary based on student needs. Section 504 and Students With Medical or Health Needs Two common Students with medical or health groups that needs qualify for assistance through Students with Section 504: attention deficit- hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Responsibilities Administrators: Teachers: they they have the have the responsibility to responsibility of authorize implement physical instructional modifications to adaptations classroom and outline in the make the plan. necessary arrangements. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) The medical condition in which students have significant inability to attend, excessive motor activity, and/ or impulsivity. Students are eligible for services through IDEA, but many receive assistance through Section 504. You might hear the term attention deficit disorder (ADD) being used to label the condition. ADD is an earlier term for describing attention problems. The term ADHD and ADD is used interchangeably by many. Students with ADHD have symptoms that fall into one of 3 categories: 1. ADHD: predominantly inattentive type. Students in this group often appear to daydream, not hear teacher’s directions sometimes skip parts of a assignment that they do not notice and frequently lose things. They do not move around more than their peers. 2. ADHD: predominantly hyperactive- impulsive type. Students in this group are hyperactive, they move around more than their peers, tend to be impulsive, acting before thinking, squirm in their seats, tap pencils or fingers, and blurt out answers during instruction. 3. ADHD: combined type. Students display the characteristics of both of the other types of ADHD. The experience difficulty both in focusing their attention and in restricting their movement. Did You Know Estimate of the prevalence of ADHD range from less than 1% to more than 20% of school age children but expert says it affects 3-7 % of students, making it the most commonly diagnosed childhood psychiatric disorder. Boys are diagnosed with ADHD approximately three times more frequently than girls, boys symptoms are more noticeable than girl’s. ADHD also occurs frequently with other disabilities, approximately 26% of students with learning disabilities and 43% of students with behavioral or emotional disability also have ADHD. Cause of ADHD are not clear. Students who have ADHD are likely to have a family pattern of disorder. If two parents have ADHD, their child is three times more then likely than other children to have it as well. The brains of individuals with ADHD are different from those of others. The amount of electrical activity is unusually low in the parts of the brain regulating attention, and the chemicals in the brain that transmit information may not function properly. Environment may also play a role in casing ADHD. Children prone to have this disorder who live in very unstructured homes are more likely to develop it. Characteristics and Needs of Students with ADHD Cognitively, students with ADHD can function at any level. Students who are below average in ability and achievement, students who are average learners, and students who are gifted and talented can have ADHD. ADHD is the inability to regulate attention. When students fail to carry out the mental activities that help most people regulate their behavior called executive functions which include four activities Working memory. The Control of emotions ability to remember and motivation. Ability what task are to talk oneself into supposed to be done calming down when and how much time faced with a difficult or there is to do them. frustrating task Reconstitution. Ability to Self directed speech. combine skills learned Silent self talk that across a variety of most people use to settings in order to carry manage complex tasks out a new task, such as a student’s knowledge that the rule for speaking in a low voice applies not only in their classrooms but also in the hallways, lunchroom and office. 8.1 ADHD Behavior Characteristics Inattention: making careless mistakes, difficulty sustaining attention, seeming not to listen, failing to finish tasks, difficulty organizing, avoiding tasks requiring sustained attention, losing things, easily distracted, forgetfulness Hyperactivity: fidgeting, restless, talking excessively, difficulty making and keeping friends, temper tantrums, acting bossy, being defiant Impulsivity: blurting answers, acting before thinking, difficult waiting turn, intruding upon others, failing to read directions - ADHD students are likely to be depressed or have low confidence or self- esteem. There are 5 interventions used for students with ADHD 1. Environmental Supports, arranging your classroom can foster learning or impede it, classroom should be free of distracting items like hanged mobiles, have clear classroom rules, assign peer partner to assist students. 2. Academic Interventions, emphasize only essential information, keep oral instruction brief, provide multiple examples, recapping what you say, list direction by number, for reading comprehension read short passage, for math more time to complete assignments, keep pace rapid, use manipulative, repeat answers 3. Behavior Interventions, specific verbal praise, stickers or other symbols of appropriate behaviors, games that emphasize rewards for positive behaviors, reprimands and consequences needed at times, sit near front of the room 4. Parent Education, invite parents to learn strategies for responding to their child’s behavior, create discipline system that includes both rewards and consequences, learn their children rights 5. Use of Medication, decision made by parents with their physician, 2.5 million students take medicine for ADHD and medicine is effective for 70-80%, most common type of medicine is stimulant medication, including Ritalin, Cylert, Adderell, and Focalin. Students take antidepressants such as Norpramin, Tofranil, Zoloft; antihypertensive such as Clonodine, Tenex, and Strattera (New medicine) Families of Children with ADHD -Significant stress for parents and siblings -some parents struggle with their own role in their children disorder -Teachers have to be careful not to blame parents for their children’s ADHD Accommodations for Gifted/Talented Students Who are they? Students with extraordinary abilities and skills Giftedness = Talented Terms used to be exclusive Federally defined in: 1988 Gifted and Talented Students Education Act (P.L. 100- 297) What P.L. 100-297 defines “Identifies children and youth who possess demonstrated or potential high-performance capability in intellectual, creative, specific academic and leadership areas, or the performing and visual arts.” (- Friend & Bursuck 2006) States these students need special services but doesn’t specify those services Local and state policies determine the extent of these programs Prevalence of Programs Depend On 1. Traditional criteria for identifying students has been questioned as well the definition • Gardner argues IQ tests are too narrow – Problem solving ability is more conclusive – Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences 1. Verbal/linguistic 5. Musical 2. Visual/spatial 6. Intrapersonal 3. Logical/mathematical 7. Interpersonal 4. Bodily/Kinesthetic 8. Naturalist Prevalence of Programs Depend On 2. Notion of potential • Some students easily identifiable • Some students mask their abilities – Low expectations are set for them – Unique needs go are not nurtured • Students at risk for going unnoticed – Young boys – Adolescent girls – Genius students – Students with disabilities – Students from racially or culturally diverse backgrounds *See Professional Edge on pg. 284 in the textbook Identifying Gifted Students Process has become more complex Recommended procedures: Traditional methods Intelligence and Achievements Tests Grades Teacher Recommendations Non-traditional methods Nonverbal ability tests Creativity tests Portfolios Performance-based measures Parent & peer recommendations Cognitive and Academic Characteristics Extraordinary amount of knowledge due to curiosity Keen memory Unusual ability to concentrate Wide variety of interests High levels of language development and verbal ability Ability to generate original ideas Ability to comprehend information using accelerated and flexible thought processes Ability to recognize relationships in diverse ideas Strong capacity to form and use conceptual frameworks Skilled problem solvers Social and Emotional Characteristics Unusual sensitivity to others’ feelings Highly developed emotional depth and intensity Keen sense of humor Sense of justice Feel obligated to help others Set high expectations for themselves and others Frustrated when expectations are not met Possible Social Situations or Issues Well liked by Seen as a peers “show off” Sought out as Unpopular helpmates Isolated Self-confident Feel alienated Strong positive depressed self-concept Generally happy Possible Behavioral Situations or Issues Model students Negative behavior can Class leaders be amplified Seldom problems compared to peers’ Sensitive to others’ Intense interest in a feelings topic Moderate behavior Refusal to change based on others’ topics needs Become bossy Purposefully failing Valuing/participating in counterculture activities Interventions for Gifted/Talented Students Curriculum Compacting Acceleration Enrichment Differentiation Individualized Interventions Curriculum Compacting Student achievement of instructional goals assessed Instructional goals that have already been met are thrown out Time then used To pursue special interests Work with a mentor Study same topic on a more advance level Acceleration Students allowed to skip a grade or complete standards for two grades in one year May refer to a single subject (in high school) May refer to Advanced Placement (AP) programs Students receive college credit for high school courses Enrichment Instructional approach that challenges students with additions to the regular curriculum with Information Materials Assignments Teachers find and prepare these additions then create alternative activities that relate to the curriculum Students must be given the time and resources to work on these activities Enrichment ≠ extra work Differentiation Based on the understanding that all students should be given multiple ways to reach their potential Perhaps the most practical intervention Way to accomplish differentiation Use the INCLUDE strategy Identify problem areas in Critical thinking Analysis Other advanced skills Address problem areas through integrated activities *See Professional Edge on pg. 285 in the textbook Individualized Interventions Particularly for students in special circumstances Students who live in poverty Students from non-dominant cultures Students with disabilities Interventions include Finding mentors Interaction with similar peers Use of technology that is essential to instruction Used as a resource Used as a tool for accessing learning Final Notes for Teachers Design effective instruction and activities for all students at many different ability levels Strategies used for gifted/talented students work for all types of students Remember no two students are the same Students at risk Who are they? Students who have been exposed to some condition or situation that negatively affects their learning. Characteristics: Students at risk are very diverse the main distinguishing qualities they posses are: the high likelihood that they will drop out of school prior to earning a high school diploma they display problems in monitoring their own learning and behavior tendency to be noncompliant language delays difficulties with social relationships problems understanding the consequences of their behavior. Three Main Categories Students who live in poverty Students who are abused or neglected Students who live with substance abuse or are substance abuse Students who live in poverty Score significantly lower on academic assessments More likely to have been retained at least once May lack proper meals and a safe warm place to sleep and play Worry about their families circumstances Older students might have to work weekends and nights, may have to miss school to baby sit younger siblings Are more likely to experience parental neglect Likely to transfer from school to school or stay with family and friends Students who are abused or neglected Include children who physically abused, sexually abused, psychologically abused or neglected Students who have been physically abused show visible signs such as bruises, burns or other untreated medical problems. Wear clothes inappropriate for weather Cry excessively or shows little or no response to pain Seem wary of physical contact Appear apprehensive when approached by others students Engage in vandalism Arrive early to or departs late from school, or is frequently absent Attempts to explain away unusual injuries Is fatigued, falls asleep Shows precocious or bizarre sexual behavior Students who live with substance abuse or are substance abusers Includes children who live in homes in which substance abuse occurs or who themselves are substance abusers Poor or erratic attendance Frequent physical complaints and visits to the nurse Morning tardiness, especially on Mondays Inappropriate fear about the possibility of parents being contacted Equating any drinking with being drunk or being alcoholic Perfectionistic and/or compulsive behavior Difficulty concentrating, hyperactivity Sudden emotional outburst, crying, temper tantrums Regression (thumb sucking) Friendlessness, isolation, withdrawn behavior Passivity during routine activities but active or focused during drug and alcohol awareness lessons Lingering after drug and alcohol awareness lessons to ask unrelated questions Signs of abuse or neglect Interventions for Students at Risk Set high but realistic expectations Establish peers as teaching partners Collaborate with other professionals Work closely with parents or caregivers Technology for Students at Risk Studies show that computers in schools are typically placed in locations more readily used by high achievers. For students at risk the use of computers tends to be for remedial and routine tasks instead of complex and challenging ones. To promote the use of computers for students at risk teachers can: Assure equal technology use regardless of gender, ethnicity, or achievement Create mini computer labs throughout the school Having roving computers that stay in the classroom Allow underserved students to take technology courses and earn credits towards graduation Encourage all students to join technology clubs Applications in Teaching Practice Diversity in a High School Class 1. Ivan Robinson-first-year high school teacher in an urban school district. 2. Confidence in knowledge of history civics, as well as his teaching skills. 3. Aware of increasingly diverse classroom environments Examples: 4. Thuan-immigrated to the United States from Vietnam, speaks very little English and seems overwhelmed by nearly everything at school 5. Sonny -- supposedly is taking medication for ADHD 6. Jenny – Jenna-- twins, struggling academically, supportive parents, unable to complete reading tasks. 7. Kimberly -- recently moved in the school district and is far ahead of the other students 8. Lisa-Paul -- impoverished students; reluctant to enter act with other students. Mr. Robinson realizes that at least half of the students have special needs of one sort or another. He wants to reach them all to share his love of history, and is not quite sure how he can accomplish this goal. Question # 2 Mr. Robinson could appeal to Section 504 to guarantee that all students in his class received the accommodation necessary to their needs of learn. Mr. Robinson for example should avoid for while the instructional practices and use small-group peer interaction. In small-groups students will have the opportunity to exchange information about themselves and their culture. Another suggestion to Mr. Robison could be add to his plan a theme that will help the students to learn about other culture like, do a research at the library (as some of the students probable does not have access to a computer at home) about Vietnam. Peer tutoring. Working together is a motivated way to improve students’ learning in a classroom and a chance for the students to take part in an integrated learning atmosphere. Not only Thuan, but also Sonny could be benefit for peer tutoring. A mentor program to give support to Mr. Robinson’s students could be another good strategy. All those strategies can help not only the students with extra need in Mr. Robinson class but everyone. Question # 3 Addressing Needs Schedule monthly meetings with parents Communication: phone calls, email, letters Ensure parents, student, and teacher are all in agreement Barriers Scheduling conflicts Language differences Resistance Addressing Barriers Translators Consultations or Professional Opinions Career Services Referrals for Advanced Placement Mentors Possible Biases Favor cooperative families Relating Biases Treat every student and family with the same attention All students deserve a productive learning environment Question # 6 Every teacher, new teachers or teachers with years of experience should always set high and realistic expectation for their students. Mr. Robinson should expect that his students would learn everything that they are able to as soon as they have the opportunity to do so. The diversity in Mr. Robinson’s classroom can be seem by him as a challenge that will provide the students with numerous options to learning every day Wo Lin Include Strategies Step #1 Identify Environments, Curricular and Instructional Classroom Demands Environment- Placed in a small group or pair Curricular- Having Wo Lin attend a resource class where she can learn basic consonant sounds, comprehension skills and vocabulary Instructional- Lessons thoroughly explained. Use of visuals and examples when explaining lessons and assignments. Step #2 Students learning strength and needs Wo Lin has a lot of special needs in regarding to her physical disability and the time that she lost from school during surgery. Because of her disability she is having problems with reading, spelling and arithmetic. In other hand, Wo Lin is extremely motivated to learn and from a high educational family background what is a positive aspect on her school life. Another positive aspect is the fact that Wo Lin is a easygoing person and has a lot of friends Step # 3 Check for potential areas of students success Extremely motivated to learn From an educationally ambitious family (parents will help her with homework) She reads at third grade level Good overall comprehension Arithmetic, she can perform basic operations Extremely pleasant, people person Step #4 Look for Potential Problem Areas Academic Situations: Limited Skills: Reading Arithmetic Vowels & Sounds Hand use Other Affected Areas: Recess Artistically Potential Problems Areas (Cont.) Social Situations: Limited English Embarrassed by writing skills Over-protective brothers Self-Criticism: Anxious in academic situations Negatively aware of her failure & disability Advancing to Higher Grades: Lacks language/reading skills Lacks more advance math skills Step #5 Use Information Gathered to Brainstorm Instructional Adaptations Limit the need for writing assignments Access to typing system/machine for assignments Paraprofessional or similar to assist in reading/writing of assignments More group activities = More opportunities to learn from peers Step #6 Decide Which Adaptations to Implement Select: Age-appropriate adaptations Should match student’s age not ability Easiest to adaptations first Should not take excessive time to implement Should not interfere with teaching the entire class Adaptations you agree with Adaptations with demonstrated effectiveness Use research to help avoid fads and other ineffective practices Step # 7 Evaluate student progress Needs Assistive Technology, needs interpreter, visuals After Wo Lin has been accommodated with the necessary tools for effective learning depending on her progress she will reach a higher level.