Other Students With Special Needs

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					Other Students With
   Special Needs
         Chapter 8
Section 504
   All students with special needs
    who do not meet the eligibility
    criteria for receiving services
    through IDEA are considered
    disabled as defined by Section
Understanding Section 504

   1- What is disability
   according to Section
In Section 504, any condition that
substantially limits a major life
activity, such as the ability to learn
in school, is defined as a
Same examples of students that
are eligible for assistance through
section 504:
   Students that are photophobic;
   Students with significant
    attention problems;
   Students with chronic health
2- No funds are provided to
school districts to carry out the
requirements of Section 504.

   The expectation is that schools
    should take whatever steps are
    necessary to eliminate
    discrimination as defined
    through this statute.
3- The responsibility for
making accommodations for
students who qualify as
disabled through Section 504
belongs to general education

   The types of accommodations
    required vary based on student
Section 504 and Students
With Medical or Health Needs
 Two common        Students with
                    medical or health
 groups that        needs
 qualify for
                   Students with
 Section 504:       attention deficit-
                    disorder (ADHD)

   Administrators:        Teachers: they
    they have the           have the
    responsibility to       responsibility of
    authorize               implement
    physical                instructional
    modifications to        adaptations
    classroom and           outline in the
    make the                plan.
     Attention Deficit Hyperactivity
            Disorder (ADHD)

  The medical condition in which students
    have significant inability to attend,
excessive motor activity, and/ or impulsivity.
Students are eligible for services through IDEA, but many receive assistance
                             through Section 504.
   You might hear the term attention
    deficit disorder (ADD) being used
    to label the condition. ADD is an
    earlier term for describing
    attention problems. The term
    ADHD and ADD is used
    interchangeably by many.
    Students with ADHD have
  symptoms that fall into one of 3

   1. ADHD: predominantly inattentive type.
     Students in this group often appear to
   daydream, not hear teacher’s directions
  sometimes skip parts of a assignment that
they do not notice and frequently lose things.
  They do not move around more than their
2. ADHD: predominantly hyperactive-
impulsive type. Students in this group are
hyperactive, they move around more than
their peers, tend to be impulsive, acting
before thinking, squirm in their seats, tap
pencils or fingers, and blurt out answers
during instruction.

   3. ADHD: combined type. Students display
    the characteristics of both of the other
    types of ADHD. The experience difficulty
    both in focusing their attention and in
    restricting their movement.
                      Did You Know

Estimate of the prevalence of ADHD range from less than
 1% to more than 20% of school age children but expert
   says it affects 3-7 % of students, making it the most
  commonly diagnosed childhood psychiatric disorder.

Boys are diagnosed with ADHD approximately three times
  more frequently than girls, boys symptoms are more
                 noticeable than girl’s.

   ADHD also occurs frequently with other disabilities,
 approximately 26% of students with learning disabilities
and 43% of students with behavioral or emotional disability
                   also have ADHD.
 Cause of ADHD are not clear. Students who have ADHD
are likely to have a family pattern of disorder. If two parents
have ADHD, their child is three times more then likely than
               other children to have it as well.

  The brains of individuals with ADHD are different from
    those of others. The amount of electrical activity is
unusually low in the parts of the brain regulating attention,
 and the chemicals in the brain that transmit information
 may not function properly. Environment may also play a
role in casing ADHD. Children prone to have this disorder
  who live in very unstructured homes are more likely to
                        develop it.
Characteristics and Needs of Students with ADHD
Cognitively, students with ADHD can function at any level.
        Students who are below average in ability and
  achievement, students who are average learners, and
  students who are gifted and talented can have ADHD.
ADHD is the inability to regulate attention. When students
fail to carry out the mental activities that help most people
 regulate their behavior called executive functions which
                     include four activities
   Working memory. The             Control of emotions
    ability to remember              and motivation. Ability
    what task are                    to talk oneself into
    supposed to be done              calming down when
    and how much time                faced with a difficult or
    there is to do them.             frustrating task
                                   Reconstitution. Ability to
    Self directed speech.
                                    combine skills learned
    Silent self talk that
                                    across a variety of
    most people use to
                                    settings in order to carry
    manage complex tasks
                                    out a new task, such as
                                    a student’s knowledge
                                    that the rule for speaking
                                    in a low voice applies not
                                    only in their classrooms
                                    but also in the hallways,
                                    lunchroom and office.
                      8.1 ADHD Behavior Characteristics

making careless mistakes, difficulty sustaining attention, seeming not to listen,
 failing to finish tasks, difficulty organizing, avoiding tasks requiring sustained
               attention, losing things, easily distracted, forgetfulness

 fidgeting, restless, talking excessively, difficulty making and keeping friends,
                  temper tantrums, acting bossy, being defiant

 blurting answers, acting before thinking, difficult waiting turn, intruding upon
                        others, failing to read directions

  - ADHD students are likely to be depressed or have low confidence or self-
       There are 5 interventions used for students with ADHD

1.   Environmental Supports, arranging your classroom can foster learning
     or impede it, classroom should be free of distracting items like hanged
     mobiles, have clear classroom rules, assign peer partner to assist

2.   Academic Interventions, emphasize only essential information, keep
     oral instruction brief, provide multiple examples, recapping what you
     say, list direction by number, for reading comprehension read short
     passage, for math more time to complete assignments, keep pace
     rapid, use manipulative, repeat answers

3.   Behavior Interventions, specific verbal praise, stickers or other
     symbols of appropriate behaviors, games that emphasize rewards for
     positive behaviors, reprimands and consequences needed at times, sit
     near front of the room

4.   Parent Education, invite parents to learn strategies for responding to
     their child’s behavior, create discipline system that includes both
     rewards and consequences, learn their children rights

5.    Use of Medication, decision made by parents with their physician, 2.5
     million students take medicine for ADHD and medicine is effective for
     70-80%, most common type of medicine is stimulant medication,
     including Ritalin, Cylert, Adderell, and Focalin. Students take
     antidepressants such as Norpramin, Tofranil, Zoloft; antihypertensive
     such as Clonodine, Tenex, and Strattera (New medicine)
 Families of Children with
       -Significant stress for parents and siblings
-some parents struggle with their own role in their children
-Teachers have to be careful not to blame parents for their
                     children’s ADHD
Accommodations for
Gifted/Talented Students
   Who are they?
       Students with extraordinary
        abilities and skills
   Giftedness = Talented
       Terms used to be exclusive
   Federally defined in:
       1988 Gifted and Talented
        Students Education Act (P.L. 100-
    What P.L. 100-297 defines

   “Identifies children and youth who
    possess demonstrated or potential
    high-performance capability in
    intellectual, creative, specific
    academic and leadership areas, or
    the performing and visual arts.”

            (- Friend & Bursuck 2006)
   States these students need
    special services but doesn’t
    specify those services

   Local and state policies determine
    the extent of these programs
Prevalence of Programs Depend On
1.      Traditional criteria for identifying
        students has been questioned as well
        the definition
      •    Gardner argues IQ tests are too
          –   Problem solving ability is more conclusive
          –   Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences

     1. Verbal/linguistic           5. Musical
     2. Visual/spatial              6. Intrapersonal
     3. Logical/mathematical        7. Interpersonal
     4. Bodily/Kinesthetic          8. Naturalist
 Prevalence of Programs Depend On
2.       Notion of potential
     •     Some students easily identifiable
     •     Some students mask their abilities
           –   Low expectations are set for them
           –   Unique needs go are not nurtured
     •     Students at risk for going unnoticed
           –   Young boys
           –   Adolescent girls
           –   Genius students
           –   Students with disabilities
           –   Students from racially or culturally diverse

*See Professional Edge on pg. 284 in the textbook
Identifying Gifted Students
   Process has become more complex
   Recommended procedures:
       Traditional methods
            Intelligence and Achievements Tests
            Grades
            Teacher Recommendations
       Non-traditional methods
            Nonverbal ability tests
            Creativity tests
            Portfolios
            Performance-based measures
            Parent & peer recommendations
Cognitive and Academic Characteristics
   Extraordinary amount of knowledge due to
   Keen memory
   Unusual ability to concentrate
   Wide variety of interests
   High levels of language development and verbal
   Ability to generate original ideas
   Ability to comprehend information using
    accelerated and flexible thought processes
   Ability to recognize relationships in diverse ideas
   Strong capacity to form and use conceptual
   Skilled problem solvers
Social and Emotional
   Unusual sensitivity to others’ feelings
   Highly developed emotional depth
    and intensity
   Keen sense of humor
   Sense of justice
   Feel obligated to help others
   Set high expectations for themselves
    and others
   Frustrated when expectations are
    not met
Possible Social Situations or
   Well liked by        Seen as a
    peers                 “show off”
   Sought out as        Unpopular
    helpmates            Isolated
   Self-confident       Feel alienated
   Strong positive      depressed
   Generally happy
    Possible Behavioral Situations or
   Model students            Negative behavior can
   Class leaders              be amplified
   Seldom problems            compared to peers’
   Sensitive to others’      Intense interest in a
    feelings                   topic
   Moderate behavior         Refusal to change
    based on others’           topics
    needs                     Become bossy
                              Purposefully failing
                              Valuing/participating in
Interventions for Gifted/Talented

   Curriculum Compacting
   Acceleration
   Enrichment
   Differentiation
   Individualized Interventions
Curriculum Compacting

   Student achievement of
    instructional goals assessed
   Instructional goals that have
    already been met are thrown out
   Time then used
     To pursue special interests
     Work with a mentor

     Study same topic on a more
      advance level

   Students allowed to skip a grade
    or complete standards for two
    grades in one year
   May refer to a single subject (in
    high school)
   May refer to Advanced
    Placement (AP) programs
       Students receive college credit for
        high school courses
   Instructional approach that challenges
    students with additions to the regular
    curriculum with
       Information
       Materials
       Assignments
   Teachers find and prepare these
    additions then create alternative
    activities that relate to the curriculum
   Students must be given the time and
    resources to work on these activities
   Enrichment ≠ extra work
   Based on the understanding that all
    students should be given multiple ways
    to reach their potential
   Perhaps the most practical intervention
   Way to accomplish differentiation
       Use the INCLUDE strategy
       Identify problem areas in
            Critical thinking
            Analysis
            Other advanced skills
       Address problem areas through integrated

*See Professional Edge on pg. 285 in the textbook
    Individualized Interventions
   Particularly for students in special
        Students who live in poverty
        Students from non-dominant cultures
        Students with disabilities
   Interventions include
        Finding mentors
        Interaction with similar peers
        Use of technology that is essential to
           Used as a resource
           Used as a tool for accessing learning
Final Notes for Teachers

   Design effective instruction and
    activities for all students at many
    different ability levels
   Strategies used for
    gifted/talented students work for
    all types of students
   Remember no two students are
    the same
        Students at risk
                      Who are they?
  Students who have been exposed to some condition or
      situation that negatively affects their learning.

  Students at risk are very diverse the main distinguishing
                    qualities they posses are:
 the high likelihood that they will drop out of school  prior
to earning a high school diploma
 they display problems in monitoring their own learning
and behavior
tendency to be noncompliant
language delays
difficulties with social relationships
problems understanding the consequences of their
Three Main Categories
   Students who live in poverty
   Students who are abused or
   Students who live with substance
    abuse or are substance abuse
Students who live in poverty
   Score significantly lower on academic
   More likely to have been retained at least once
   May lack proper meals and a safe warm place to
    sleep and play
   Worry about their families circumstances
   Older students might have to work weekends
    and nights, may have to miss school to baby sit
    younger siblings
   Are more likely to experience parental neglect
    Likely to transfer from school to school or stay
    with family and friends
Students who are abused or
Include children who physically abused, sexually
   abused, psychologically abused or neglected

   Students who have been physically abused
    show visible signs such as bruises, burns or
    other untreated medical problems.
   Wear clothes inappropriate for weather
   Cry excessively or shows little or no response
    to pain
   Seem wary of physical contact
   Appear apprehensive when approached by
    others students
   Engage in vandalism
   Arrive early to or departs late from school, or is
    frequently absent
   Attempts to explain away unusual injuries
   Is fatigued, falls asleep
   Shows precocious or bizarre sexual behavior
Students who live with substance abuse
or are substance abusers

    Includes children who live in homes in which substance
    abuse occurs or who themselves are substance abusers

   Poor or erratic attendance
   Frequent physical complaints and visits to the nurse
   Morning tardiness, especially on Mondays
   Inappropriate fear about the possibility of parents being
   Equating any drinking with being drunk or being alcoholic
   Perfectionistic and/or compulsive behavior
   Difficulty concentrating, hyperactivity
   Sudden emotional outburst, crying, temper tantrums
   Regression (thumb sucking)
   Friendlessness, isolation, withdrawn behavior
   Passivity during routine activities but active or focused
    during drug and alcohol awareness lessons
   Lingering after drug and alcohol awareness lessons to
    ask unrelated questions
   Signs of abuse or neglect
Interventions for Students at
   Set high but realistic
   Establish peers as teaching
   Collaborate with other
   Work closely with parents or
Technology for Students at
    Studies show that computers in schools are typically
    placed in locations more readily used by high
    achievers. For students at risk the use of computers
    tends to be for remedial and routine tasks instead of
    complex and challenging ones.

To promote the use of computers for students at risk
   teachers can:

   Assure equal technology use regardless of gender,
    ethnicity, or achievement
   Create mini computer labs throughout the school
   Having roving computers that stay in the classroom
   Allow underserved students to take technology
    courses and earn credits towards graduation
   Encourage all students to join technology clubs
Applications in Teaching
 Diversity in a High School Class
1.    Ivan Robinson-first-year high school
teacher in an urban school district.
2.    Confidence in knowledge of history
civics, as well as his teaching skills.
3.    Aware of increasingly diverse
classroom environments
4.    Thuan-immigrated to the United
States from Vietnam, speaks very little
English and seems overwhelmed by
nearly everything at school
5.    Sonny -- supposedly is taking
medication for ADHD
6.    Jenny – Jenna-- twins, struggling
academically, supportive parents, unable
to complete reading tasks.
7.    Kimberly -- recently moved in the
school district and is far ahead of the
other students
8.    Lisa-Paul -- impoverished students;
reluctant to enter act with other students.

Mr. Robinson realizes that at least half of
the students have special needs of one
sort or another. He wants to reach them
all to share his love of history, and is not
quite sure how he can accomplish this
    Question # 2
 Mr. Robinson could appeal to Section 504 to guarantee that all
  students in his class received the accommodation necessary to their
  needs of learn.
 Mr. Robinson for example should avoid for while the instructional
  practices and use small-group peer interaction. In small-groups
  students will have the opportunity to exchange information about
  themselves and their culture.
 Another suggestion to Mr. Robison could be add to his plan a theme
  that will help the students to learn about other culture like, do a
  research at the library (as some of the students probable does not
  have access to a computer at home) about Vietnam.
 Peer tutoring. Working together is a motivated way to improve
  students’ learning in a classroom and a chance for the students to
  take part in an integrated learning atmosphere. Not only Thuan, but
  also Sonny could be benefit for peer tutoring.
 A mentor program to give support to Mr. Robinson’s students could
  be another good strategy.
 All those strategies can help not only the students with extra need in
  Mr. Robinson class but everyone.
Question # 3
Addressing Needs
  Schedule monthly meetings with parents
  Communication: phone calls, email, letters
  Ensure parents, student, and teacher are all in
  Scheduling conflicts
  Language differences
Addressing Barriers
  Consultations or Professional Opinions
  Career Services
  Referrals for Advanced Placement
Possible Biases
  Favor cooperative families
Relating Biases
  Treat every student and family with the same
  All students deserve a productive learning
Question # 6

 Every teacher, new teachers or teachers with
  years of experience should always set high and
  realistic expectation for their students.
 Mr. Robinson should expect that his students
  would learn everything that they are able to as
  soon as they have the opportunity to do so. The
  diversity in Mr. Robinson’s classroom can be
  seem by him as a challenge that will provide the
  students with numerous options to learning
  every day
Wo Lin
Include Strategies
                Step #1
Identify Environments, Curricular and
  Instructional Classroom Demands
 Environment- Placed in a small group or
    Curricular- Having Wo Lin attend a
 resource class where she can learn basic
consonant sounds, comprehension skills and
     Instructional- Lessons thoroughly
  explained. Use of visuals and examples
 when explaining lessons and assignments.
                   Step #2
 Students learning strength and needs

 Wo Lin has a lot of special needs in regarding to
  her physical disability and the time that she lost
  from school during surgery.
 Because of her disability she is having problems
  with reading, spelling and arithmetic. In other
  hand, Wo Lin is extremely motivated to learn
  and from a high educational family background
  what is a positive aspect on her school life.
 Another positive aspect is the fact that Wo Lin is
  a easygoing person and has a lot of friends
                     Step # 3
      Check for potential areas of students
   Extremely motivated to learn
   From an educationally ambitious family
    (parents will help her with homework)
   She reads at third grade level
   Good overall comprehension
   Arithmetic, she can perform basic
   Extremely pleasant, people person
               Step #4
           Look for Potential
            Problem Areas
 Academic Situations:
   Limited Skills:
      Reading
      Arithmetic
      Vowels & Sounds
      Hand use
   Other Affected Areas:
      Recess
      Artistically
 Potential Problems Areas (Cont.)
 Social Situations:
   Limited English
   Embarrassed by writing skills
   Over-protective brothers
 Self-Criticism:
   Anxious in academic situations
   Negatively aware of her failure & disability
 Advancing to Higher Grades:
   Lacks language/reading skills
   Lacks more advance math skills
               Step #5
      Use Information Gathered
     to Brainstorm Instructional
 Limit the need for writing assignments
 Access to typing system/machine for
 Paraprofessional or similar to assist in
  reading/writing of assignments
 More group activities = More opportunities
  to learn from peers
             Step #6
    Decide Which Adaptations to
 Select:
   Age-appropriate adaptations
      Should match student’s age not ability
   Easiest to adaptations first
      Should not take excessive time to implement
      Should not interfere with teaching the entire class
   Adaptations you agree with
   Adaptations with demonstrated effectiveness
      Use research to help avoid fads and other
       ineffective practices
                Step # 7
        Evaluate student progress
 Needs Assistive Technology, needs
  interpreter, visuals
 After Wo Lin has been accommodated
  with the necessary tools for effective
  learning depending on her progress she
  will reach a higher level.