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					Reading
                 Logograms
• Def – ideograms that represent a word or
  morpheme in addition to a concept
• Chinese writing system – mostly logographic.
  (Some characters have phonetic components)
  – Egyptian hieroglyphs also developed into a logographic
    writing system, since they correspond to sounds and
    words
                 English logograms
              $, @, %, X (as in XING)
                         Syllabaries
• Writing systems
  that have one
  symbol for each
  syllable                   Left – romanji (Roman syllable)
                                    Middle – hiragana
  – Not practical for
                                      Right - Kanji
    languages such as
    English, which
    have ~14,000
    possible syllables
 Alphabetic Writing Systems

• Follow the phonemic principle. (Mostly)
  represent phonemes in a language – not
  allophones! (which distinguishes them from phonetic alphabets)
• First alphabetic script: Semitic
   – Developed in Syria and Palestine between 1500
     and 2000 B.C.

               Example of the phonemic principle: plural
               “s” is always written with the same letter,
               regardless of whether it’s actually [s] or [z]
Different kinds of alphabets

• Semitic (Hebrew, Arabic): only consonants
• Greek (adapted into Latin, Cyrillic, …): consonants
  and vowels
• Korean: phonemes represented in units of
  syllables
                         abcde      αβγδε
                          абвгд         ‫אבגדה‬
                                ‫ابتثج‬
Korean: phonemic units grouped by syllable

• 17 consonants and 11 vowels
  – /l/ and /r/ represented by the same symbol, as
    variants of the one phoneme
• Consonants drawn to depict the place of
  articulation
  – /m/ - suggests closing lips
  – /k/ suggests raising back of tongue to velum
• Grouped into blocks, each representing a syllable
Psycholinguistics and reading

• How does the style of writing affect the
  process of reading?
  –   L  R / R  L / top  bottom
  –   logographic / syllabic / alphabetic
  –   vowels written or not
  –   sound-symbol correspondence
Psycholinguistics and reading
• logographic systems:
  – high memory load, right hemisphere activity?
• syllabaries:
  – easy symbol-sound correspondence, abstract
    symbols. longer words (mean > 2.1 syllables)
• alphabets:
  – if (ir)regular spelling, difficult to decode?
   Reading is NOT innate!

• Children & non-readers have no natural
  desire to link word length with visual
  length!
       – show children the words “two” and
         “toothbrush”, say the words to them,
         and they perform at chance, with no
         preference of matching the longer
         words with each other
    How do we learn to read?
• Phonetically? (phonologically)
  – Easy with high letter-sound correspondences
  – Children 9-10 y.o. read better when taught
    phonetically (in English)

  – Intermediate readers read phonologically
  – Fluent readers read orthographically
          where/wear, too/two
   How do we learn to read?
• Direct Route?
  – Whole-word, “look and say” methods
  – Higher initial success
       – But fluent readers have little
        difficulty in identifying words in
        unfamiliar forms
          - AlTeRnAtInG cAsE
             only slows word recognition by 10%
          -Cmabridge e-mail forward
  The Protoliteracy Period
• Early period when precursors of written
  language are set (Barron, 1992)
• 2 best predictors of reading
  achievement:
  – phonological skills (syllables, rhyming)
  – ability to recognize letters
Developing phonological skills
• Phonological skills develop in stages:
  – First: segment syllables
     • ma.ma / da.dy
  – Then: separate onsets and rimes
     • cat / bat / mat / hat / rat
     • dad / did / do / dug / dinner / dog
  – Finally: recognize individual phonemes
     • peach / speech          speed / spud
      Linguistic guesswork:
Developing phonological awareness

 • Guessing words based on one or more letters
   – “like” as “black”
   – “of” as “off”
 • Invented spelling: (reflects what they
   do/don’t hear in the speech stream)
   – “numbers” AS nubrs
   – “lady” AS lade
   – “genius” AS gnus (Treiman, 1993)
Does your writing system shape
your phonological development?
• Japanese children cannot initially segment
  words at the phonemic level (neither can
  literate Chinese adults)
• But English children can by 2nd Grade
  – Phonemic awareness develops because of
    exposure to phonemic writing system
           Reading Studies
• fMRI’s – don’t access sounds in reading:
  – In normal reading, phonological processing
    areas aren’t active
    • Become active in rhyming tasks
• Frequency matters!
  – Do we read “sesquipedalian” the same way we
    read “feet”?
    IS X a part of the body?
• Guy van Orden – Homophones
• Task: judge whether words like ___ are… (e.g.
  parts of the body):
  – FEAT / HARE
• Errors happen more often with infrequent
  words in a language. (less often with pairs like
  SUN / SON)
        Conclusion: frequent words are
          accessed directly, but less
          frequent words are accessed
          through their sounds
      Another example:
• Eye want two play tennis, butt eye
  dew knot have uh racket!

• (if our access were completely
  phonological, this should not be hard
  to understand!)
 Measuring Subvocalization

• Micro-muscular movements occur if
  accessing phonology
  – In beginning and intermediate readers
  – When fluent readers encounter new,
    uncommon, or difficult words
                        Eye-tracking
                 http://www.mpi.nl/world/tg/eye-tracking/eye-tracking.html




• fixation: the length of time the eye is focused on
  one spot (>200-250 ms)
• saccade: quick jumps between fixations, little or
  no information gained (25-30 ms)
• lengths of fixations influenced by:
  – word length, frequency, grammatical function (longer
    fixations on verbs than nouns), predictability, overall
    complexity
          Fun note: your eyes spend
     approximately 50 minutes/day jumping in
          saccades, (Prof. David Erwin – UIUC)
               Fixations
• In English, a fixation allows you to “see”:
  (2 or 3 + X + ~15) letters
     that underlined l
          underlined letter yo
                      letter your eye landed
• image on retina is fairly symmetrical
  around fixation point
          that underlined letter yo
      Size/Direction of saccades
• Length of saccade depends on script
  –   In Chinese – 2 characters (2 whole words)
  –   Japanese – 3.5 characters (syllables)
  –   Hebrew – 5.5 characters (no vowels written)
  –   English - 7 +/- 3 characters (vowels and consonants)


• In English, 85-90% of jumps are rightward
  – direction of saccades determined by language
you can gain information from a large window of text
you can gain information from a large window of text
you can gain information from a large window of text
you can gain information from a large window of text
you can gain information from a large window of text
you can gain information from a large window of text
you can gain information from a large window of text
you can gain information from a large window of text
you can gain information from a large window of text
  Eye-tracking Experiments
             (McConkie & Rayner)


• Manipulated number of characters
  viewed to see how far ahead/behind we
  look while reading
• Anything less than: (2or3 + X + 15) letters
  slows reading time
• No improvements with larger windows
• Only current word under fixation is
  actually recognized
the politician read the spaach to his colleagues
the politician read the speech to his colleagues
   Eye-tracking Experiments
                (McConkie & Rayner)


• SPAACH presented until it was time for the
  eyes to fixate on the word, and then replaced
  with SPEECH
• If the change happened:
  – > 12 characters to the left of SPAACH, no extra
    fixations
  – 7-12 characters to the left, no conscious ability to
    notice change, but increased fixation time
  – within fixation, subjects are aware of change
the politician read the blaart to his colleagues
the politician read the speech to his colleagues
   Eye-tracking Experiments
                 (McConkie & Rayner)

• BLAART presented, then replaced with SPEECH
• If the change happened:
  – > 12 characters to the left of BLAART, no extra
    fixations
  – 7-12 characters to the left, not conscious of change,
    but longer fixation time than with SPAACH
• Some visual information is gained prior to actual
  fixation !
+
invincible
What was the word?
+
intolerable
What was the word?
invincible
  +
intolerable
        +
Where in the word do we
        fixate?
• Kevin O’Regan: fixate on point, then word
  appeared – centered around that point,
  or shifted to one side or another
• Optimum position just left of center of
  word
• Short/predictable words can be
  recognized while eyes are fixating on
  preceding word
     (They don’t have their own fixations)
    Reading is automatic
  (you can’t help but read this!)

• In psychology, we distinguish between:
  – automatic processes: understanding first
    language, breathing, feeling hunger, and reading
    (for fluent readers)
  – attentional processes: focusing on task,
    understanding foreign language, reading (for
    beginners)
                 Stroop task
 http://www.snre.umich.edu/eplab/demos/st0/stroopdesc.html




• Demonstrates the automaticity of reading
  (Also shows our inability to “turn off” our
  native language)
• Used in WWII to detect spies

				
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