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									      WORLD
     CIVILIZATION
       HISTORY 106 – A COMPARATIVE
INTERDISCIPLINARY STUDY OF THE HISTORY OF
   HUMAN SOCIAL ORGANIZATION FROM THE
   EARLIEST TIMES UNTIL THE 17TH CENTURY
                           Universals?
Necessities: (reproduction based): food, water, shelter,
reproduction/ child raising?, waste, reflection, creativity, spiritual
expression.


Subsistence:         scavenging – hunting-fishing/ gathering – slash &
burn (swidden) – horticulture - pastoralism – agriculture


Social Organization: family – clan – band/ tribe – nation
(semi-nomadic, or nomadic) – village – town – city – city/ state – state –
nation/ state.
                   Civilization
Organized human responses to change, seeking
equilibrium or being civilized. Well bred and
complaisant. Highly developed social organization.
Change may be gradual or catastrophic –

A daptations to change                    A gents of change
Culture                                   Environment
      Beliefs
      Observations (receptivity)          Geographic

Social                             Theo-philosophic
         Political
         Economic                  Ideological
         Technologic
                                   Technologic
                                             > war/ invasion
                                   Economic
History:      History is the interpretation of the
incomplete written record or oral tradition of the
experiences of humans through the contexts of time.
While history demands many types of critique – such as
political, economic, technological, or social critique –
all are dependant on documents and their
interpretation. History, like language, is very plastic.
Society: A society is an artificial construction of a collection
of linked formal and informal institutions that govern group
behavior.

Culture:       Culture is the set of conscious and unconscious
beliefs and assumptions about the way in which world works that
governs individual behavior.

Diffusion: The movement or spread of one or more
elements of a society or culture from one place to another.
Community:              Communities are formed from the interactions
of culture and society. When individuals are united into groups by
complimentary internal (cultural) and external (social) influences, the
groups of people can be identified as communities.
Race:       Biologically, there is only one race – human. A ll other
categories of race are artificial social constructs of classification based on
visual differences, cultural expressions, political necessity, and economic
priority. What is commonly called race is really racism. The history of
the concept of race parallels the development of the human identity.


Racism (also called ethnocentrism)
When a labeled group is disadvantaged socially based on the artificial
classifications of race by another group in possession of the unearned
power and privilege to do so* .


Ethnicity:        Ethnicity refers to heritage or culture expressed over
time. The cultural history of a group of people produces differences in
populations that give rise to ethnicity.
Class: Class is the stratified level of economic opportunity within a
culture or society. Class differences – differences in opportunity and
access – may be based on racism, ethnicity, gender, education, age,
disability or a host of other recognized group classifications.


Gender :          For the purposes of this discussion, the term gender
will include gender orientations as in the case of gay men and lesbians.


Nationality:               Nationality is a political description of place of
birth or naturalization.
                  A sibiya:
Social glue (voluntary to coercive).

What happened to the ancient and old civilizations?

A re all civilizations temporary? What about ours?

Is there progress?

Why do civilizations seem to “ rise and fall?”
Determinism:                    Causation. Cause and effect models. Dialectic
x+ y = z. If you drop a ____, when it hits the ____, it makes_____.
Theoretical orientation.


Critique:               Identification of apparent conflicts and resolving those
conflicts



Thesis                                                      A ntithesis
      \                                                                 /
            \                                                       /
                \                                               /
                    \                                       /
                         \                              /


                                Synthesis
In addition there are some concepts that are useful in the discussion of
world civilization.


Push Factor:          Push factors cause individuals or groups to
relocate from one place to another.


Pull Factor:         Pull factors draw individuals or groups to a specific
location.


Diaspora:       Diaspora refers to the (often forced) dispersal of
populations from a specific location to several locations throughout the
world.
POLITICAL SYSTEMS
  Matriarchical societies and patriarchical societies.
  Families, bands, and tribes.
  Hunting and gathering.
  Horticulture and settled agriculture.
  Pastoralism, nomadic and semi-nomadic societies.
  Agriculture and the rise of the state.
  Monarchy and theocracy.
  Military organization and civilized life.
  The nation-state.
  Oligarchy and democracy.
    The republic & empire
ECONOMIC SYSTEMS
  Altruism and egalitarian exchange.
  Agricultural surplus, division of labor, and class
   divisions.
  Specialization of labor, labor organization, and
   production.
  The role of private property.
  The concept of monetary capital and capitalism.
  Class and caste.
  Trade, mercantilism and economic
   specializations.
TECHNOLOGY
  Lithic technology and metallurgy.
  Agriculture, astronomy, religion, and
  early scientific thought.
  Water technologies.
  Agricultural technologies.
  Architecture.
  Military technologies.
SOCIAL & CULTURAL SYSTEMS
  Female and male gender roles.
  Feminist approaches to gender.
  Homosexualities, heterosexualities,
  intersexualities, and transgender issues.
  Religion and religious diversity.
  Art and literature.
  Philosophy and reason.
  Migrations and population movement.
  Urbanization and social consciousness
SOCIAL & CULTURAL SYSTEMS
  Social justice, and civil rights
  movements.
  Ethnic consciousness movements.
  Gender movements.
  Generational age cohort.
  Disability, ability, and social identity.
  Disease and medicine.
                      WORLD CIVILIZATION
                   IN THE TIME OF PRE-LITERACY
                              17,000 YEARS BPE
   Sophisticated hunter-gatherer cultures with diverse toolkits appropriate to their
   environments and resources. Dogs have been domesticated. Art flourishes.


                              12,000 YEARS BP
  AFRICA            AMERICAS              ASIA             EUROPE              OCEANA
 SAN hunter-gathers Tehuacanos             Jarmo            -----------          Mammoth cave
Qadan horticulture     (Mexico)         Natufian Jericho      Knossos
     (Egypt)                                                  (olives)
Saharan cattle herders                                        Karanovo
     (Tassili)
                            7000 BP (5000BC)
AFRICA          AMERICAS            ASIA       EUROPE         OCEANA
Badarian agriculture Cochise (SWNA) Yangshao     Danubian        Kuk
  (wheat/barley)        (maize)        (rice)     (wheat)     (yams/taro)
                                      Hacilar
                                     Catal Huyuk


                            6000 BP (4000BC)
Pre-unification Egypt Archaic period  Ubaid          Minoan     Melanesian
Unified archaic Egypt                Harrapan        Varna      expansion
   Narmer/Menes                      Non Nok Tha
                                     Loang Spean
                                   5000 BP (3000BC)
  AFRICA         AMERICAS             ASIA          EUROPE                OCEANA
Old Kingdom Egypt     Preclassic      Indus         (Kurgan) Battle Axe        Lapita
Pyramids                             Ban Chieng      Beaker Folk
                                      Lungshan           Troy
                                        Sumer
                                     Sargon of Akkad


                                   4000 BP (2000BC)
Old Kingdom Egypt     Early Olmecs     Shang China       Myceneans
Intermediate Period                      Hitittes         Thera
 Middle Kingdom                           (Iron)
                                        Babylonians
                                      Aryan Invasions    Barbarian Invasions
                              3000 BP (1000BC)
AFRICA           AMERICAS         ASIA         EUROPE                 OCEANA
Middle Kingdom      Olmecs      Assyrians     Hellenic Greece
New Kingdom        Adena        Phoenicians   (Pericles through Alexander)
 Late Period       Hopewell    Canaanites      Carthage
Bantu Kingdoms      Anasazi    Gupta India     Etruscans/Rome
                               Han China       La Tene/Hallstatt
                                               Celts & Germania

                               2000 BP (1 AD)
Ghana              Maya          China          Rome                   Polynesians
 WORLD
CIVILIZATION
THEMES IN WORLD
    HISTORY
Who was the First?
   The case for Asia -   MESOPOTAMIA
                         (Sumer)

   The case for Africa   -   EGYPT
                             (Kemet)
EMPIRES
WAR
AGRICULTURE
RELIGION
GENDER
RACE
CLASS
LABOR
ART & LITERATURE
African
     Civilizations
The Nile River Valley
West Asian
    Civilizations
Mesopotamia & Indus
Mesopotamian
      Civilization
 The Tigris & Euphrates
     River Valleys
Harappan
      Civilization
The Indus River Valley
Asian Civilizations

Early China
American
    Civilization
North and South America
European
    Civilization
Minoan & Mycenean

								
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