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					                   KUWAIT DANA LUBES CO.
                 ENGINEERING REFERENCE FOR
                      LUBRICATING OILS

INDEX


I    LUBRICATING OIL CHARACTERISTICS
     A.   Base Oil
          1.    Base Oil Characteristics
                a)    Viscosity
                b)    Viscosity Index
                c)    Flash Point
                d)    Pour Point


           2.    Types of Base Oil
                 a)    Paraffinic Crude
                 b)    Naphthenic Crude

     B.    Additives
                  1. Anti-foam
                  2. Pour Point Depressant
                  3. Oxidation Inhibitor
                  4. Rust Inhibitor
                  5. Anti-wear and/or Extreme Pressure “EP” Additives
                  6. Detergent/Dispersant
                  7. Viscosity Index Improver

II   AUTOMOTIVE OILS
     A.  Motor Oils
         1.    Functions of Motor Oils
         2.    Classification Systems
                 a)     Viscosity Classification – SAE J300b
                 b)     Performance Classification System
                      (1) API
                      (2) Military
                      (3) Engine Manufacturers
         3.    Diesel Engine oil Summary




                                     1
       B.      Automatic Transmission Fluids
               1.   Type A
               2.   Type A- Suffix A
               3.   Type F
               4.   ATF Dexron
               5.   Dexron II
               6.   Dexron III
               7.   Allison C-3

       C.      Gear Lubricants
               1.    Viscosity Classification
               2.    Performance Standards and Service Designations

       D.      Antifreeze

III.        INDUSTRIAL OILS
            A. Turbine and Circulating Oils
            B. Hydraulic Oils
            C. Gear Oils
            D. Compressor Oils
            E. Way Lubricants
            F. Refrigeration Oils
            G. Cutting Oils

IV.         IMPORTANT SPECIALISED LUBRICANTS
            a). Tractor Hydraulic/Transmission Fluid
            b). Two Cycle Engine Oils

V.          GREASE
            A. Definitions, Functions and Composition
            B. Important Properties of Grease
            C. Grease Types and Performance
            D. Automotive Greases.

VI.         TCW-III OILS

VII.        SYNTHETIC BASE OILS

            A. Polyalphaolefin (PAO)
            B. Dibasic Acid Esters
            C. Polyol Esters
            D. Alkylated Aromatics
            E. Alkyalylene Glycols
            F. Phosphate Esters


                                          2
VIII   BRAKE FLUIDS
       A. DOT 3
       B. DOT 4
       C. DOT 5.0
       D. DOT 5.1

IX     SPECIALITIES

       A. Synthetic Gear Oils
       B. Synthetic Compressor Oils
       C. Wire Rope Lubricants
       D. Aerosols
       E. Carbo Choke Cleaners
       F. Degreaser
       G. Solid Lubricants
       H. Moly Grease
       I. Chain Lubricants


X      COMMON TERM OF LUBRICANTS




                                      3
I. LUBRICATING OIL CHARACTERISTICS

All lubricating oil products are made by blending and compounding base oils
and additives together to form a specific lubricant. However, in some cases the
product can consist of base oil only, without additive, usually referred to as
mineral oil.

A. Base Oil

Base oils have inherent characteristics, depending on the crude oil used and
the refining method. These base oil characteristics are very important in
determining the quality of the finished product.

1. Base Oil Characteristics

   a)   Viscosity

   Viscosity is the most important characteristic of almost any lubrication
   product. It is the measure of the fluidity (flowability) at definite temperatures.
   If the viscosity is too thin, the lubricant film will be squeezed out from
   between the moving metal surfaces allowing them to come into contact. If
   the viscosity is too thick, it will not travel into the small areas where it is
   needed. It will require excessive pumping force, causing undue wear on
   pumps and excessive heat built-up, and it will not permit easy cranking of
   any engine.

   Viscosity of Base Oils is most commonly stated in terms of Saybolt
   Viscosity. This state the time in seconds it takes 60 milliliters of oil to flow
   through a small diameter tube at a certain temperature. This is expressed in
   Saybolt Universal Seconds (SUS) at either 37.70C (1000F) or 98.80C
   (2100F), such as 200 SUS @ 37.70C or 45 SUS @ 98.80C.

   The metric system expresses viscosity in centistokes (cSt) or in SI units (mm
   2/s) at Celsius temperature. This will, no doubt become the standard in the
   near future but, Saybolt Viscosity is still the most widely used system. The
   exception in the measurement of oil viscosity is at low temperatures. In this
   case, a “Cold Crank Simulator” „CCS‟ is used to determine the viscosity
   which is usually reported in centipoises at -10 to -350C.

   b)     Viscosity Index
   All lubricants change viscosity with temperature change, that is, lubricants
   become thinner as temperature increases and thicker as temperature


                                           4
decreases. Oil that was 100 cSt @ 400C will have a lower viscosity at 1000C
and still lower viscosity again at 1500C. Different type of oils makes this
viscosity change at varying rates. This rate of change is stated as
“VISCOSITY INDEX”. In short, the oil is said to be of a certain “VI”. The
Viscosity Index scale is an entirely arbitrary one. By measuring the amount
of VI change from 400C to 1000C, an oils VI is determined. When the scale
was established, the very best oil (the one that changed the least) was
assigned the value of 100. While the oil that changed the most was given
the value of 0. It was thought that all other oils would fall between these two
limits. However today with improved refining techniques and “VI Improver
Chemistry” It is now possible to make oils considerably above 100 VI.

It is worth nothing that, the viscosity index of base oil is directly related to the
type of crude oil and the refining methods used. In general, the lower VI
base oils will be from 15 to 30 VI, intermediate VI, from 30 to 85; and high VI
from 85 to 100 VI.

c) Flash Point
The flash point is the temperature at which approximately 70ml of oil will
“flash” when exposed to an open flame. This can be anywhere from 1320C
to 3270C. This is usually an indicator to the volatility of the oil and is a very
important factor in engine oils and their consumption rate.

d) Pour Point
The pour point is the lowest temperature at which the oil will pour. This is, of
course, very important for engine oils and other lubricants operating at low
temperature and extremely low temperatures. The pour point is directly
related to the type of crude used and its wax content.

Other characteristics
There are other characteristics of base oils such as gravity, color, carbon
demulsibility etc. These all comprise the physical specifications that are
considered when using a certain base oil to make a certain lubricant, but the
characteristics mentioned above however, are the most important.

2. Types of Base Oil
Base oils are mainly categorized by the type of crude: Paraffinic Crude
Naphthenic Crude, and Mixed Crude.

a)     Paraffinic Crude is the most important crude in the manufacture of
lubricants. They have a certain amount of wax content which is extracted
and sold to the wax market. But some waxy content in the oil is good for
lubrication purposes and is left behind the base oil. Most paraffin crude‟s


                                         5
 come from the Mid-Continent region or Pennsylvania region.        Most
 lubricants come from either the Pennsylvania crude or the Mid-Continent
 Crude.

 The American Petroleum Institute (API) classifies base oils using the
 following characteristics:

       Viscosity Index
       Saturate Level
       Sulfur Content

 The five API categories for base oils are; (Table I)

      AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE PARAFFINIC BASE STOCK
                             GROUPS
                 Requirements
      API group    Sulfur, % wt  Saturates,% wt. Viscosity Index
           I               > 0.03               <90              80-120
          II               <0.03                >90              80-120
          III              <0.03                >90               >120
         IV-a                 -                  -                  -
         V-b                  -                  -                  -
      a- Includes polyalphaolefin (PAO)


      b- Includes esters and other base stocks not included in API Groups I
         and through IV




b)        Naphthenic Crude‟s usually come from Arkansas or the coastal
     areas of Texas and California The lube cuts from this latter area are
     sometimes called “coastal “ or “pale” oils because they are somewhat
     lighter in color than Arkansas oils.




                                          6
     ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THE THREE TYPES

        Pennsylvania           Mid-Continent             Naphthenic Crude
Better lube cut yield per     More availability
barrel of crude
High VI – more resistant to   Better Pour             Low pour point. Some of
viscosity change with         Point                   these oils have a natural
temperature change                                    pour point of -510C
High flash point – less prone                         More soluble with organic
to evaporate at higher                                Materials – good for seal
temperature                                           swell
Lighter color                                         Easier to refine- no need
                                                      to de-Wax, therefore less
                                                      expensive


Having seen the pros and cons of the three main types of Base oils, we will
further discuss the paraffinic base oils.

Paraffinic base oils fall into two distinct groups:

1.    Solvent Neutrals

These are distilled fractions of paraffinic base oils stocks. They are distilled
under heat and vacuum then “solvent extracted” to remove impurities. They
will have viscosity‟s ranging from 70 SUS @ 37.70C (much lighter than SAE
10 which is about 150 SUS @ 37.70C to 650 SUS @ 37.70 which is about
SAE 40

2. Bright Stock.

This is the residual portion of paraffinic lubrication stock and comes from the
bottom of the lube cut extraction unit; it is further refined to remove
asphaltines and other undesirable constituents.

While Solvent Neutrals are usually described in SUS @ 37.70C, Bright
Stocks are known by their SUS @ 98.80C. There is usually only one or at
the most two cuts of Bright Stocks to one lubrication plant. The most
common Bright Stock viscosity is 150 SUS @ 98.80C


                                         7
   There are several refining techniques for the three types of crude‟s, which
   will further classify the lubrication stocks, but there is no need to go into
   refining at this point.

   B. Additives

   Additives are the chemicals compounded with base oils to aid the oil in
   performance a specific lubricating job or task. A description of the most
   important additives and their purposes follow.

   1.    Anti-Foam

   Causes air bubbles to break on the surface of the oil. When oil foams badly,
   it will cause an oil system to draw in more air and less oil, leading to a
   particularly dangerous situation in hydraulic systems and gear boxes when
   high RPM is common place and eventually lead to cavitation of the pump
   and subsequent wear and tear.

   2.    Pour Point Depressant

   Prevents wax molecules from honey-combing or crystallizing at colder
   temperatures. Particularly useful with Paraffinic oils.

   3.    Oxidation Inhibitor

   When oxygen is introduced into oil at high temperatures, the oil will become
   dark and thicken. With prolonged use, it will produce sludge. An oxidation
   inhibitor will retard the reaction of the oil to oxygen and give it longer life.

   4. Rust Inhibitor

   This additive reacts adheres to metal surfaces and displaces water from the
   metal to help prevent rusting. It actually plates the metal surface to perform
   its job. Most hydraulic oils and will contain rust inhibitors and oxidation
   inhibitors and are commonly referred to as “R&O Oils”.

   5.    Anti-Wear And/Or Extreme Pressure “EP” Additives

These additives reacts with metal surfaces under heavy loads. Where ordinarily
a heavy load would squeeze the oil film out permitting the “peaks” of two metal
surfaces to contact each other, the EP additive form a slippery film over the
peaks to keep them from wearing against each other.



                                          8
6. Detergent/Dispersant

These additives are usually combined together and incorporated into the
formulation of engine oils. The detergent acts upon the contaminants that
become present in the engine such as water, fuel, dirt and soot. The detergent
reacts with the contaminants at the molecular level surrounding the
contaminant molecule keeping it from coagulating and forming sludge that
would otherwise accumulate on the oil pump screen and oil filter or from
deposits on metal surfaces. The term detergent implies “cleaning action”. Even
though the lubricating oil detergent may remove small amounts of previously
deposited varnish and sludge, it‟s real purpose is to prevent the formation of
these contaminants. The dispersant keeps potential sludge-forming material in
suspension with the engine oil. This keeps harmful material from setting out as
engine deposits and keeps them safely suspended in the oil unit the oil is
drained and the suspended matter is removed.

7. Viscosity Index Improver

They are synthetic oil thickeners and are relatively inactive at lower
temperatures but react with heat to counteract the natural tendency of the base
oil to thin at higher temperatures. VI improvers are used to manufacture multi-
grade products. An example of this process is to combine enough VI Improver
with an SAE 10W motor oil to provide 10W/40 motor oil. At cold temperatures,
this oil behaves as an SAE 10W. At elevated temperature, the Improver goes
into action, letting the oil perform as an SAE 40

   II.   AUTOMOTIVE OILS

   A.     Motor Oils
   Functions of Motor Oils
   a. Lubricate the engine by forming a fluid between moving parts
      to prevent metal-to metal contact.
   b. Reduce friction
   c. Seal combustion pressures
   d. Act as a coolant
   e. Prevent scuffing and wearing of highly loaded parts where design will
      allow only very thin film lubrication
   f. Minimize rust and corrosive wear
   g. Minimize sludge and varnish deposits
   h. Serve as a receptor for contaminants
   i. Accomplish all of the above in operating conditions varying from desert
      heat to artic cold.



                                        9
2)   Classification Systems:


If an oils is going to perform all the functions required, it must be the right oil.
Motor oil is classified in two ways to enable the engine manufacturers to
recommend the right oil and the user to select the right oil. It is classified by
viscosity and performance.


a. Viscosity Classification: Engine oils are classified by viscosity, the most
important physical property of lubricating oil. Fortunately, there is only one
accepted system of viscosity classification for motor oils. This system has
been developed by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and is
outlined by SAE Technical Report J300b. It is a simple method for engine
manufacturers to use to specify the oil viscosity requirements of their
engines and for the oil marketers to use in labeling the oils they sell.



Note: SAE Viscosity Numbers have nothing to do with oil quality, only
viscosity at certain temperatures.


Table II illustrates the SAE Viscosity Number System. SAE Numbers 20
through 60 are defined by their minimum and maximum cSt taken at 1000C
SAE 0W, 5W, 10W, 15W, 20W and 25W are “winter” service numbers and
are described by their minimum and maximum centipoise at -0C as
determined by the cold crank simulator. The “15W” number is the newest
addition to the system, being added by SAE at the request of some diesel
engine manufactures and European automobile manufacturers. These
companies found 10W too low in viscosity for many engines and the heavy
end of 20W too viscous for low temperature cranking.




                                        10
                                   TABLE –II
                      API Engine Oil Classifications 2004
             SAE Viscosity Grades For Engine Oils (1) (2)

   SAE             Low               Low               Low-          Low-       High-Shear-Rate
 Viscosity    Temperature       Temperature         Shear –       Shear –     Viscosity (6) (mPa-S)
  Grade       (0C) Cranking     (0C) Pumping           Rate          Rate          At 1500C
               Viscosity(3),     Viscosity (4),   Kinematic     Kinematic             Min
                  mPa-s             mPa-s          Viscosity     Viscosity
                                                  (5)           (5)
                   Max            Max with            (mm2/s)       (mm2/s)
                                   No Yield        At 1000 C     At 1000 C
                                   Strees(4)           Max           Max

    0W         6200 at -35     60000 at-40           3.8             -                  -
    5W         6600 at-30      60000 at-35           3.8             -                  -
   10W         7000 at-25      60000 at-30           4.1             -                  -
   15W         7000 at-20      60000 at-25           5.6             -                  -
   20W         9500 at-15      60000 at-20           5.6             -                  -
   25W         13000 at-10     60000 at –15          9.3             -                  -
    20               -                               5.6          < 9.3               2.6
    30               -                               9.3          < 12.5              2.9
    40               -                               12.5         < 16.3        2.9(0W-40,5W-
                                                                              40,10W-40 grades)
    40               -                               12.5         < 16.3       3.7(15W-40,20W-
                                                                                 40,25W-40,40
                                                                                    grades)
    50           -                                   16.3         < 21.9              3.7
    60           -                                   21.9         < 26.1              3.7
Notes-1cP = 1mPa-s; 1 cSt = 1mm2/S
(2) All Values are critical specifications as defined by ASTM D 3244 (see text, Section3).
(3) ASTM D5293
(4) ASTM D4684: Note that the presence of any yield stress detectable by this method
constitutes a failure regardless of viscosity.

(5) ASTM D445
(6) ASTM D4683, CEC L-36-A-90 (ASTM D4741) or D5481




                                             11
b. Performance Classification Systems: There are three main groups who
   describe classification systems or specifications for motor oils in terms of
   performance:
                    American Petroleum Institute (API)
                    United State Military (MIL)
                    Original Engine Manufacturers (OEM)

(1). American Petroleum Institute – API
In 1947, the API adopted a system that divided motor oils into three classes,
depending on the properties of the oil. In the system, the oils were classified as:
Regular Type – a straight mineral oil
Premium Type – contained oxidation inhibitors
Heavy Duty Type- contained oxidation inhibitors plus detergent/ dispersant
additive.

This early system did not allow the differences between gasoline and diesel
engines nor did it allow for different driving conditions such as cold weather “start
and stop” operation. Consequently, API developed a new system in 1952. It
included three classifications for gasoline engines: ML, MN and MS; and three
classifications for diesel engines: DG, DM and DS.

In the following years, this system did not adequately define the changing
performance levels required by the engine manufacturers. By the late 1060s, it was
completely outdated. In 1969 and 1970 a joint effort by SAE, API and ASTM
(American Society for Testing and Materials) developed the presently used API
Classification System. This system set test criteria using standardized laboratory
engine testing and allowed for future changes in motor oil requirements by offering
an “open-ended” system. The gasoline classification began with „S‟ for service
oils and Diesel Classification with „C‟ for commercial oils. This system was
formally adopted in 1970. It provided four Gasoline Classifications: SA, SB, SC and
SD and four Diesel Classifications: CA, CB, CC and CD. In late 1971, classification
SE was added to the system. As the result of severe problems in field service, the
classification SF was added to the system. As the result of severe problems in field
service, the classification SF was added to the system in 1980. At this time, studies
were underway which eventually led to the CE classification for diesel engine oils.
Subsequently, service classifications SG, SH, SJ were added in 1989, 1994, 1997
respectively and commercial classifications CF-4 and CG-4 are added in 1990 and
1994 respectively.

Each classification of motor oil is defined by its ability to pass engine tests
designed to specifically demonstrate resistance to rust, corrosion, wear, oxidation,
thermal degradation, sludge and varnish under varying operating conditions. Each
engine test will not be discussed in detail at this stage, but, each one is run under
carefully controlled conditions to test of the capability of the oil. Although there is
different testing required for each classification of motor oil, it is possible to
formulate a single motor oil to meet the requirements of more than one API service
classification such as SF and CD


                                          12
                                     TABLE – III
ENGINE OIL PERFORMANCE AND ENGINE OIL SERVICE CLASSIFICATION
                              Gasoline Engine Oils

API LETTER                             API Engine Service Description
DESIGNATION

    SH        1994 Gasoline Engine Warranty Maintenance Service

               API service Category SH was adopted in 1992 to describe engine oil first
              mandated in 1993. It is for use in service typical of gasoline engines in present and
              earlier passenger cars, vans and light trucks operating under vehicle
              manufacturers recommended maintenance procedures.
              Engine oils developed for this category provide performance exceeding the
              minimum requirements of API Service Category SG which it is intended to replace,
              in the areas of deposit control, wear, rust and corrosion.
              Oils meeting API SH requirements have been tested according to the American
              Chemistry Council (ACC) Product Approval Code of Practice and may utilize the
              API Base Oil Interchange and Viscosity Grade Engine Testing Guidelines. They
              may be used where API Service Category SG and earlier categories are
              recommended.
              Effective August 1, 1997, API SH cannot be used except with API CF, CF-2, CF-4,
              or CG-4 when displayed in the API service symbol, and the C category must
              appear first.

     SJ       1997 Gasoline Engine Warranty Maintenance Service

              API Service category SJ was adopted in 1996 to describe engine oil first mandated
              in 1997. It is for use in service typical of gasoline engines in present and earlier
              passenger cars, vans and light trucks operating under vehicle manufacturers
              recommended maintenance procedures.
              Oils meeting API SJ requirements have been tested according to the American
              Chemistry Council (ACC) Product Approval Code of Practice any may utilize the
              API Base Oil Interchange and Viscosity Grade Engine Testing guidelines. They
              must be used where API Service Category SH and earlier categories are
              recommended.

     SL       2001 Gasoline Engine Service

              Category SL was adopted to describe oils for use in 2001. it is use in service
              typical of gasoline engines in present and earlier passenger cars, sport utility
              vehicles, vans and light trucks operation under vehicle manufactures
              recommended maintenance procedures. Oils meeting API SL requirements have
              been tested according to the American Chemistry Council (ACC) Product Approval
              Code of Practice and may utilize the API Base Oil interchange and Viscosity
              Grade Engine Testing Guidelines. They may be used where API Service SJ and
              earlier categories are recommended




                                           13
                                  DIESEL ENGINE OILS
API LETTER                            API Engine Service Description
DESIGNATION
     CF-4     1990 Diesel Engine Service
              Service typical of high-speed, four-stroke cycle diesel engines. API CF-4 oils exceed
              the requirements for the API CE category, providing improved control of oil
              consumption and piston deposits. These oils should be used in place of API CE oils.
              They are particularly suited for on-highway, heavy-duty truck applications. When
              combined with the appropriate “S” category they can also be used in gasoline and
              diesel powered personal vehicles.-i.e. passenger cars, light trucks, and vans- when
              recommended by the vehicle or engine manufacturer.
   CF-2       Severe-Duty Two Stroke Cycle Engine Service
              Service typical of two-stroke cycle diesel engines requiring highly effective control
              over cylinder and ring-face scuffing and deposits. Oils designed for this service have
              been in existence since 1994 and may also be used with API Engine Service
              Category. CD-II is recommended. These oils do not necessarily meet the
              requirements of API CF or CF-4 unless they pass the test requirements for these
              categories.
    CF        Indirect –injected Diesel Engine Service
              Service typical indirect-injected diesel engines and other diesel engines that use a
              broad range of fuel types, including those using fuel with high sulfur content; for
              example, over 0.5% wt. effective control of piston deposits wear and copper-
              containing bearing corrosion is essential for these engines, which may be naturally
              aspirated, turbocharged or supercharged. Oils designated for this service have been
              in existence since 1994 and may be used when API Service Category CD is
              recommended.
   CG-4       1994 Severe- Duty Diesel Engine Service
              API Service Category CG-4 describes oils for use in high –speed four-stroke diesel
              engines used in both heavy-duty-on-highway (0.05% wt sulfur fuel) and off-highway
              (less than 0.5% w. sulfur fuel) applications. CG-4 oils provide effective control over
              high-temperature piston deposits, wear, corrosion, foaming, oxidation stability and
              soot accumulation. These oils are especially effective in engines designed to meet
              1994 exhaust emission standards and may also be used in engines requiring API
              Service Categories CD,CE and CF-4. Oils designed for this service have been in
              existence since 1994.
   CH-4       1998 Severe – Duty Diesel engine Service
              API Service Category CH-4 oils are suitable for high-speed, four-stroke diesel
              engines designed to meet 1998 exhaust emission standards and are specifically
              compounded for use with diesel fuels ranging in sulfur content up to 0.5% weight.
              CH-4 oils are superior in performance to those meeting API CF-4 and API CG-4 can
              effectively lubricate engines calling for those API Service Categories.
    CI-4      2002 Service – Duty Diesel Engine Service
              The API –CI-4 Service category describes oils for use in those high-speed, four-
              stroke cycle diesel engines designed to meet 2004 exhaust emission standards, to
              be implemented October 2002. These oils are compounded for use in all
              applications with diesel fuels ranging in sulfur content up to 0.05% by weight. These
              oils are especially effective at sustaining engine durability where Exhaust Gas
              Recirculation (EGR) and other exhaust emission componentry may be used.
              Optimum protection is provided for control of corrosive wear tendencies, low and
              high temperature stability, soot handling properties, piston deposit control, valvetrain
              wear, oxidative thickening, foaming and viscosity loss due to shear. API- CI-4 oils
              are superior in performance to those meeting API CH-4, CG4 and CF-4 and can
              effectively lubricate engines calling for those API Service Categories.




                                             14
2) US Military – MIL

The department of the Army has responsibility for the preparation of
crankcase oil specification for commercial vehicles used by all branches of
the US government as well as military design vehicles. Because of the large
volumes of motor oil required by the US government and therefore the
widespread use of this classification system, many groups outside the US
government refer to motor oils in these terms.

The original military specification for motor oils was MIL-L-2104 and was
quickly amended to MIL-2104A. This specification required services in
gasoline and diesel engines. It is equivalent in quality to API Service
Classifications SA and CA.

A modification is one of the diesel engine tests upgrades this specification to
MIL-L-2104B which required newer and more severe engine tests for both
gasoline and diesel engine service. It is equivalent to API Service
Classification SB and CC.

In 1995, the Caterpillar Tractor Company established their own specification
called “Series 3” which will be discussed later. This specification qualified a
diesel engine for severe service duty. The US military added one gasoline
engine test to the “Series 3” requirements and established MIL-L-45199B.
This is equivalent to API classification CD.

In November 1970, two new military specifications were issued and all
previous specifications became obsolete. These are the basic current
military specifications.

MIL-L-46152 required the diesel engine testing of the old MIL-L-2104B
specification plus the gasoline engine testing required of API Service SE
engine oil. The addition of multi-viscosity grades of oil and the new SF
requirements have been added to the current specification MIL-L-
46152B.This specification is designed for non-tactical “post” vehicles. It is
equivalent to API Service Classifications SF and CC.

MIL-L-2104D requires the diesel engine testing of the old MIL-L-45199B
(Series 3) plus some gasoline engine testing that places the gasoline engine
service of the oil somewhere between API Service SC and SD. The MIL-
2104D oil is designated for tactical “combat” vehicles. Since it is basically a



                                      15
diesel engine oil it is usually thought of as equivalent to API Service
Classification CD.

3) Engine Manufacturers –OEM

a) Gasoline Engines Automobile manufacturers did not issue specification
for their engines until the mid 1960‟s when the adverse effects of
lengthened. Ford Motor company issued their specification ESE M2C 101-A
for their 1964 warranty motor oil. This is an API service SC oil. That first
specification later evolved to ESE M2C1 53-B which is equivalent to API
Service SF with the added chemical requirements. 0.1% minimum
phosphorus and the zinc used in the additive must be of the alkyl type as
opposed to aryl Zinc.

General Motors‟ first gasoline engine oil specification was described with
General Motors Engineering Standard MG6041M issued in 1964. The
current General Motors specification is GM6094M. This specification reflects
the requirements of the API Service Classification SF.

The specifications issued by American Motors and Chrysler Corporation also
represent API Service Classification SF.

b) General Motors automobile diesel engines require that motor oils, used in
the automobile diesel engines, have the API Service Classifications SF/CC
or SF/CD. The oils used in these engines must have the gasoline engine
classification SF as well as the diesel.

Caterpillar Tractor Company and General Motors were the first to approve
compounded oils on the basis of satisfactory performance in laboratory
engine tests, dating back to 1939. Caterpillar developed its Caterpillar
Superior Lubricants Series 1 and Series 2 specifications. In 1955, Caterpillar
issued the well-known Series 3 specification. This specification was adopted
by the Department of the Army for incorporation into their military
specification for diesel engine oil. Caterpillar discontinued the practice of
issuing formal specifications in October 1972, opting to recommend MIL-L-
2104C motor oils for their engines. Today, caterpillar uses API Service
Classification system as the basis for their engines as do the other major
diesel engine manufacturers, except Mack Trucks. Because Caterpillar
recommends API Service CD motor oils for their power shift transmissions,
they also require this oil to pass their TO-2 friction test. The TO-3 and TO-4
versions were subsequently released.




                                     16
c) Detroit Diesel Allison Division of General Motors Corporation
recommended the use of API Service CC when operating with fuels
containing less than 0.5% Sulphur. If continued use of fuels containing over
0.5% Sulphur was unavoidable API CD oils are recommended. Detroit
Diesel further stipulates that the API Service CC motor oils should contain a
maximum of 1.65% sulphated ash will have a minimum of 0.07% Zinc.
Detroit Diesel would not recommend multi-grade oils in their engines until
September, 1978. At that time, they revised their 7SE270 specification to
allow for a multi grade oil. This technical bulletin states very clearly the only
multi-grade recommended is an SAE 15W40 which is API Service SE/CD
and which conforms to the sulphated ash and zinc requirement outlined
above.

d) Cummmins Engine Company recommended API Service CD, CC for
their turbocharged engine and API Service CC for their naturally aspirated
engines. For either type engine used in „Stop and Go” Service, Cummins
recommended API Service SC/CC (SD or SE may replace the SC)
Cummins also recommends that the engine oils have a maximum of 1.85%
sulphated ash.

e) Mack Trucks prefers to specify motor oils in terms of their own engine
test performance. The Mack EO-J performance specification issued in
October 1976, based on performance in the Mack T-5 engine test allows the
use of an SAE 15W40 multi-grade oil- DO-J specifies a maximum of 1.85%
sulphated ash. In addition Mack has issued the EO-K specification based on
the T-6 engine test The EO-K specification has superseded EO-J.

3. Diesel Engine Oil Summary

Multi-graded Diesel Engine Oils :-

The current market trend appears to be toward multi-graded diesel engine
oils, which affords the consumer the same convenience expected from multi-
grade gasoline engine oils. Most diesel engine manufactures recommend
SAE 10W30 or SAE 20W40 for multi-grades diesel engine
oils, but they are not as concerned about the exact multi-grade numbers
 as the required performance characteristics. Mack and Detroit Diesel feel
very strongly toward SAE 15W40. Because many diesel truck
operators own a variety of engine, they are using SAE 15W40 in all their
diesel engines.

Sulphated Ash:



                                       17
It should be noted that several diesel engine manufacturers are concerned
about the ash content of engine oil. Sulphated ash is the measure of the
metallic ash that will be formed when an oil containing metal additives is
burned in the combustion chamber of an engine. Some manufacturers have
a problem with ash deposits forming on the exhaust valve face. These
deposits tend to chip off forming a gutter through which hot exhaust gases
escape. This crates a condition called “wheezing”, which can result in valve
failures in a relatively short period of time. A 1% sulphated ash level seems
to satisfy most manufacturers, however, Caterpillar prefers a 1% to 1.5%
level and Allison Chalmers prefers a 1.5% sulphated ash minimum.

B. AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION FLUIDS

1. Type A:
The first functional fluid formulated specifically for automatic transmissions
was Type A. ATF introduced in 1949 and was recommended by all major car
manufacturers. This fluid (oil) was identified by and “AQ” number on the
container because the “Armour Qualification” number test was issued by the
Armour Research Foundation.

2. Type A-Suffix A:
This appeared in 1959. This was Type A with an improvement for power
glide automatic transmissions.

3. Type F
In 1967, Ford Motor Company designed an automatic transmission for a
faster shift using a quick-grabbing clutch. The type A-Suffix A was designed
for a long, smooth shift requiring a formulation change to the Ford ATF or
Type F technology. This fluid is not required in May, 1980 or later Ford
automatic transmission. (see Dexron II)

4. Dexron ATF:
Higher temperatures caused by increased engine horsepower and reduced
fluid capacity due to transmission design changes made cooling and
lubricating difficult. General Motors Corporation required a more highly
formulated ATF so they issued DEXRON in 1967. Their preference in
automatic transmission was still toward the long smooth shift. For this
reason, they required different frictional characteristics of the ATF than did
Ford. The fluid developed for General Motors, DEXRON ATF, was also
adopted by Chrysler Corporation and American Motors for their automatic
transmissions.

5. Dexron II


                                     18
 In 1975, General Motors required a reformulation of the original DEXRON to
 be known as DEXRON II. The marketer of this fluid was identified on the
 container by the letter “C” followed by a five digit number. General Motors
 then discovered that the new formulation could cause corrosion problems
 with some to the tubular type transmission coolers. The fluid was
 reformulated and identified as DEXRON II-D. Today Dexron III is the current
 ATF approved by General Motors, Crysler and American Motors for all
 automatic transmissions.

 In 1977, Ford Motor Company introduced their C-6 automatic transmission.
 The C-6 transmission requires a fluid with the DEXRON type friction
 characteristics. DEXRON II was recommended for all Ford transmissions
 manufactured since May 1980.

 6. Dexron –III
 Since January 1, 1994, General Motors has required the use of fluids
 certified as meeting its DEXRON®-III specification in its passenger and
 commercial vehicles equipped with automatic transmissions. Fluids that
 have not been formally approved against these requirements should not use
 the DEXRON® term. These fluids are “back serviceable” or suitable for older
 GM transmissions. Each DEXRON®- III fluid marketed has a unique “F-
 number” designation.

 Ford Motor Co. requires the use of fluids meeting the MERCON ®
 specification for most pre-1996 vehicles. The specifications has undergone
 significant revisions since its original release. In January 1996, Ford
 released the MERCON® V specification. Intended for use in certain 1996
 and later vehicles, fluids meeting these requirements exhibit superior shear
 and oxidative stability, and low temperatures performance. However, the
 fluid has limited back-serviceability for older vehicles.

 7. Allison Hydraulic Transmission Fluid, Type C-3:
 Detroit Diesel Allison Division specifies the C- Series fluids for their hydraulic
 transmissions and torque converters. This fluid must pass their rust and
 friction tests. Until May 1976, Allison C-2 was the specification and most
 DEXRON and DEXRON II met its requirements. The Allison C-3
 specifications was issued in may 1976 which required a new friction test.
 DEXRON and DEXRON II do not pass this test and cannot be used as
 Allison C-3 fluids.

C. GEAR LUBRICANTS




                                        19
This section will be limited to the discussion of automotive gear lubricant.
Industrial gear lubricants will be treated in the industrial Oils section.

Like motor oils, automotive gear lubricants are classified in two way,
viscosity and performance or type of service.

1.     Viscosity Classification for automotive gear lubricants is illustrated
SAE 90, 140, and 250 are determined by their viscosity at 100 0C, measured
in cSt units. The „W” or winter grades are determined by the maximum
temperatures at which they reach 150,000 centipoise. The most common
multi-grade gear lubricants found in the market are SAE 80W90 and SAE
85W140

2.     Performance Standards and Service Designations for automotive
gear lubricants are defined by the US Military and API.

a) US Military specifications to determine the performance capability of gear
   lubricants began in 1942 with the Federal specification VVL-761. MIL-L-
   2105 was established in 1946. In 1958, MIL-L-2105B established the
   current standards to determine the performance capacity of gear
   lubricants. The MIL-L-2105B test procedure covers the following
   performance areas:

1)   High speed axle shock
2)   High torque axle
3)   Moisture corrosion
4)   Thermal oxidation stability
5)   Foaming
6)   Copper corrosion
7)   Compatibility (storage)
8)   Viscosity and flow characteristics

This regimen of testing covered all performance areas except passenger car
limited slip differential.

In October 1976, MIL-L-2105B was superseded by MIL-L-2105C. Some of
the tests were tightened up but the main reason for this change was to
describe the gear oil in these grades only-75W, 80W/90 and 85W/140

API in 1965, API determined service classifications for gear lubricants based
on their use. At that time, GL-1 through GL-5 were issued, with GL-6 being
added later and now obsolete.



                                      20
API GL-1:
This is essentially a mineral oil for manual transmission and spiral-bevel
axles plus worm-gear service satisfied by non-compounded oils.

API GL-2:
This is treated with very mild EP additive for automotive worm-gears not
satisfied by non-compounded oils

API GL-3
This is treated with mild EP additive for manual transmissions and spiral-
bevel axles operating under moderately severe conditions of speed and
load.

API GL-4:
This is treated with medium level of EP additive suitable for lubrication of
hypoid gears in moderate service. It is roughly equivalent to MIL-L-2105

API GL-5:
This is treated with high levels of EP additive suitable for hypoid gears
operated under high-speed, shock-load; high –speed, low torque, and low-
speed, high torque conditions. This classification is usually equivalent to
MIL-L-2105B

API GL-6
This is treated with very high level of EP additive for high offset hypoid gears
(above 10cm offset and approaching 25% of ring gear diameter) and other
automotive equipments operated under high-speed, high performance
conditions. This performance class is now obsolete.

Limited Slip Differentials:
In addition to the above performance characteristics, gear lubricants going
into limited-slip differentials service require the addition of a frictional
modifier. A limited-slip differential allows the axles to turn at different speeds
when on dry pavement buy will restrict differential action when on a slippery
surface. This system employs a slow-moving clutch, which tends to “stick-
slip” at low sliding velocities unless the gear lubricant contains the proper
frictional properties. The „stick-slip‟ action produces load chatter noises and
severe vehicle vibrations.

D      What is Antifreeze/coolants?
Antifreeze is a combination of chemicals designed to be mixed with water for
use in automobile and other vehicle engines. Antifreeze most commonly use
glycols (either ethylene or propylene) to reduce the freezing point of water.

                                       21
Other chemicals are added to glycol to help prevent the metals in the engine
from corroding, prevent hard water scale deposits and to reduce foaming.
In some countries, ready diluted coolants are available and these have the
advantage of ease of use (no need to dilute before using) and because they
are diluted with treated water, may give better protection against scale
deposit.

A good antifreeze will:

         Prevent freeze damage
         Transfer heat efficiently from the engine to the air through the radiator
         Protect the engine metals from corrosion.
         Prevent scale deposit
         Not harm the hoses.
         Increase the boiling point of water.


There are currently five general classifications of antifreeze requirements in
the market: light duty and automotive; heavy-duty and diesel; fully –
formulated pre-charged antifreeze; organic acid technology (OAT) antifreeze
and extended life antifreeze, which may be OAT-type or other technologies
that provide at least 5 year, 150,000-mile service. A producer can satisfy the
requirements of these five categories with three basis antifreezes:

       1) A universal antifreeze that will meet the requirements of the light
          duty/automotive and heavy-duty/ diesel markets.
       2) A pre-charged antifreeze for the heavy-load – factor diesel market.
       3) An organic- based extended –life antifreeze.

III.      INDUSTRIAL OILS
A. Turbine and Circulating Oils

Circulating oils, including turbine oils, usually involve large volumes of oil
passing from storage through pumps to cool and lubricate bearing and
returning to storage. The requirements of this oil are usually not great,
provided the circulating oil possesses the appropriate characteristics. The oil
is usually subjected to moderate heat and air exposure for extended period
of time, sometimes, thousands of hours. The life of these oils is reduced by
excessive contamination and heat. For temperatures over 850C, each 4.5


                                          22
meter increase cuts the life of the oil in half. Since paraffinic oils is more
resistant to oxidation than Naphthenic oil, it is used as the turbine base oil. It
is then compounded with rust inhibitors, oxidation inhibitors, and anti-foam.
Water can easily get into a steam turbine oil system but if the oil is otherwise
pure, it will have good demulsibility allowing the water to drop out in the
storage reservoir. These oils are required in viscosity‟s from 150 to 2500 cSt
@ 400C but, can be described in several ways in terms of viscosity including
the American Gear Manufacturers Associations (AGMA) system and the
new International Standards Association (ISO) system (TABLE IV).

To summarize the important characteristics of turbine and circulating oils

Properties

Good Thermal Stability
Good oxidation Stability
Good Demulsibility
Rust inhibited
Minimum foaming

Base Oil
HVI-Paraffinic
Additives


Rust Inhibitor
Oxidation Inhibitor
Anti-foam




                                       23
                                                   TABLE -IV


                         VISCOSITY SYSTEM FOR INDUSTRIAL FLUID
                                  LUBRICANTS ASTM D -2422-86

                                Mid- Point         Kinematic          Kinematic
                                Viscosity,         Viscosity         Viscosity
         Viscosity                 cSt               Limits             Limits
         System Grade           (mm2/s)           CSt (mm2/s)        CSt (mm2/s)         AGMA
         Identification             at             At 40.00CB        At 40.00CB        Lubricant
                                 40.00C                                                 Number
                                                       Min                Max
              ISO VG 2              2.2                1.98               2.42
              ISO VG 3              3.2                2.88               3.52
              ISO VG 5              4.6                4.14               5.06
              ISO VG 7              6.8                6.12               7.48


             ISO VG 10               10                9.00               11.0
             ISO VG 15               15                13.5               16.5
             ISO VG 22               22                19.8               24.2
             ISO VG 32               32                28.8               35.2
             ISO VG 46               46                41.4               50.6               1
             ISO VG 68               68                61.2               74.8               2


            ISO VG 100              100                90.0               110                3
            ISO VG 150              150                135                165                4
            ISO VG 220              220                198                242                5
            ISO VG 320              320                288                352                6
            ISO VG 460              460                414                503                7
            ISO VG 680              680                612                784                8
            ISO VG 1000            1000                900                1100              8A
            ISO VG 1500            1500                1350               1650

B= IF 400 C is not the temperature used when determining the viscosity (as is sometimes the case with very
      viscous fluids,) then the related viscosity at 40 0C shall be established by using ASTM D – 341



                                                         24
B     Hydraulic Oils

Like turbine oils, hydraulic oils are rust oxidation inhibited, but they also
contain anti-wear agents because they are typically required where heavier
loads and greater pressure exists. When pressure exceeds 6.8 mPa (6800
kPa), hydraulic oils should be used rather than turbine oils to protect pumps
and other close tolerance parts.

May also need a pour point depressant. For most installation, the pout point
should be at least 150 to 200 below the lowest operating temperature. These
oils are required in viscosity‟s ranging from 100 to 600 cSt @ 400C

To summarize the preferred characteristics of hydraulic oils:

Properties

Good Thermal Stability
Good Oxidation Stability
Good Demulsibility
Rust Inhibited
Minimum Foaming
Low Compressibility
Seal Compatibility
Good Load Capability
Base Oil
HVI – Paraffinic

Additives
Rust inhibitor
Oxidation Inhibitor
Anti-wear
Anti-foam
Pour Point Depressant

C. Industrial Gear Lubricants

Industrial gears may be either of the enclosed or of the open type. The
enclosed type may be lubricated by splash, in which case the oil level in the
gear box is maintained so that the teeth of the bottom wheel just dips into
the oil. Alternatively a pressure circulating system may be used in which oil
is sprayed on the teeth close to the point of engagement and is re-circulated
either directly from the bottom of the gearbox or by the way of oil tank.


                                      25
a)    ENCLOSED GEAR LUBRICANTS

Enclosed gear drives are used in a diverse myriad of industries ranging from
small to large manufacturing plants. Steel mills, mines and quarries. In these
industries, the number of enclosed gear drives can number from only a
handful to thousands. Though some of these enclosed gear drives may not
be used in critical operations, it is critical that they be properly lubricated.

Gear lubricants must work and perform in diverse conditions. These
lubricants must often perform in the presence of large quantities of water,
high operating and ambient temperatures or in highly contaminated
environments, while still maintaining their ability to protect the enclosed gear
drives from wear, especially during high load conditions. In addition to these
factors, there are two major factors that effect how gear lubricant must
perform:

 The increased emphasis by the users of enclosed gear drives for longer
lubricant life to reduce maintenance and disposal costs.

 Design changes by original equipment manufactures of enclosed gear
drives to improve gearbox efficiency. As a result of these design changes,
enclosed gear drives have been downsized and built to operate at higher
speeds and loads resulting in higher operating temperatures and increased
gear and bearing distress. These smaller enclosed gear drives also have
smaller oil capacities, so less gear lubricant is available to cool the
equipment and suspend contaminants.

TYPES OF LUBRICANTS FOR ENCLOSED GEAR DRIVES

The American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA) publishes a
standard entitled “Industrial Gear Lubrication” (AGMA 9005- D94), which
provide lubricant classification and generalized application and servicing
guidelines for industrial gearing that has been designed in accordance with
applicable AGMA guidelines.1 The four types of gear lubricants described in
the standard include: rust and oxidation-inhibited oils, compounds gear oils
extreme pressure (EP) gear oils and synthetic gear oils.

Rust and Oxidation-Inhibited Gear Lubricants

These lubricants are commonly referred to as R&O gear oils. They are
generally petroleum base oils or synthetic blend base oils that are
formulated with additive systems that protect against rust and oxidation. In

                                      26
addition to rust and oxidation inhibiting additive systems, some R&O gear
oils contain minute amounts of anti-wear additives. The viscosity grades for
R&O are identified by a single-digit AGMA number 0 through 6, which
corresponds to the ISO viscosity grades 32 to 320.

R&O gear oils perform well over a wide range of gear drive sizes and
speeds in a temperature range of -50F to 2500F (-150C to 1210C)

Compounded Gear Lubricants

Compounded gear oils are a blend of petroleum base oils with rust and
oxidation inhibitors, demulsibility additives and 3 percent to 10 percent fatty
or synthetic fatty oils. These gear oils are frequently used in worm gear
drives to provide excellent lubricity and prevent sliding wear. Compounded
gear oils are limited to an upper operation temperature limit of 1800F
(820C).They are identified by single-digit AFMA numbers with the suffix
“Comp” from 7 to 8A, which corresponds to ISO viscosity grades 460 to
1,000.

Extreme Pressure Gear Lubricants

These lubricants are commonly referred to as EP gear oils. EP gear oils are
petroleum base or synthetic blend base oils that contain multifunctional
additive systems. The additive systems contain rust and oxidation inhibitors,
EP additives, demulsifiers, antifoam agents, and in some cases solid
lubricants that are collodially suspended, such as molybdenum disulfide,
borates or graphite. The EP additive system, which includes sulfur-
phosphorous, borates and sulfur phosphorous-boron chemistries, provides a
chemically protective film that protects against welding, scuffing and scoring
of the gears during boundary lubrication conditions, which can occur at start-
up, stopping and high shock loads. A single-digit AFMA number combined
with the suffix “EP” from 2EP to 9EP corresponds to ISO viscosity grades 68
to 1,500. EP gear oils perform well over a wide range of gear drive sizes and
speeds in a temperature range of -50F to 2500F (-150C to 1210C)

b). OPEAN GEARS
These are generally spur or bevel type and the lubricant is applied manually
to the gear teeth. A special type of lubricant with good adhesive properties is
required to prevent its being flung off the teeth or being squeezed out.

These requirements are met by heavy, adhesive type, residual oils and
grease. Heavy straight mineral residual oils need to be heated or thinned
with solvent before they can be applied to the gears. The solvent evaporates


                                      27
after application, leaving the teeth coated. The viscosity of the oil alone
gives good protection to the gears. For improved load carrying capacity, oils
containing extreme pressure additives are also recommended. Sometimes
straight mineral oils are also compounded with fatty material to give
improved field strength and prove adequate lubrication where water is
present.


B. Compressor Oils

A compressor is a power-driven mechanism for raising the pressure of gas
by doing work on it. Air is the most plentiful gas and it is compressed more
extensively than any other. The type of lubricant required depends on the
type of compressor. Because the size and design of compressors are so
varied, many different types of lubricants are required in compressor
lubrication. Sometimes the same compressor will require one lubricant for
the crankcase and a different lubricant for the cylinder. The principle types of
lubricants recommended for compressors are described below.

Turbine Oils are recommended for service in industrial and other
compressors in which the oil is recirculated. The oil is used for cooling
purposes which means it will pick up condensation. Turbine oils have good
R&O qualities plus good demulsibility allowing the water to separate in the
reservoir.

Napthenic R&O oils are characterized by low pour points and a relative
softness of any deposit they may leave.

Automotive Oils are widely used in the lubrication of portable compressors:
API Service SE for gasoline engine driven units and CC or CD for diesel
engine driven units. Many rotary compressors operate under heavy duty,
high temperature conditions where severe oil oxidation can occur within 200-
300 hours of operation. Automatic transmission fluid (ATF) or premium oils
are the preferred lubricants under such conditions.

Motor oils are not recommended for rotary units in light-duty, high –humidity
service. The compressor may run too cool to evaporate condensed
moisture. Turbine oils are preferred under these conditions.

Compounded Oils contain fatty oils or other polar materials to protect
compressors in which the presence of water cannot be satisfactorily
eliminated. This applies to once –through lubrication, not for circulating
lubrication systems.


                                      28
Steam Cylinder Oils have the extremely high viscosity‟s required to prevent
excessive thinning at high steam cylinder temperatures. They are
recommended for the steam cylinders of straight-line compressors. Steam
cylinder oils may or may not be compounded.

White Oils are specially refined petroleum lubricants from which potentially
active elements have been removed. Their extreme inertness makes them
suitable for cylinder lubrication in connection with the compression of certain
reactive gases.

Refrigeration Compressor Oils are non-compounded Naphthenic oils which
are moisture free and offer a low pour point and proper refrigerant miscibility.

E. Ways Lubricants

A tool or piece of work that is in movement will be held by a carriage which
is grooved and fits into the guide of away. The carriage slides on the way
with a slow progressive motion. With an ordinary lubricant, this motion may
become irregular because the starting friction is greater than the sliding
friction. This causes the carriage to jump ahead to relieve the driving force
then return to a stop. This “stick-slip” motion is extremely detrimental to the
quality of the work of the machine tool. To overcome this problem, ways oils
are formulated with frictional modifiers that give the oil a greater sliding
friction than starting friction. This eliminates the tendency for the carriage to
jump ahead after it has been put into motion and allows it to progress
smoothly under a constant frictional load.

In addition, tackiness agent is added to keep the oil on the ways and anti-
wear for protection of the metal parts under heavy loads.

To summarize the preferred characteristics of ways oils-

Properties
Good Stick /Slip Characteristics
Adhesiveness
Low Pour Point
Good Load Carrying Capability


Base Oil
LVI-Naphthenic



                                       29
Additives
Friction Modifier
Tackiness Additive

F. Refrigeration Lubricants

Types of refrigeration lubricants:

a) Naphthenic Oils

SYNTRON ICELA Oils are specially imported refrigeration and air
conditioning compressor oils formulated on highly refined, dewaxed
naphthenic base stocks, refined treated to enhance thermal stability and low
pour point. The full range is 3GS, 4GS and 5GS

Recommended for use

The SYNTRON ICELA oils are designed for systems where the refrigerant is
fully miscible (Freon and methylene chloride) or partially miscible (sulfur
dioxide) with the oil. Not recommended for systems containing
Hydroflurocarbon refrigerants, including HFC 134a

SYNTRON ICELA 3GS
Generally recommended for running- in new units and for all units of less
than 1 ton capacity irrespective of length of service. It is also used in all units
operating below -400C where heavier oils would cause oil return problems.

SYNTRON ICELA 4GS
Similar to SYNTRON ICELA 3GS expect that it has a higher viscosity.
Recommended for systems with capacities of 1 ton and over which are fully
run in, expect where the system functions below -400C

SYNTRON ICELA 5GS
These are recommended for use where higher viscosity oils are required
such as certain air conditioning units and, particularly, in many automotive
air conditioners using CFC R12 as refrigerant.

b) Polyalphaolefin (PAO)

Synthetic (PAO) refrigeration compressor oils are made from a synthetic
Polyalphaolefin (PAO) base fortified with high technology additive package.
They are recommended for rotary screw and reciprocating refrigeration
compressors. These fluids have a very high viscosity index and contain no


                                        30
paraffin. They offer many advantages over petroleum-based lubricants, as
well as some synthetics and PAO fluids offer long life than petroleum oils in
contamination free environments. These products are compatible with
various fluorinated refrigerants, ammonia, methyl chloride and carbon
dioxide. The full range of ISO grade 32, 46, 68, 100,150, 220, and 460

c) Polyol Ester (POE)
Polyol ester (POE) is the ideal lubricant for any refrigeration system,
especially for those systems using HFC and HC non-chlorinated refrigerants
such as R-134a, R-404A and R-507, with ordinary mineral oil, the chlorine
that is present in the CFC and HCFC refrigerants increase the lubricity of the
oil. It is backwards compatible with both mineral oil and alkyl benzene
lubricants and can be used with most refrigerants.

      Characteristics

           Much lower pour points than equivalent mineral oils.
           Superior low temperature performance
           Better lubricity than comparable mineral oils.
           No floc point (low temperature separation of residual waxes), as
             observed in mineral oils.)

d) Polyalphaolefin Glycols (PAG)

PAG-based products developed specifically for use in R-13a in automotive
and other mobile A/C systems. These products have been formulated with
state-of-the art additive packages to provide optimum performance. These
refrigeration lubricants show good thermal stability. No ash content, high
viscosity index, shear stability, excellent lubricity, good solubility and stability
in R-134a, as well as excellent lubricity in all types of mobile A/C
compressors.

e) Alkyl Benzene

These are of highest quality, 100% synthetic oils having properties
especially selected in insure long trouble-free life in all types of refrigeration,
air conditioning and hear pump compressor service applications. Their
viscosity levels are 150, 300 and 500 SUS 1000F respectively. Alkyl
benzene oils have no waxy components and therefore yield floc point values
much lower than equal viscosity, conventional petroleum oils. Alkyl


                                        31
benzenes are significantly more soluble or “miscible” with all refrigerants
than are conventional petroleum oils. This is a direct result of their chemical
nature and is beneficial in reducing oil-refrigerant stratification or separation,
in the operating system.

G. CUTTING OILS

The primary function of cutting fluid is cooling and lubrication. A fluid‟s
cooling and lubrication properties are critical in decreasing tool wear and
extending tool life. Cooling and lubrication are also important in achieving
the desired size, finish and shape of the work piece. A secondary function of
cutting fluid is to flush away chips and metal fines from the tool/work piece
interface to prevent a finished surface from becoming marred and also to
reduce the occurrence of built-up edge (BUE).
The most common cutting fluids used today belong to one of two categories:

           Oil-based fluids including straight oils and soluble oils.
           Chemical fluids including synthetics and semi-synthetics.

   a) Straight oils or neat oils are the oldest class of engineered metal
      removal fluids. They are composed of a base mineral or petroleum oil
      and often contain polar lubricants such as fats, vegetable oils, and
      esters, as well as extreme pressure additives of chlorine, sulfur and
      phosphorus.

   b) Soluble oils (also called Emulsion fluid) are composed of a base
      of petroleum or mineral oil combined with emulsifiers and blending
      agents. Petroleum or mineral oil combined with emulsifiers and
      blending agents are basic components of soluble oils. The
      concentration of listed components in their water mixture is usually
      between 30-95%. Usually the soaps, wetting agents, and couplers are
      used as emulsifiers, and their basic role is to reduce the surface
      tension. As a result they can cause a fluid tendency to foam.

   c) Synthetic fluids can be further categorized into two subgroups: true
      solutions and surface –active fluids.

         True solution fluids are composed essentially of alkaline
          inorganic and organic compounds and are formulated to impart
          corrosion protection to water.
         Chemical surface- active fluids are composed of alkhaline
          inorganic and organic corrosion inhibitors combined with anionic
          non-ionic wetting agents to provide lubrication and improve

                                       32
               wetting ability. Extreme-pressure lubricants based on chlorine,
               sulfur, and phosphorus, as well as some of the more recently
               developed polymer physical extreme-pressure agents can be
               additionally incorporated in this fluid.

      d) Semi-Synthetics Fluids contain a lower amount of refined base oil
         (5-30%) in the concentrate. They are additionally mixed with
         emulsifiers, as well as 30-50% of water. Since they include both
         constituents of synthetic and soluble oils, characteristics properties
         common to both synthetics and water soluble oils are presented.

IV)      IMPORTANT SPECIALIZED LUBRICANTS

      a. Tractor Hydraulic/ Transmission fluid

This is truly on of the most unique lubricants in existence. It came about
because the tractor manufacturers wanted one fluid to serve the following
purposes:

Lubricate the transmission, differential and final drive gears;
Hydraulic medium for power steering, power breaks, power take-off and
implement drive, /tractor wet-brake fluid.

Twenty years ago the typical farm tractor was powered by a gasoline engine
and produced 35-40 power take –off (PTO) horsepower. It was equipped
with a mechanical transmission, as single reduction axle, dry automotive
type brakes and a „live” power take-off shaft. Steering was done manually
and implements were lifted by a small low pressure hydraulic system.
Straight mineral oils were widely used for lubrication of transmission, axles
and hydraulics.

By comparison, today‟s modern tractor has a 75 to 225 horsepower diesel
engine that produces from 50 to 150 PTO horsepower. Many are equipped
with hydraulic power shift transmissions and some have hydrostatic
transmission. Hydraulic torque converters or hydraulic power dividers are
frequently coupled to the transmissions. The axle is a double reduction gear
set including a spiral bevel ring and pinion set. The final drive is either spur
gear planetary sets or spur „bull” and pinion gears. PTO shafts are now
equipped with multiple disc set clutches to make either single or dual speed
operation available for implements. The brakes have been moved inboard
away from the wheels and are immersed in fluid for constant cooling. In
addition to stooping the tractor, these brakes are also used to steer the
tractor in soft soil.


                                       33
To lubricate a tractor, the farmer needs only two oils – a high quality motor
oil and the multi-functional transmission, brake and hydraulic fluid for
everything else.

Because of the importance of the hydraulic / transmission fluid to the
performance of a tractor, each tractor manufacturer has issued rigid
specification for this oils and oil being used in that manufacture‟s tractor
must meet those specifications. The manufacturer issues a specific number
which may be changed from time to time as the tractor requirements change
and the oil performance requirements are updated. The new specification
number usually supersedes the old number and can be used in older
tractors, which specified the older number.

Some of the areas of concern to tractor manufactures are described below.
Certain manufacturers have outlined tests that demonstrate an oil‟s ability in
that area.

Water tolerance:
John Deere J20A requires a test to minimize sediment formation and
additive loss due to accidental water contamination.

Film Strength:

High film strength that prevents metal-to metal contact is required in tractor
transmission and axles when heavy loading conditions exist. Allis Chalmers
PF821, J.I. Case 143, and John Deere J204A require satisfactory
performance in the Timken EP Test (ASTM D-2782) to verify the film
strength of the oil.

John Deere Wet Brake Chatter Test:
The frictional characteristics of a tractor fluid must be carefully balanced. If
the oil friction is too low, the brake will not hold. If it is too high, there will be
grabbing of the wet brake commonly referred to as chatter. This test requires
the oil to pass a wet brake chatter test in a specially designed piece of
equipment.

Corrosion Resistance:
To guard against oils which may contain sulphur compounds to some tractor
parts, Ford, E2C134- A requires that the oil pass the Falex Pin Corrosion
Test.




                                         34
The above is a sample of the kinds of testing a tractor hydraulic /
transmission oil must pass to be acceptable in application.

A list of major tractor manufacturers and their current specification follows.
The numbers in parenthesis have been superseded by the current numbers.

John Deere J 20A (J14B, Type 303)
Allis-Chalmers P.F. 821
J.I. Case 143 and TFD (145A, 153A, 144A and Type A)
Ford M2C134-A 41A (77A, 78A, 53A)
International Harvester Hy Tran Fluid B-6 (B-5)
Massey Ferguson M-1129A, M-1127 (1110, 1129)
Oliver & Minneapolis Type 55

Some tractor fluids are manufactured to meet the specific requirements of
the individual manufacturer‟s specifications. Indeed, some tractor
manufacturers market their own branded tractor fluid. Some tractor fluids are
“universal” by design and pass as many of the tests as possible.

b.Two-cycle Engine Oils

The expanding use of two –cycle gasoline engines in boats, recreational
vehicles and specialized industrial equipment such as chain saws and
generator sets has affected the demand for two-cycle engine oil
dramatically. The two- cycle engine offers many advantages because of its
light weight and versatility but the lubrication of this engine requires
specialized oil formulation.

Because there is no lubrication system to distribute oil to the working parts
of the engine, it is mixed with the gasoline. As the gasoline goes into the
engine it deposits a film of oil to provide lubrication.

This system caused four distinct problems to overcome

Incomplete mixing with gasoline
No reservoir of engine oil to serve as receptor for the precursors of wear and
deposits. This requires a greater degree of detergency.

The metallic additive (such as zinc) which are very effective in wear control
are precluded from use in this engine due to the amount of ash deposits left
in the combustion chamber when burned with the gasoline.
Because the oil is exposed to the elements of oxidation (heat and air) more
extensively in a two-cycle engine than in a four-cycle engine, the product of


                                     35
oil oxidation can contribute to engine deposits, particularly in the ring belt
area.

Fortunately, modern blending technology has been able to provide a two-
cycle engine oil to control these problem areas. This is accomplished
through the use of ashless dispersants specifically designed for two-cycle
engine oils. The ashless dispersants allow a high-level dispersant treatment
to minimize wear and deposits and at the same time give us low ash engine
oil. To facilitate through mixing of the engine oil with gasoline, many oils
contain 10% or more of paraffin solvent.

BIS Service TC-W

In 1968, the Boating industrial Association (BIA) introduced a classification
system for two-cycle engines. The original classification included two oils,
“Service TC-W‟ for water cooled engines and “Service TC-A” for air cooled
engines. It is soon discovered that the TC-W two-cycle oil provided excellent
performance in air-cooled engine so the TC-A classification was
discontinued.

Approval for service TC-W and certification by BIA is granted when the
candidate oil is tested by in independent laboratory and passes the
standards set by BIA. At that time certification is issued by BIA to the oil
marketers and the oil marketers is permitted to display the BIA certification
emblem on the container.

The testing and standards established by BIA cover three areas;
Low temperature miscibility with gasoline,
Rust protection,
Engine testing for wear, deposit and pre-ignition.

V.    GREASE

A.    Definitions, functions and composition

Lubricating grease is a solid to semifluid mixture of fluid lubricating oil and a
thickening agent. A typical Grease will consist of 90% oil and 10% thickening
agent. Except for the functions of cleaning and cooling, grease performs the
same functions of fluid lubricants.

SATISFACTORY GREASE MUST:

REDUCE friction and wear under various operating conditions


                                       36
PROTECT against rust and corrosion
PREVENT dirt, water and other contaminants from entering the parts being
lubricated.
MAINTAIN structure and consistency during long periods of use.
PERMIT free motion of parts at low temperature and itself pump freely at
those temperatures.
HAVE SUITABLE physical characteristics for the method of application and
retain those characteristics during storage.
BE COMPATIBLE with elastomer seals and other materials associated with
the parts being lubricated.
TOLERATE some degree of moisture contamination without significant loss
of performance.
These characteristics are controlled by the physical and chemical properties
of the three elements contained in grease; oil thickener and additive.

OIL USED IN MANUFACTURING THE GREASE:-

The most important properties of the oil are:
Viscosity and Viscosity Index:
This determines the pumpability and low temperature performance of the
grease.

Oxidation Stability:
This determines the service life, storage life and high temperature capability
of the grease.

Thickeners
The thickener may be simple metal soaps, complex soaps, synthetic organic
thickeners or inorganic gelling agents.

Soap is the salt of a fatty acid and metal soaps are normally made by
reacting a fatty material of animal or vegetable origin (fatty acid) with a metal
hydroxide, such as barium or calcium hydroxide. The process is called
“saponification”. The metal hydroxides used includes barium, calcium,
lithium, aluminum and sodium. He metal used determines the name of the
grease. The various types of soaps impart different properties to a grease
and they are carefully selected depending on the intended use of the
grease.

Complex soaps refer to thickeners made by combining a metal soap with
other polar compounds or by a week chemical bonding of a metal salt to a
metal soap. These materials impart properties to a grease that cannot be
obtained through the use of metal soaps or metal soap blends alone. For


                                       37
example, the maximum temperature for prolonged use of a calcium-based
grease ranges from 700C to 850C while those temperature for a calcium
complex grease range from 1200C to 1500C.

Polyurea is an example of synthetic organic thickener. It provides a multi-
purpose grease with high temperature tolerance.

Chemically modified natural clays, such as bentone, are inorganic agents
that transforms the fluid into a gel. These thickness produce high melting,
general purpose greases that find wide application in high temperature
bearing where frequent re-lubrication is desirable.

Additives

The basic additives for grease making are:

Anti-oxidants for longer grease life.
Anti-corrosion agents, to resist chemical attack on alloy bearings.
Rust inhibitors, to protest against rust formation under wet conditions;
Extreme pressure agents, for high film strength under shock loads;
Solid additives such as moly (molybdenum disulphide) and graphite are
sometimes used for back-up lubrication in extra high temperature
applications.

B.    Important Properties for Grease- The most critical properties of
      grease are:-

1.    Consistency: The consistency of grease is a measure of its relative
      softness or hardness which controls the ability of the grease to
      lubricate, stay in place and seal. Consistency determines the method
      of dispensing and application. See Table V for the classification of
      grease consistency as determined by the National Lubricating Grease
      Institute (NLGI).

2.    Flow characteristics influences flow of grease through pipes and
      dispensing equipment. It is controlled by the viscosity of fluid lubricant
      and the amount of thickener.

3.    Texture is observed when a small sample of grease is pressed
      between thump and forefinger and drawn slowly apart.

Texture is described as:



                                      38
Buttery – The grease separates in short peaks with no visible fibres.
Smooth – The surface of the grease is relatively free of irregularities.
Stringy - The grease tends to stretch out into long, fine threads but no visible
evidence of fibre structure.
Short Fibre- The grease shows short break-off with evidence of fibres.
Long Fibre – The grease shows a tendency to stretch out into a single
bundle of fibres.

     4. Structural and Mechanical stability – Both of these tests measure
        ability of the grease to resist break down under forces of shear and
        mechanical working.

     5. Dropping point is the temperature at which grease becomes liquid.

     6. Load carrying – Ability of grease to prevent EP wear high load
        conditions.

     7. Oxidations stability is the resistance to chemical deterioration in
        storage and use caused by exposure to air.

     8. Rust and Corrosion Protection Ability to seal against entrance of water
        and corrosive materials.

     9. Bleeding Characteristics- Tendency of fluid lubricate to separate from
        grease during storage. Gross separation unacceptable but some
        bleeding desirable to ensure immediate lubrication during start-up

C.      Grease Type and Performance
     A review of the more widely used greases and their performances and
     Compatibility characteristics is shown in the attach Table VI.

      Grease Classifications (Table V)
     NLGI GREASE CONSISTENCY CLASSIFICATION

     The commonly used grease consistency classification is that established
     in the USA many years ago by the National Lubrication Grease institute
     (NLGI).This classifies greases solely in terms of their hardness or
     softness; no other property or performance level is taken into
     consideration.


                                       39
The classification consists of a series of consistency ranges, each of
which is defined by a number (or numbers). 000 to 6. The consistency, if
defined by the

distance in tenths of a millimeter, that a standard cone penetrates a
sample of the grease under standard conditions of 250C



                           TABLE V

                                                                   0
      NLGI CONSISTENCY                    WORKED PENETRATION AT 25 C
                                                   (0.1mm)

             000                                    445-475

              00                                    400-430

              0                                     355-385

              1                                     310-340

              2                                     265-295

              3                                     220-250

              4                                     175-205

              5                                     130-160

              6                                     85-115




                                 40
                                              TABLE VI

                                   A guide to Grease Compatibility



              Lithium    Calcium   Lithium/    Lithium    Calcium    Aluminum   Clay   Polyurea
                                   Calcium     Complex    Complex    Complex

Lithium                                                      x          x         x
Calcium                                                      x          x
Lithium/                                                     x          x         x
Calcium
Lithium                                                                           x
Complex
Calcium          x          x           x                               x         x
Complex
Aluminum         x          x           x                    x                    x
Complex
Clay             x                      x           x        x          x                 X

Polyurea                                                                          x

          Compatible X   incompatible

The above is provided as a guide only and does not in anyway indicate
comparable performance of different grease technologies. Please contact
HABARAH Representative for further advice on grease compatibility and selection.

D. Automotive Greases

Are specialized products designed to meet the grease requirements of all self-
propelled, wheeled and track-lying vehicles except railroad equipment.

Wheel Bearings are the most critical grease-lubricated components of an
automotive vehicle. Anti-friction bearings are involved, mostly tapered roller type,
that must operate under very severe conditions of speed and load in a hostile
environment (mud, water, snow, dust, etc.). They are also subjected to severe
shock loads and high temperatures during braking.




                                               41
 The life of a wheel bearing, like all anti-friction bearings, is unpredictable.
 Even when properly lubricated and maintained, one may fail at any time.
 The best way to achieve optimum bearing life is to use the type of grease
 and repacking interval recommended by the vehicle manufacturer.

 Universal Joint Grease is usually a short fiber grease of high load-carrying
 capacity. Certain wheel bearing greases are often used in this specification.
 Chassis Grease must operate under moderately severe friction and wear
 conditions and have good resistance to washout. It should be applied at relatively
 frequent intervals, 3,000 kilometers or less. A grease with a high apparent viscosity
 at high shear rates may be required by heavy duty service.

 Multi-purpose Grease is a lubricating grease meeting the performance
 requirements for wheel bearing grease, universal joint grease, chassis grease and
 other automotive uses such as fifty-wheel service.

 Tractor Roller Lubricants are special soft (NLGI Grade ) or semi-fluid (low thickener
 content) greases designed specifically for lubricating track assemblies on crawler
 tractors or other track laying vehicles. These lubricants must provide a good
 capacity, protect against wear under both high and low speeds and under high
 load and shock load operation, and resist wear washing.

VI.   TCW –III OILS :

Because today‟s gasoline is of such poor quality, outboard engine manufacturers
have experienced major problems with engine life. They were facing excessive
piston and exhaust system deposits, extreme piston and cylinder wear and piston
ring sticking. The old NMMA TCW-II; oils were not capable of alleviating these
problems. Average power head life was only about 400 hours. The new TCW-3 oils
are far superior to their TCW-II predecessors. Average power head life has been
extended to approximately 800 hours with the use of new technology TCW-3 oils.

However, like many other minimum specification type rating systems, there are
many approved TCW-3 formulas that vary widely in quality and subsequent power
head life. An example of this is shown by some results of the 100 hour Mercury 15
HP test, an integral part of the NMMA TCW-3 rating system. This particular test
measures an oil‟s ability to prevent ring sticking, piston scuffing and premature
engine failure. The top piston exhibits a large area of scuffing. The test allows a
maximum of 15% scuffing. This piston, even though could be severely scuffed, is still
within the allowable limits and is considered a “pass”, The TCW-3 oil tested in this
case is typical of some oils in today‟s marketplace. In comparison, a piston from a
standard 100-hour test run of (TCW-3) III 2- Cycle Outboard Oil which utilizes the
very best technology known today under the TC-W3 rating system will yield much
longer power head life than the piston on the top.




                                          42
The double – length test (200 hours) of a TCW-2 oil fortified with TCW-3 additives,
the piston will look almost like new! There will be absolutely no scuffing-in TCW-3 is
designed to at least double power head life when utilized with any NMMA tcw-3
approved oil available in the marketplace. TCW-3 is a highly concentrated blend of
proprietary ashless detergents, deposit control agents and lubricant. If used on a
regular basis, you can enable your outboard engine to last as long as your boat or
motorcycle.

VII. SYNTHETIC BASE STOCKS

Synthetic process enable molecules to be built from simpler substances to give the
precise properties required. The main classes of synthetic material used to blend
lubricants include;

 Type                                       Principal Applications
 Olefin Oligomers (PAO‟s)                   Automotive and Industrial
 Dibasis Acid Esters                        Aircraft and Automotive
 Polyol Esters                              Aircraft and Automotive
 Alkylated Aromatics                        Automotive and industrial
 Polyalkylene Glycols                       Industrial
 Phosphate Esters                           Industrial

 With the exception of polyglycol fluids, all have viscosities in the range of the
 lighter HVI neutral mineral oils Their viscosity indexes and flash points, however,
 are higher and their pour points are considerable lower. This makes them valuable
 blending components when compounding oils for extreme service at both high and
 low temperatures.

 The main disadvantage of synthetic is that they are inherently more expensive than
 mineral oils, and are in limited supply. This limits their use to specialty oils and
 greases that command premium prices. Esters suffer the further disadvantages of
 greater seal-swelling tendencies than hydrocarbons; so, caution must be exercised
 in using them in applications where they may contact elastomers designed for use
 with mineral oils.

 A. Polyalphaolefins are the most widely used synthetic lubricants in the U.S. and
 Europe. They are made by combining two or more decene molecules into an
 oligomer, or short-chain-length polymer.

 PAOs are all-hydrocarbon structures, and they contain no sulfur, phosphorus or
 metals. Because they are wax-free, they have low pour points, usually below -
 400C. Viscosity grades range from 2 to 100 cSt, and viscosity indexes for all but
 the lowest grades exceed 140.

 PAOs have good thermal stability, but they require suitable antioxidant additive to
 resist oxidation. The fluids also have limited ability to dissolve some additives and



                                          43
 tend to shrink seals. Both problems can be overcome by adding a small amount of
 ester.

 B. Dibasic acid esters are synthesized by reacting an acid and an alcohol.
 Diesters have more varied structures than PAOs, but like PAOs they contain no
 sulfur, phosphorus, metals or wax. Pour points range from -50 to -650C

 Advantages of diesters include good thermal stability and excellent solvency. They
 are clean-running in that they tend to dissolve varnish and sludge rather than leave
 deposits. In fact, diesters can remove deposits formed by other lubricants.

 Proper additive selection is critical to prevent hydrolysis and provide oxidative
 stability. In addition, chemically resistant seals are recommended.

 C. Polyol esters, like diesters, are formed by the reaction of any acid and an
 alcohol. “Polyol” refers to a molecule with alcohol functions in its structure;
 examples include trimethylolpropane (TMP), neopentyglycol (NPG) and
 pentaerythritol (PE)

 Polyol esters contain no sulfur, phosphorus or was. Pour points range from -30 to -
 700 C and viscosity indexes from 120 to 160 The fluids have excellent thermal
 stability and resist hydrolysis somewhat better than diesters. With the proper
 additives, polyol esters are more oxidatively stable than diesters and PAOs. Seal-
 swell behavior is similar to that of diesters.

D. Alkylated aromatics are formed by the reaction of olefins, or alkyl halides with
an aromatic material such as benzene. The fluids have good low-temperature
properties and good additive solubility. Viscosity index is about 50 for fluids with
linear molecules and zero or lower for fluids with branched side chains. Thermal
stability is similar to that of PAO, and additives are required to provide oxidative
stability.

E. Polyalkylene glycols (PAGs) are polymers of alkylene oxides. Lubricant
performance and properties of a particular PAG depend on the monomers used to
manufacture it, molecular weight, and the nature of the terminal groups. Thus, a
wide range of properties is possible.

In general, PAGs have good high-temperature stability and high viscosity indexes
and they can be used over a wide temperature range. They exhibit low deposit
formation and tend to solublize their decomposition products. Like other synthetics
PAGs require additives to resist oxidation.

  F. Phosphate esters are synthesized from phosphorus oxychloride and alcohols
or phenols. They are used both as base oils and as antiwear additives in mineral
and synthetic lubricants. Thermal stability is good, and pout point ranges from -25 to




                                          44
500C. However, viscosity index is extremely low, ranging from 0-30, which limits their
high temperature capabilities.


VIII.     Brake Fluids

The discussion of whether to use DOT3 DOT4, DOT5 or the new DOT5.1 brake
fluids in cars and trucks is a common topic. The information provided herein should
help you to decide which of these brake fluids are best for you and your car.

The following is our findings with prior experiences and options.

We would also take this opportunity to point out that the type of brake fluid used in
your car is far less important, from a safely standpoint, than a properly functioning
braking system. If you are working on your own brakes, be extremely careful, don‟t
skimp on poor components, and bleed the brake system very carefully and
thoroughly.

A.DOT 3

DOT3 brake fluid is the “conventional” brake fluid used in most vehicles mostly
manufactured from polyglycols.


Advantages:

  DOT3 fluid is inexpensive, and available at most gas stations, department stores,
  and auto parts store.

  Disadvantages:

  DOT3 will damage natural rubber brake seals and should not be used in any car
  suspected of having natural rubber seals.

  DOT3 fluid eats paint!

  DOT3 fluid absorbs water very readily. (This is often referred to as being
  hydroscopic) As such, once a container of DOT3 has been opened, it should not
  be stored for periods much longer than a week before use. Since DOT3 fluid
  absorbs water, any moisture absorbed by the fluid can encourage corrosion in the
  brake lines and cylinders.

  B.DOT4

  DOT4 brake fluid is the brake fluid suggested for use in modern cars.
  The most familiar brand is Lockhead of Orthene of Petrochem U.K.



                                           45
Advantages

DOT4 fluid does not absorb water as readily as DOT3 fluid.

DOT4 fluid has a higher boiling point than DOT3 fluid, making it more suitable for
high performance applications where the brake systems are expected to get hot.

Disadvantages:

DOT4 fluid eats paint! Small leaks around the master cylinder will eventually
dissolve away the paint on your bodywork in the general vicinity of the leak, and
then give rust a change to attack the body of your car!

DOT4 fluid is generally about 50% more expensive than DOT3 fluid. Since DOT4
still absorbs some water, any moisture absorbed by the fluid can encourage
corrosion in the brake lines and cylinders.


C.DOT5

DOT5 brake fluid is also known as “silicone” brake fluid.

Advantages:

DOT5 doesn‟t eat paint.
DOT5 does not absorb water and may be useful where water absorption is a
problem.

DOT5 is compatible with all rubber formulation (see more on this under
disadvantages, below)

Disadvantages:

DOT5 does not mix with DOT 3 or DOT4. Most reported problems with DOT5 are
probably due to some degree of mixing with other fluid types. The best way to
convert to DOT5 is to totally rebuild the hydraulic system.

Reports of DOT5 causing premature failure of rubber brake parts were more
common with early DOT5 formulations. This is thought to be due to improper
addition of swelling agents and has been fixed in recent formulations. Since DOT5
does not absorb water, any moisture in the hydraulic system will “puddle” in one
palace. This can cause localized corrosion in the hydraulics.




                                         46
Careful beading is required to get all the air out of the system. Small bubbles can
form in the fluid that will form large bubbles over time. It may be necessary to do a
series of bleeds.

DOT5 is slightly compressible (giving a very slightly soft pedal), and has a lower
boiling point than DOT4.

DOT5 is about twice as expensive as DOT4 fluid. It is also difficult to find, generally
only available at selected auto parts stores.

D.DOT 5.1

DOT5.1 is a relatively new brake fluid that is causing no end of confusion amongst
mechanics. The DOT could avoid a lot of confusion by giving this new fluid a
different designation. The 5.1 designation could lead one to believe that it‟s a
modification of silicone-based DOT5 brake fluid. Calling it 4.1 or 6 might have been
more appropriate since it‟s a glycol-based fluid like the DOT 3 and 4 types, not
silicone-based like DOT5 fluid. (in fact, Spectro is marketing a similar new fluid
which they are calling Supreme DOT4, which seems less confusion) As far as the
basic behavior of 5.1 fluids, they are much like “high performance” DOT4 fluids
rather than traditional DOT5 brake fluids.

Advantages:

DOT5.1 provides superior performance over the other brake fluids discussed here.
It has a higher point, either dry wet, than DOT3 or 4. In fact, its dry boiling point
(about 275 degrees C) is almost as high as racing fluid (about 300 degrees C) and
5 .1‟ s wet boiling point (about 175 to 200 degrees C) is naturally much higher than
racing‟s (about 145 C) DOT 5.1 is said to be compatible with all rubber
formulations.

Disadvantages

DOT5.1 fluids (and Spectro‟s Supreme DOT4) are non-silicone fluids and will
absorb water.

DOT 5.1 fluids, like DOT3 and DOT4 will eat paint.

DOT 5.1 fluids are difficult to find for sale, typically at very few auto parts stores,
mostly limited to “speed shops”

DOT 5.1 will be more expensive than DOT3 or DOT4 and more difficult to find.

General Recommendations:




                                          47
If you have a brake system that doesn‟t leak or show any other signs of failure, but
has old seals in it, don‟t change fluid types as a result of reading this article. If it
isn‟t broken, don‟t “fix” it – you may simply break it instead!

Flushing of the brake system every couple years to remove any absorbed or
collected water is probably a good idea to prevent corrosion, regardless of the type
of brake fluid used.

DOT3 is dangerous to use in cars with natural rubber seals, and thus should not be
used in such cars, except as a temporary „quick fix to get me home‟ solution. (If
this is used as a “get-me-home” solution, bleed the system a soon as possible, and
be prepared to replace all your seals.

DOT4 fluid, for a slight increase in cost, will give significantly increased resistance
to moisture absorption, thus decreasing the likelihood of corrosion compared to
DOT3

DOT4 fluid has a higher boiling point than DOT3, making it preferable for High
performance uses such as racing, auto cross, or excessive use of the brakes in
mountainous area. For even greater braking performance, consider going to
DOT5.1 or a high-performance version of DOT4 fluid.

DOT5 is a good choice for the weekend driver / show car. It doesn‟t absorb water
and it doesn‟t eat paint. One caveat is that because it doesn‟t absorb water, water
that gets in the system will tend to collect at low points. In this scenario, it would
actually be promoting corrosion!

DOT5 is probably not the thing to use in your racing car although it is rated to
stand up to the heat generated during racing conditions. The reason for this
recommendation is the difficult bleeding mentioned above. When changing from
one fluid type to another as a minimum, bleed all of the old fluid out of the system
completely. For best results, all the seals in the system should be replaced.


IX.      SPECIALITIES.

A.SYNTHETIC GEAR LUBRICANTS

      Synthetic gear lubricants differ from petroleum base gear lubricants in that they
      are formulated using synthetic base fluids. The most common types of synthetic
      base fluids used in the formulation of synthetic base gear oils include:
      polyalphaolefins (PAO), diesters, polyol esters and polyglycols.

      Synthetic gear lubricants are used whenever petroleum base gear lubricants
      have reached their performance limit. In general, synthetic gear lubricants have
      the advantage of being stable over a wide range of operating temperatures,



                                           48
    have a higher viscosity index (smaller viscosity changes with temperature
    variations), improved thermal and oxidation resistance and in some cases
    greater load-carrying capacities and better lubricity. Each type of synthetic base
    fluid has different characteristics and some of them may have limitations or
    disadvantages such as compatibility with elastomers, paints, backstops
    clutches reactions in the presence of moisture and higher price.

    Synthetic gear lubricants can also contain rust and corrosion inhibitors, EP
    additives, demulsifiers, antifoam agents and in some case solid lubricants.
    They are identified by single-digit AGMA numbers with suffix “S” from OS to 9S,
    which corresponds to ISO viscosity grades 32 to 1,500.

A Gear Lubricant‟s Key Performance Properties

       To meet the lubrication needs of modern enclosed industrial gear drives, a
       gear lubricant must possess the following key performance properties:

              Thermal and oxidative stability
              Thermal durability
              Compatibility with seal materials
              Protection against excessive gear and bearing wear
              High-temperature extreme pressure protection (EP gear oils)
              Gear and bearing cleanliness
              Demulsibility characteristics
              Rust and corrosion protection, especially to yellow metal components
              Antifoaming characteristics

     Many of these key properties can be identified by examining the lubricants
     supplier‟s technical data or specification sheets and comparing them against
     the minimum performance requirements for industrial gear lubricants as set
     by the following widely recognized specifications:

    U.S. steel 224 specifications for nonleaded EP industrial gear lubricants- This
     specification identifies high load capacity and thermal stability.

    AGMA 9005-DA – This specification closely mirrors U.S. Steel 224 and also
     includes minimum physical and performance specifications for R&O,
     compounded oils and synthetics.

    Cincinnati Milicron P-34/P-35/P-59/P-63/P-74/P-76/P-77/P-78– These
     lubricant specifications also include minimum performance for thermal
     stability and antirust protection.

    DIN 51 517 Part 3 CLP – Developed by the Deutsche Institute for Normung of
     Germany, this specification addresses petroleum – based gear lubricants



                                          49
      containing additives to improve rust protection, aging characteristics and EP
      protection.


B.      SYNTHETIC COMPRESSOR OILS

     The synthetic compressor oils tested are formulated using poyalphaolefine
     (PAO), esters and polyglycols. These synthetic oil chemistries are widely
     available and well accepted for use in compressor applications.

     a) POLYAPHAOLEFINES (PAO) TYPE
     PAO synthetic compressor oils are commonly used in rotary screw compressor
     as well as vane and reciprocating compressors. These oils provide long life in
     screw compressors often exceeding 8,000 hours under normal operating
     conditions. PAOs have excellent water resistance and good thermal oxidative
     stability. They can be used in wide range operating temperatures and they have
     excellent cold temperatures properties. They are compatible with most seals,
     paints and plastics as well as petroleum and ester based compressor oils.
     PAO‟s are also available in food grade. PAO‟s are not compatible with poly
     glycol type compressor oils. PAO‟s are typically less expensive than polyglycol
     esters.

     b) SYNTHETIC ESTER TYPE
     Synthetic ester based compressor oils are commonly found in reciprocating
     compressor applications because of their low carbon forming tendencies. They
     are also used in rotary screw and vane compressors. Synthetic esters have a
     long life in rotary screw compressors, often exceeding 8,000 hours. Some
     synthetic ester oils are aggressive towards seals, paints and plastics and these
     compatibilities should be checked. Most synthetic esters used for compressors
     have good resistance and excellent thermal and oxidative stability. They are
     compatible with PAO‟s and petroleum–based products. They may not be
     compatible with polyglycol-based compressor oils. These oils are typically
     more expensive than PAO‟s but less expensive than polyglycols.

     c) POLYGLYCOL TYPE

     Polyglycol synthetic are commonly used in rotary screw compressor. These oils
     have a long life often exceeding 8,000 hours under normal operating condition
     and are often used in applications that compress process gasses, as they do
     not readily absorb these gasses. Polyglycol oils have good thermal oxidative
     stability and they have air water resistance They exhibit good compatibility with
     seals, paints, and plastics. These oils are generally not compatible with other
     oils. In addition, they are typically very expensive.

     C. WIRE ROPE LUBRICANTS




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A semi-fluid grease incorporating extreme pressure and a blend of anti-
oxidants, to combine highly effective lubrication with good corrosion inhibition. It
provides a protective film that is water repellent, yet thin enough to penetrate to
the core and reduce adhesion of dust and other abrasive particles on the
surface.

Good lubrication and protection of wire ropes is essential not only to provide
long service life of the rope, but more importantly to ensure an improved level
of safety in the work place. Wire rope lubricants have two principal functions:

1. To reduce friction as the individual wires move over each other.

2. To provide corrosion, protection and lubrication in the core and inside wires
   and on the exterior surfaces.

There are two types of wire rope lubricants, penetrating and coating.
Penetrating lubricants contain a petroleum solvent that carries the lubricant into
the core of the wire rope then evaporates, leaving behind a heavy lubricating
film to protect and lubricate each strand. Coating lubricants penetrate slightly,
sealing the outside of the cable from moisture and reducing wear and fretting
corrosion from contact with external bodies. With rope lubricants can be
petrolatum, asphaltic grease, petroleum oils or vegetable oil- based.
Petrolatum compound, with the proper additives, provide excellent corrosion
and water resistance. In addition, petrolatum compounds are translucent,
allowing the technician to perform visible inspection. Petrolatum lubricants can
drip off at higher temperatures but maintain their consistency well under cold
temperature conditions.

Asphaltic compounds generally dry to a very dark hardened surface, which
makes inspection difficult. They adhere well for extended long-term storage but
will crack and become brittle in cold climates. Asphaltics are the coating type.

Various types of greases are used for wire rope lubrication. These are the
coating types that penetrates partially but usually do not saturate the rope core.
Common grease thickeners include sodium, lithium, lithium complex and
aluminum complex soaps. Greases used for this application generally have a
soft semi-fluid consistency. They coat and achieve partial penetration if applied
with pressure lubricators.

Petroleum and vegetable oils penetrate best and are the easiest to apply
because proper additive design of these penetrating types gives them excellent
wear and corrosion resistance. The fluid property of oil type lubricants helps to
wash rope to remove abrasive external contaminants.

Key Lubricant Performance Measures



                                      51
  Some key performance attributes to look for in a wire rope lubricant are wear
  resistance and corrosion prevention. Some useful performance benchmarks
  include high four-ball EP test values, such as a weld point (ASTM D2783) of
  above 350 kg and a load wear index of above 50. For corrosion protection, look
  for wire rope lubricants with salt spray (ASTM B 117) resistance values above
  60 hours and humidity cabinet (ASTM D1748) values of more than 60 days.
  Most manufactures provide this type of data on product data sheets.

  Typical Rope Applications:
  Many types of machines and structures use wire ropes, including draglines,
  cranes, elevator, shovels, drilling rigs, suspension bridges and cable-stayed
  towers. Each application has specific needs for the type and size of wire rope
  required. All wire ropes, regardless of the application, will perform at a higher
  level, last longer and provide greater user benefits when properly maintained.

D. AEROSOLS

  PENETRATING OIL (HB-40)

  These rust penetrating aerosols are multi-purpose, water displacement
  lubricants that work on everything! Excellent for displacing water to help restart
  water soaked engines and prevent the formation of rust. It‟s an extremely
  versatile tool and problem solver and is widely used in Automotive electronics,
  agricultural armory, household, marine aviation and in other industrial sectors.

  a) Penetrant:
  The ultra high surface attraction of these aerosols also results in a super
  penetrating action, which frees rusted metal parts. HB-40 helps to keep the
  parts freely working.

  b) Water Dispersant:
  These aerosols fully cover the surfaces including microscopic irregularities
  even in the presence of moisture. It flows under surface moisture and forms a
  protective layer between the moisture and the metal.

  c) Lubricant:
  The ultra high surface attraction of these aerosols assures the lubricating
  ingredients, which are widely dispersed and tenaciously held to a moving part.
  It has no other additives or silicone that attracts dust.

  d) Corrosion Inhibitor:
  These rust penetrating aerosols protect against moisture and other corrosive
  elements. Its moisture displacement capability also thoroughly dries the treated
  surface, eliminating moisture pockets.

  e) Cleaning Agent:


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   The aerosols get under the caked grease grime, dirt, oil and sludge to clean the
   surface. It also dissolves most adhesive, allowing easy removal of excess
   bonding material and labels.

E. CARBO CHOKE CLEANER
   Carbo carburetor and choke cleaner penetrates and dissolves dirt, gum, carbon
   and varnish deposits that can damage moving parts. This is a specially
   formulated product for use in the carburetor. The application is used for exterior
   linkage, throttle plate and bowl of carburetor.

F. Degreaser

   A Chemical solution or compound designed to remove grease oils, and similar
   contaminants.

G. SOLID LUBRICANTS

   Graphite and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) are the predominant materials
   used as solid lubricant. In the form of dry powder these materials are effective
   lubricant additives due to their lamellar structure. The lamellas orient parallel to
   the surface in the direction of motion. Other components that are useful solid
   lubricants include boron nitride, polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE), talc, calcium
   fluoride, and cerium fluoride and tungsten disulfide.

H. MOLY GREASE

   Moly grease is soft tacky grease with an inorganic thickener containing the solid
   lubricant molybdenum disulphide. The molybdenum disulphide imparts high
   load carrying characteristics to the grease providing solid lubrication at loads
   outside the range of lubrication of an normal grease film. Moly grease is
   suitable for high temperature, high load applications including shock loading
   conditions. These applications include slew ring gears or cranes and
   excavators, wire rope lubrication where conventional oil or solvent applied
   lubricants are not practical. It is not suitable for lubrication of high speed ball
   and roller bearings

I. CHAIN LUBRICANTS

   A lubricant containing a soluble form of molybdenum that penetrates like oil,
   lubricates like grease and does not stain. Chain & Cable lubricants penetrates
   rapidly and forms an impenetrable bond to protect the metal from corrosion,
   friction, rust and shock loads. Can be brushed, sprayed or poured on. Best if
   applied when chain/rope is warm from service.




                                          53
X. COMMON TERMS –LUBRICANTS

  Acid Number – A measure of the amount KOH needed to neutralize all or part
  of the acidity or a petroleum product.

  Additive – Any material added to a base stock to change its properties,
  characteristics or performance.

  Antifoam Agent – An additive used to suppress the foaming tendency of
  petroleum products in service. May be a silicone oil to break up surface bubbles
  or a polymer to decrease the number of small entrained bubbles.

  API –American Petroleum Institute.

  Antiwear Agents – Additives or their reaction products, which form thin,
  tenacious films on highly loaded parts to prevent metal – to metal contact.

  ASH (Sulfated)- The ash content of an oil, determined by charring the oil,
  treating the reside with sulfuric acid, and evaporating to dryness. Expressed as
  % by mass.

  ASTM – “American Society for testing Material.”

  BASES- Compounds that react with acids to form salts plus water. Alkalis are
  water-soluble bases, used in petroleum refining to remove acidic impurities. Oil
  soluble bases are included in lubricating oil additives to neutralize acids formed
  during the combustion of fuel or oxidation of the lubricant.

  Base Number- The amount of acid (perchloric or hydrochloric) needed to
  neutralize all or part of a lubricant‟s basicity, expressed as KOH equivalents.

  Base stock – The base fluid, usually a refined petroleum fraction or a selected
  synthetic material, into which additives, are blended to produce finished
  lubricants.

  Black Oils – Lubricants containing asphaltic materials, which impart extra
  adhesiveness, that are used for open gear and steel cables.

  Blow by- Passage of unburned fuel and combustion gases past the piston
  rings of internal combustion engines, resulting in fuel dilution and contamination
  of the crankcase oil.

  Boundary Lubrication – Lubrication between two rubbing surfaces without the
  development of a full fluid lubricating film. It occurs under high loads and



                                        54
requires the use of antiwear or extreme- pressure (EP) additives to prevent
metal-to-metal.

Carbon Residue – Coked material remaining after an oil has been exposed to
high temperatures under controlled conditions.

Catalytic converter – An integral part of vehicle emission control system since
1975. oxidizing converters remove hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide (CO)
from exhaust gases, while reducing converters control nitrogen oxide (NOX)
emissions. Both use noble metal (platinum, palladium or rhodium catalysts hat
can be “poisoned” by lead compounds in the fuel or lubricant.

Cetane Number – A measure of he ignition quality of a diesel fuel, as
determined in a standard single cylinder test engine, which measures ignition
delay compared to primary reference fuels. The higher the Cetane Number, the
easier a high speed direct – injection engine will start, and he less “white
smoking” an “diesel knock” after start-up.

Cloud Point – The temperature at which a cloud of wax crystal appears when
a lubricant or distillate fuels cooled under standard conditions. Indicates the
tendency of the material to plug filters of small orifices under cold weather
condition.

Cold Cranking Simulator (CCS) An intermediate shear rate viscometer that
predicts the ability of an oil to permit a satisfactory cranking speed to be
developed in a cold engine.

Compression Ratio- In an internal combustion engine, the ratio of the volume
of combustion space at bottom dead center to that at top dead center.

Copper strip corrosion – A qualities measure of the tendency of a petroleum
product to corrode pure copper.

Corrosion inhibitor – Additive that protects lubricated metal surfaces from
chemical attack by water or other contaminants.

Demulsibility - A measure of a fluid‟s ability to separate from water.

Density – Mass per unit volume (kg/L)

Detergent – A substance added to fuel or lubricant to keep engine parts clean.
In motor oil formulations the most commonly used detergents are metallic
soaps with a reserve of basicity to neutralize acids formed during combustion.




                                      55
Dilution of Engine Oil – Contamination of crankcase oil by unburned fuel,
leading to reduced viscosity and flash point, may indicate components wear
of fuel system maladjustment.

Dispersant- An additive that helps keep solid contaminants in crankcase oil
in colloidal suspension, preventing sludge and varnish deposits on engine
parts. Usually nonmetallic (“ashless”) and used in combustion with
detergents.

Dropping Point – The temperature at which the first drop of liquid
separates when grease is heated under prescribed conditions.

Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication (EHD) A lubricant regime characterized
by high units loads and high speeds in rolling elements where the mating
parts deform elastically due to the incompressibility of the lubricant film
under very high pressure.

Emulsifier- Additive that promotes the formation of a stable mixture of
emulsion of oil and water.

Engine Deposits – Hard or persistent accumulation of sludge, varnish and
carbonaceous residues due to blow-by of unburned and partially burned
fuel, or the partial breakdown of the crankcase lubricant. Water from the
condensation of combustion products, carbon, residues from fuel or
lubricating oil additives, dust and metal particles also contribute.

EP Additive (Extreme Pressure Agent) – Lubricant additive that prevents
sliding metal surfaces from seizing under extreme conditions.

Flash Point – Minimum temperature at which a fluid will support
instantaneous combustion (a flash) but before it will burn continuously (fire
point). Flash point is an important indicator of the fire and explosion hazards
associated with a petroleum product.

Friction – Resistance to motion of one object over another. Friction
depends on the smoothness of the contracting surfaces, as well as the force
with which they are pressed together.

Gasoline – A volatile mixture of liquid hydrocarbons, contain small amounts
of additives and suitable for use as a fuel in spark-ignition, internal-
combustion engines.

Hydrofinishing – A process for treating raw extracted base stocks with
hydrogen to saturate them for improved stability.




                                  56
Inhibitor- Additive that improves the performance of a petroleum product by
controlling undesirable chemical reactions, i.e. oxidation inhibitor, rust
inhibitor etc.

Insoluble – Contaminants found in used oils due to dust, dirt, wear particles
or oxidation products. Often measured as pentane or benzene insoluble to
reflect insoluble character

Kinematic Viscosity – measure of a fluid‟s resistance to flow under gravity
at a specific temperature (usually 400C or 1000C)

Lubrication – Control of friction and wear by the introduction of a friction-
reducing film between moving surfaces in contact. May be a fluid, solid or
plastic substance.

Multi-grade Oil – Engine or gear oil that meets the requirements of more
than one SAE viscosity grade classification, and that can be used over a
wider temperature range than a single grade oil.

Neutralization Number – A measure of the acidity of alkalinity of oil. The
number is the mass in milligrams of the amount of acid (HCL) or base
(KOH) required to neutralize one gram of oil (monograde oils).

Nitration – The process whereby nitrogen oxides attach petroleum fluids at
high temperatures, often resulting in viscosity increase and deposit
formation.

Oxidation – Occurs when oxygen attacks petroleum product to increase its
oxidation resistance, thereby lengthening its service or storage life; also
called antioxidant.

Penetration – Consistency expressed as the distance a standard needle or
core penetrates vertically into a sample of the grease under prescribed
conditions of loading, time and temperature.

Permanent Viscosity Loss (PVI) – Difference between the viscosity of
fresh oil and that of the same oil after engine operation or special test
conditions of polymer degradation.

Polishing (Bore) – Excessive smoothing of the surface finish of the cylinder
bore or cylinder liner in an engine to a mirror-like appearance, resulting in
depreciation of ring sealing and oil consumption performance.

Pour Point – An indicator of the ability of an oil or distillate fully flow at cold
operating temperatures. It is the lowest temperature at which the fluid will
flow when cooled under prescribed conditions.



                                    57
Pour Point Depressant – Additive used to lower the pour point of low-
temperature fluidity of a petroleum product.

Refining – Series of processes to convert crude oil and its fractions into
finished petroleum products, including thermal cracking catalytic cracking,
polymerization, alkylation, reforming, hydrocracking, hydrofoaming,
hydrogenation, hydrogen treating, Hydrofining, solvent extraction, dewaxing.
De-oiling, acid treating, clay filtration and deasphalting.

Ring Sticking – Freezing of a piston ring in its groove in a piston engine or
reciprocating compressor due to heavy deposits in the piston ring zone.

Soap – The general term for the salt of a fatty acid. The soap of lithium,
calcium, Barium and Aluminum one the principal thickeners used in grease
making.

Sludge – A thick, dark residue, normally of mayonnaise consistency that
accumulates on moving engine interior surfaces. Generally removable by
wiping unless baked to a carbonaceous consistency, its formation is
associated with insoluble overloading of the lubricant.

Solvent Refining – A process for extraction lubricant base stocks from
stripped heavy gas oil or other heavy, stripped crude stream using selective
solvents such as furfural or phenol.

Stoke (St) – Kinematic measurements of a fluid‟s resistance to flow defined
by the ratio of the fluid‟s dynamic viscosity to its density.

Synthetic lube – Lubricating fluids, especially esters or polyolefins,
synthesized from chemical fee stocks rather than refined from oil.

Synthetic Lubricant – Lubricating fluid made by chemically reacting
materials of a specific chemical composition to produce compound with
planned and predictable properties.

Tribology – Science of the interactions between surfaces moving relative to
each other, including the study of lubrication, fiction and wear.

Varnish- A thin, insoluble, nonwipeable film occurring on interior engine
parts. Can cause sticking and malfunction of close-clearance moving parts.
Called lacquer in diesel engines.

Viscosity – A measure of a fluid‟s resistance to flow.




                                  58
Viscosity Index (VI) – Relationship of viscosity to temperature of a fluid.
High viscosity index fluids tend to display less change viscosity with
temperature than low viscosity index fluids.

Viscosity Modifier- Lubricant additive, usually a high molecular weight
polymer that reduces the tendency of oil‟s viscosity with temperature.




                                 59